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A.D. 1280, 





LIEUT.-COL. C. R. CONDER, R.E., LL.D., Etc. 





BURCHARD OF MoUNT SlON was a German, a native either 
of Strasburg or of Magdeburg, and lived in the thirteenth 
century. He became a monk of the Dominican Order, 
and went to the East in 1232. Here he visited Egypt, 
Syria, and what was then called Armenia, being the ancient 
kingdom of Cilicia. He is said to have passed ten years 
at the monastery of Mount Sion at Jerusalem, and did not 
return to Europe till late in life. The date of his death 
is not known. 

The tone of his writings, considering the age in which he 
lived, is remarkably tolerant, and the accuracy of his de- 
scriptions has, in many instances, led M. d'Anville to 
follow him as a guide. J. C. M. Laurent, from whose 
edition of Burchard I have made this translation, declares 
him to be the most notable of all mediaeval pilgrims what- 
soever. Yet, although his excellence has led to his book 
being more than twenty times edited, none of his previous 
editors give a perfect text, and none agree as to his 
name which occurs as Borcardus, Brocardus, Berghadus, 



Burchard himself, Laurent goes on to say, made two 
editions of his book ; the first was put forth privately in 
the form of a letter with a map, and its success led to a 
corrected copy being published as a book. Hence arise the 
remarkable discrepancies in the text which appear when 
one edition is compared with another. For instance, in the 
* City of Jerusalem' in this series, p. 12, Colonel Conder 
has quoted the words ' Relictis tamen vestigiis prioris con- 
cavitatis,' showing that in the Middle Ages the Tyropoeon 
valley was not so much filled up as it now is. These words 
do not occur in Laurent's text, but in chapter viii, the corre- 
sponding passage runs : ' At this day the whole of this 
torrent-bed is filled up ; nevertheless, its traces may be 
made out after a fashion.' 

Laurent quotes two passages from Henricus Canisius, 
who printed the earlier edition of our author. In both of 
these passages Burchard alludes familiarly to places in and 
about Magdeburg as measures of distance, from which 
Laurent thinks that we may safely assume hini to have 
been a German, if not a native of that city. 

A more important consideration is the date of his 
writings, and of his visit to Palestine. The events which 
he mentions prove that he wrote after the years 1260, 1263, 
1268, and 1271, and before 1291 and 1285 ; so that the date 
1283, though not set down by himself, seems likely to be 
the true one. Some writers say that he passed the ten 
years 1275 — 1285 in the Holy Land (see M. V. le Clerc, 
' Histoire Litterairede la France,' xxi. 182). He certainly 
passed two years there, from what he says in chapter iv. 



He was there in the reign of Malek-al-Mansour Calavun/ 
Soldan of Egypt, the successor of Bibars, and wrote eight 
years before the end of the Crusades in the time of Henry, 
King of Cyprus and Jerusalem, and during the ten years' 
truce which Calavun made in the year 1282 with the 
Templars and Hospitallers. His title of De Monte Sion is 
supposed to be derived from his long residence in the 
convent there, but there seems to be no positive evidence 
to prove this. 

Burchard was sincerely free from bigotry, although he 
seems to have been singularly pious. His charity to other 
sects is remarkable, and his reading appears to have been 
extensive. He shows much intelligence, both in learning 
what he could during his travels, and in digesting the infor- 
mation which he received. He lived among heretics and 
infidels, Nestorians, Armenians, and Syrians, as though they 
were his brethren. More than any other contemporary writer 
he shows that strange mixture of courage and humility, of 
faith and curiosity, which seems the characteristic of 
Crusaders in the thirteenth century, the heroic period of 
the Middle Ages. He was able to visit towns now de- 
stroyed, and flourishing regions which are now waste. He 
was not, of course, without credulity, and mixes fabulous 
tales and sage reflections together, but, in the words of M. 
V. le Clerc, ' II faut reconnaitre chez ce religieux un esprit 
fort eleve, qui, au moment ou les croisades finissent, raconte 
avec une naivete admirable ce qu'il a vu ou cru voir. Nous 
devons a sa curiosite attentive des observations importantes 

1 El-Melek El-Mansur Kalaiin (1279-90). 



de geographic et d'histoire naturelle ' (* Histoire Litteraire 
de la France,' xxi. 182). 

Fabri (i. 4, 17) mentions Burchard by name ; Marino 
Sanuto transcribed many passages from his book, which, 
indeed, has been plagiarized by other pilgrims also — a 
sincere tribute to its excellence. It is from Burchard that 
succeeding generations of pilgrims have derived the tire- 
some geographical subdivisions of Palestine, Syria and 
Arabia, the eternal ' caput Syriae Damascus,' and the 
rambling talk about Ituraea and Trachonitis, which they 
all repeat with more or less inaccuracy. Burchard writes 
good mediaeval Latin, and quotes Horace as well as Jerome 
and Eusebius. Unfortunately, he describes the Holy Land 
by means of several lines (divisiones) radiating from the city 
of Acre, an arrangement which does not tend to clearness 
of definition, but which has been copied, together with 
much else, by Marino Sanuto. 

The topography has been annotated by Lieut.-Colonel 
C. R. Conder, R.E.. LL.D. 


London, 1896. 



translator's preface -------- iii 

PREFACE - - - I 







JERUSALEM - - - - 65 








St. Jerome^ tells us that we read in ancient histories about 
men who have visited countries and crossed seas to the end 
that they might behold with their eyes the things whereof 
they had read in books. Thus, Plato visited the sooth- 
sayers of Memphis, and Apollonius went to Egypt ; he 
also entered Persia, crossed the Caucasus, and the countries 
of the Albanians, Scythians, Massagetae, India, and the 
Brachmans, that he might see larchas,^ and finally went to 
Egypt, that he might see the famous table of the sun in 
the sandy desert. What wonder, then, if Christians long to 
behold and visit the land whereof all Christ's Churches tell 
us ? The men of old venerated the Holy of Holies, because 
therein was the ark of the covenant, the cherubim with the 

^ Epistola liii,, ad Paulinum : ' De Studio Scripturarum.' The 
passage, which Burchardus seems to quote from memory, runs thus : 
* Legimus in veteribits historiis^ qicosdam lustrasse provincias, 7iovos 
adisse populos, maria tra?isissc, ut eos qiws ex libris noverant^ coram 
quoque viderent. Sic Pythagoras Meinphiticos vates ; sic Plato yEgyp- 
tum et Architam Tarenti7ium. . . . Apollonius iiitravit Per sas^ ^ic 

^ The original letter of St. Jerome has ' Hiarcam in throno sedenteni 
aureo, et de Tantali fonte potanteni.^ An account of this story will be 
found in Philostratus's ' Life of Apollonius,' book iii., ch. xvi. 



mercy-seat, the manna, and Aaron's rod that flowered — all 
of which were types of things to come. Is not Christ's 
sepulchre more to be worshipped by us, which, whenever 
any man enters, so many times seeth he with his mind's 
eyes the Saviour lying there wrapped in linen clothes ? And 
when he has gone a little further, he sees the stone rolled 
away, and the angel sitting thereon, and showing to the 
women the napkin with the grave-clothes. What Christian, 
when he hath seen these, would not hasten to come unto 
Bethlehem, to see the Babe weeping in the manger ; Mary 
brought to bed in the inn beneath the hollow rock, which 
is to be seen at this day ; the angels singing glory to God 
and peace to men in the presence of the shepherds ; and, 
greatest wonder of all, to see the three Magi in their noble 
majesty kneeling before the manger, with no roof above 
their heads save the overhanging rock ? Thence let him 
return to Jerusalem, that he may see and hear Jesus preach- 
ing in the Temple, teaching His disciples on the Mount of 
Olives, supping on Mount Sion, washing His disciples' feet, 
giving them His Body and Blood, praying in Gethsemane, 
sweating blood, kissing His betrayer, being dragged away 
prisoner, mocked, spat upon, judged, bearing His cross, 
sinking beneath the weight of the cross before the very gate 
of the city that is to be seen at this day, helped by Simon 
of Cyrene, and for our sake celebrating the mysteries of His 
Passion on Calvary. The memory of each and every one 
of these places is still as full and complete as it was on that 
day when these things were done therein. Of a truth, there 
are in the city so many places hallowed by the events of 
our Lord's Passion, that one day can in no wise suffice for 
visiting them all profitably. Besides these, there are other 
things there which rouse men in those places to a greater 
degree of devotional fervour. Who could tell how many 
monks and nuns from Georgia, Greater and Lesser Armenia,. 


Chaldaea, Syria, Media, Persia, India, Aethiopia, Nubia, 
Nabatenia, of the Maronite, Jacobite, Nestorian, Greek, 
Syrian and other sects, at this day roam over that land in 
troops of one or two hundred each, more or less, visit each 
holy place, and with burning zeal kiss the castle and worship 
the spots on which they have heard that sweet Jesus sate, 
stood, or wrought any work ? Beating their breasts, weep- 
ing, groaning, and sighing by turns, the outward bodily 
show of the religious feeling which they no doubt possess 
inwardly, moves many even of the Saracens to tears. O 
Lord God, I see Abraham, as the ancient histories tell us, 
leaving his country, his family, and his father's house, and 
hastening to this land, pitching his tent between Bethel and 
Ai, sojourning in Gerar, in Beersheba, and in Hebron. I 
see Ezekiel leaving the waters of Babylon, and borne by 
the hair of his head betwixt heaven and earth, winging his 
way to Jerusalem. What shall I say of the glorious Virgin, 
who, after the annunciation made to her by the angel, and 
the promise whereby she knew that her womb was made 
the House of God, was not content with the wide and fair 
plains of Galilee, but straightway hastened to go up to the 
hill country of Judaea, desiring to be nearer to the holy 
places ^ What shall I say about the patriarch Jacob, and 
Joseph and his brethren, who, because they could not dwell 
in that land during their lives, chose to be buried therein 
after their deaths ? 

What more need I say } Well may we groan over the 
lukewarmness of the Christian people of our time, who, 
having so many and such great examples before their eyes, 
hesitate to snatch away from the hands of the enemy that 
land which Christ Jesus hallowed with His blood, and 
whose praises are daily sung by the Church throughout all 
the world : for what hour is there of the day or night all 
the year round wherein every devout Christian doth not by 



singing, reading, chanting, preaching, and meditating, read 
what hath been done or written in this land and in its cities 
and holy places ? 

Seeing, however, that some are possessed by a desire to 
picture to their minds those things which they are not able 
to behold with their eyes, and wishing to fulfil their longinp^, 
as far as in me lieth, I have, to the best of my ability, thought 
about, diligently taken note of, and laboriously described 
that land, over which my feet have often passed ; for I 
would have the reader to know that I have set down in this 
my description nought save what I have either seen with 
mine own eyes, when at the place itself, or, when I could not 
come at it, what I have seen from some neighbouring 
mountain- top or other convenient place, and have carefully 
noted the answers given by the Syrian or Saracen, or other 
people of the land, whom I most diligently questioned. 

Indeed, as I have already said, I have either walked on 
foot all over the whole land, from Dan to Beersheba, from 
the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, which are its 
boundaries, or else I have carefully made inquiries about 
the places which I could not come at. 

Considering how I might describe this profitably, so that 
the mind of my reader might easily understand what I have 
to tell, 1 thought that I would choose some central point, 
and arrange the whole land round about it in due order. 
For this centre I have chosen the city of Acre, as being 
better known than any other. Yet this city is not 
in the midst of the land, but stands by the seaside on its 
western boundary. Thence I have drawn four lines, corre- 
sponding to the four quarters of the world ; and each quarter 
I have divided into three parts, to the end that those twelve 
divisions may answer to the twelve winds of heaven. In 
each of these divisions I have placed the cities and places 
mentioned in Scripture, that it may be easy to find the 



situation of each place, and the part of the world wherein 
it Hes.^ 



I. You must know at the beginning that of what we call 
the Holy Land, which fell to the lot of the twelve tribes of 
Israel, one part was called the Kingdom of Judah, and 
belonged to two tribes, to wit, Judah and Benjamin ; the 
other part was called the Kingdom of Samaria, that is to 
say, of the city which at this day is called Sebaste, and was 
the capital city of the remaining ten tribes, who were called 
Israel. Both these kingdoms, together with all the land of 
Philistia, were called Palestine, which was a province of 
Syria, even as Saxony or Franconia are provinces of 
Germany, and Lombardy and Tuscany are provinces of 

That this may be more fully understood, take note that 
there are many Syrias, called by different names. The 
whole land between the river Tigris and Egypt is called 
Syria generally ; but its first part, that which lies between 
the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, whose longest part reaches 
from north to south, to wit, from Mount Taurus even to the 
Red Sea, this part is called Syria Mesopotamia, because it 
stands in the midst of the waters, and it contains many 
nations : for instance, the Parthians and the Medes. It is 
bounded on the south by Chaldaea, wherein is Babylonia, 
and this, again, is bounded on the south by Arabia, which 
reaches as far as the Red Sea, which in those parts is called 
the Arabian Gulf. It is the first part of this entire pro- 
vince of Mesopotamia — the part, I mean, toward the north — 

1 See note on the map in ' Marino Sanuto.' 
^ See preface to Poloner. 



which is specially named Mesopotamia of Syria. In this 
part stands the city of Edissa/ anciently called Races, now 
Rase. This is Syria the first. 

Syria the second is Coele Syria, which begins at the river 
Euphrates, and ends at the stream of Valania, which runs 
past the castle of Margat, and falls into the Mediterranean 
Sea at the city of Valania, which is the see of a Bishop, 
one league away from the aforesaid castle. In this province 
of Coele Syria stands the city of Antioch, with its depen- 
dencies, to wit, Laodicea, Apamea, and many others. 

The third Syria is Phoenician Syria, which begins on 
the north at the aforesaid river of Valania, and reaches to 
the southward even to Petra Incisa, or the wilderness at 
the foot of Mount Carmel, which place at this day is 
called Pilgrims' Castle, and belongs to the Knights 
Templars. In it there are many cities — for instance, 
Margat, Antaradus, Tripoli, Beyrout, Sidon, Tyre, Acre, 
Capernaum. It is called Phoenician Syria after Phoenice, 
the daughter of Agenor who was Cadmus^s brother. He 
built Tyre, and made it the chief city of this land, and 
called the land after his name. 

The fourth is Syria of Damascus, whereof Damascus is 
the capital city. This adjoins the third Syria, Phoenician 
Syria, on the east side thereof This fourth Syria is also 
called Syria of Lebanon, because the famous Mount 
Lebanon is contained therein. 

Next to this fourth Syria, to wit, Syria of Phoenicia (szc), 
Cometh Palestine, which should properly be called Philistiim, 
because there are three Palestines, as follows, but all three 
are parts of Greater Syria. Palestine the first is that pro- 
vince whose capital city is Jerusalem, together with all the 
hill country appertaining thereunto, even to the Dead Sea 

1 See Ludolph von Suchem, p. 8i, note; Marino Sanuto, p. i; 
Jacques de Vitry, cxxxi. 



and even to the wilderness and to Kadesh Barnea. The 
capital of Palestine the second is Caesarea of Palestine, 
also called Caesarea by the Sea, together with all the land 
of Philistiim, beginning at Petra Incisa, or Pilgrims' Castle, 
and reaching southward as far as Bashan. The third Pales- 
tine is that whose capital is Bethshan, near the Jordan, at 
the foot of Mount Gilboa. This city was once called 
Scythopolis. This Palestine is properly called Galilee, 
or the great plain of Esdraelon. 

There are likewise three Arabias, which in like manner 
are parts of Greater Syria. The first is that whose capital 
is Bostrum, now called Buzereth, but of old Bosra.^ This 
province is bounded on the west by the district of 
Trachonitis and Ituraea,^ and on the north by Damascus. 
For this cause Syria of Damascus is sometimes called 
Arabia. This is why^ Arethas was called King of Arabia, 
whereas in truth he was King of Damascus. The second 
Arabia is that whose capital is the city of Petra, of old 
called Rabbath, on the brook Arnon. This Arabia was 
the country of the children of Ammon, albeit the city of 
Ar was in the land of Moab. It also contained the 
kingdom of Sihon, the King of Heshbon,^ and the kingdom 
of Og, the King of Bashan, and Mount Gilead.^ It bounds 
the first Arabia on the south side. Arabia the third is 
that whose capital is Montreal, also called Krach,^ which 
once was called Petra in the Wilderness,'' standing near 

^ Bostrum is Bostra, now Basrah^ in Bashan. 

2 Ituraea, now the Jedur district, but see p. 23. 

^ Josephus, 'Ant.,' xiv. i, 4 ; B. J., i. 6, 2. 

* Num. xxxii. 33, ^ Num. xxi. 33. 

® Petra was known about iioo A.D., when Baldwin I. marched to it, 
and built Montreal {Shobek) near it. It was forgotten after the loss of 

Kerak was not identical with Montreal. See Poloner, pp. 14, 25, 
40 ; Fabri, ii., p. 182 ; John of Wiirzburg, ch. xxii., etc. ; and Ludolph 
von Suchem, p. 118, note ; also Isa. xvi. i, where 'Sela' in the A.V. 


the Dead Sea. This Arabia contains the land of Moab, 
which should properly be called Syria Sobal, and all 
Idumaea, which is Mount Seir, and all the country round 
about the Dead Sea even unto Kadesh Barnea and Ezion 
Geber, and the Waters of Strife, and towards the Red Sea 
across the widest part of the wilderness even unto the 
river Euphrates. This is Great Arabia, wherein is Mecca, 
the city wherein the abominable Mahomet lies buried. 

Let what hath been said suffice about the lands adjoining 
the Holy Land. I have taken the greater part thereof 
from the works^ of the venerable father in God, the Lord 
James of Vitry, Legate of the Holy Roman Church in the 
Holy Land, albeit I have seen most of these places with 
my own eyes. 

Let me now turn my pen to a particular description of 
the land which fell to the lot of the ten tribes. 

H. First of all, then, you must know, as is aforesaid, that 
I have divided the Holy Land into four parts, which 
answer to the four quarters of the heavens, to wit, east, 
west, south, and north, so that the whole of the western 
division looks upon the Mediterranean Sea, as also do 
those parts of the southern and northern division which 
adjoin the western. I will therefore begin in the straight 
line with the city of Acre, anciently called Ptolemais, pro- 
ceeding northwards to describe the cities and places 
situated on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea. 

We start, then, in our description with the city of Acre, 

is ' Petra' in the Vulgate. See also the fragment ' Historia Hieroso- 
limitana,' Bongars, p. 1156: ' Est castrum quod Erathuiji dicunt, ubi 
civitas olim, civitas Petras nomine, nunc vero metropolis. Castrum 
ilium in Regni sinu penitiore consistens. . . . Est et castrum, quod 
Mons Regalis dicitur, quod ab urbe jam dicta xx leucarum interjectu 
distans, ulterius versus Aegyptum secedit.' 

^ J. de Vitry, chs. xxviii., Ivi. and xcvi. ; pp. 1068, 1077 and 11 19 in 
Bongars's Ces/a Dei per Francos. 



and go on in a straight line from thence toward Tyre, 
and then to the cities beyond it, which shall be described 
in their place. Be it known, however, that this city never 
was part of the Holy Land, nor was it ever possessed by 
the children of Israel, albeit in the division of the land 
among them it was given to the tribe of Asshur, but they 
of Asshur never held it. It stands in the province of 
Phoenicia. Four leagues to the south is Mount Carmel 
and the town of Haifa, standing at the foot of the same 
mountain beyond the brook Kishon, where Elijah the 
prophet slew the priests of Baal. 

The province of Phoenicia, or Syria of Phoenicia, extends 
three leagues to the southward of this place, even to Petra 
Incisa, which is called Pilgrims' Castle. This place marks 
the southern boundary of Phoenicia. 

The city of Acre is fortified with walls, outworks, towers, 
ditches, and barbicans of very great strength, and is 
triangular in shape like a shield, whereof two sides look 
upon the Mediterranean Sea, and the third upon the plain 
round about it. This plain is more than two leagues wide 
in some parts, and in some parts less ; it is very fertile, 
both in ploughed land and in meadows, vineyards, and 
gardens, wherein grow divers sorts of fruits. There are 
in the city many strong places, castles_, and citadels be- 
longing to the Knights of the Hospital, the Temple, and 
the Teutonic Order. This city belongs to the King^ of 
Jerusalem, and hath a good and roomy harbour on the 
south side wherein ships may be moored. 

Four leagues to the north of this, Casale Lamberti^ 
stands by the sea-shore, abounding likewise in vineyards, 
gardens, and running waters, at the foot of Mount Sharon. 

^ Either Hugh of Cyprus or Charles of Sicily, who at this time were 
disputing the title of King of Jerusalem. 

- Casale Lambert (or Imbert) is now Namsin, north of Acre. 



Three leagues thence, after one has crossed over Mount 
Sharon, is the Castle Scandalium/ which Alexander the 
Great is said to have built when he was besieging Tyre. 
Baldwin,- King of Jerusalem, rebuilt it, and gave it into 
the keeping of certain nobles who take their title from it. 
It abounds in meadows, pasturelands, plantations of figs, 
olives, and vines, in running waters and gardens. 

A little more than a league from thence is that noble 
well of living water, a bow-shot away from the road that 
leads to Tyre.^ Its waters/ we are told in the Song of 
Songs, run down from Lebanon. Though^ it be called a 
well in the singular number, yet there are four wells, of 
the same shape, but of different sizes. The chief one, 
which is square, measures forty cubits in length and in 
breadth, according as I myself measured it. The other 
three measure about twenty-five. They all are fenced 
about with exceeding strong walls of very hard stones 
joined together with unbreakable masonwork, to the 
height of a lance, or even higher. In these wells the water 
collects and rises, so that it overflows the walls on every 
side. But watercourses lead from that place, which lead 
down by channels as deep and as wide as the height of 
a man, as I know by actual experiment, having myself 
entered the watercourse through which the water runs. 
The people of Tyre lead this water about to all parts of 
the plain, and therewith water gardens, orchards, vineyards, 
and sugar-canes, which grow there in great quantities, 

' Scandalium is now Iskaiideranch, south of Tyre. 

2 Baldwin I,, 1116, rebuilt Scandalium. Cf. Ludolph, ch. xxvii., 
p. 62, in this series. 

3 This spring {Rds el ''Az'n) is at Palae Tyrus, near Tyre on the 

'* Cant. iv. 15 : 'A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and 
streams from Lebanon.' 

Marino Sanuto, iii. xiv. 2 (p. 7 in this series), reproduces this 


from which the Lord of Tyre receives great revenues. 
These wells stand a little more than a bow-shot from the 
Mediterranean Sea, and in that short space they turn six 
good-sized mill-wheels, and then straightway fall into the 
sea. These fountains seem literally to suit the passage in 
Ecclesiasticus, ' I will water my best garden, and will abund- 
antly water my garden bed : and lo, my brook became a 
river, and my river became a sea' (Ecclus. xxiv. 31). 
These waters are a great convenience to the inhabitants. 

Less than a league from this well is the city of Tyre. 
It stands on the sea-shore. Its praise has been sufficiently 
set forth in Ezekiel,^ Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the other books 
of Holy Scripture. It used to have a stream of that living 
water aforesaid brought thither through wondrous pipes 
and pyramids,^ whose ruins may be seen even to this day. 
All these places I have visited and seen with my own eyes. 

The city of Tyre is said to have been built by Thiras, 

son of Japhet, after the flood.' It was restored by 

Phoenice, as aforesaid, and became the capital of Phoenicia. 

It has a vast circuit of walls, greater in my opinion than 

that of the city of Acre, and is of a round shape, standing 

in the sea upon an exceeding hard rock fenced about on all 

sides by the sea save only on the eastern point of the cit}', 

where first Nebuchadnezzar, and afterwards Alexander, 

joined it to the mainland for the space of a stone's-throw. 

At this place it is fenced with three walls, strong and high, 

and twenty-five feet thick. These walls are yet further 

strengthened by twelve exceeding strong towers, than which 

I never have seen better ones in any part of the world. 

The citadel adjoins these towers ; it is an exceeding strong 

castle, standing on a rock in the sea, fenced likewise with 

1 Ezek. xxvii. 2, 3, 4, 8, 32 ; xxviii. 2 ; Isa. xxiii. ; Jer. xxvii. 4. 
^ Tracones et piramides. Cf. Fabri, i. 461 ; Marino Sanuto, 22 ; 
Jacques de Vitry, ch. xlvii. 
^ Gen. X. 2. 


towers and strong palaces. All the world ought nbt to be 
able to take the city by fair means. In this city there are 
many relics, as we learn from the * Ecclesiastical History,'^ 
of the martyrs who suffered there in the time of Diocletian, 
whose numbers God alone knows. Origen lies buried there, 
built into the wall of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
I have seen his monument there. There are pillars of 
marble and of other stone of such a size that one is 
astonished at the sight of them. 

In this city there is an Archbishop's see. It is the 
metropolitan city of Phoenicia, and hath for its suffragans 
the Bishops of Berytus, Sidon, and Acre. This metro- 
politan sec extends as far as Petra Incisa, or Pilgrims' 
Castle, as aforesaid. 

I was once there for ten days, and at many other times 
I have examined it as carefully as I could. 

In the sands, at a distance of two bow-shots, without its 
eastern gate, they show the place where Jesus Christ 
preached, where a woman in the crowd lifted up her voice 
and said, * Blessed is the womb that bare Thee,' etc. They 
also show a great stone, whereon Jesus Christ was then 
standing. This place is never covered with sand, albeit 
the sand in that place is light, and flies about even as snow 
flies about in winter time in Western and Northern countries, 
and is caused by the wind to make heaps round about 
fences and the like places; but this place, though in the 
midst of the sand, ever remaineth uncovered both in summer 
and in winter, as I have seen with my own eyes. 

In that place there is also an overthrown column, marking 
the spot, it is said, where some pilgrims when visiting that 
spot were treacherously slain by Saracens. 

Three short leagues to the north of Tyre the river 

1 Eusebius's 'Ecclesiastical History,' book viii. 



Eleutherus^ flows into the Mediterranean Sea. This is the 
river up to which Jonathan pursued after King Demetrius, 
as we read in the First Book of Maccabees.^ This river flows 
from Ituraea, or Galilee of the Gentiles, from the country 
which of old was called the land of Roob,^ and afterwards 
Kabul.^ It flows past the Castle of Belfort,^ which belonged 
to the Knights Templars,^ near Ramah/ the place to which 
Joshua pursued the thirty-one kings, as we read in the 
Book of Joshua.^ 

Two leagues from this river is Sarepta of the Sidonians,'^ 
before whose southern gate men show a chapel in the place 
where Elijah the prophet came to the woman of Sarepia, 
where he abode and raised her son from the dead. The 
chamber wherein he took his rest is shown there. Sarepta 
has scarce eight houses standing, albeit its ruins show that 
it was once a noble city. 

Two leagues further is Sidon/^ a great city of Phoenicia, 
whose size is proved to this day by its ruins, and was so 

1 The Eleutherus is here placed at the Leontes River. 

2 I Mace. xii. 30. 

3 See Judges xviii. 28. Roob is for Rehob, in Upper Galilee. The 
site is doubtful. 

* 2 Sam. X. 6; Judges xviii. 28, compare Will, of Tyre, Book XVI 
ch. xii. p. 898, also Josh. xix. 28. 

^ Belfort is now KaPat esh Shakif. on the Leontes. 

6 The Knights Templars held it from 1240 to 1268, so that Burchard 
must be writing after the latter date. 

Ramah was 10 miles south-east of Tyre, not near Belfort. 

8 Josh. xii. 7. Compare also xi. 3, 8, 17, where mention is made 
of Mount Hermon and of ' Mount Halak, that goeth up to Seir, 
even unto Baal- gad in the Valley of Lebanon under Mount 

® Sarepta is now Surafend^ north of Tyre. 

La partie des fortifications de Sdida, nominee le Kalaat-el-Bahar 
ou chateau de la iner, est le seul ouvraoe que nous puissio7is considerer 
avec certitude comme tut monunient contonporain de la Sajette des Croi- 
sades; encore ce chateau ne date-t-il que du coinineiicetneiit du xiiie siecle. 
II Jut co7istruit dans le cours de Phiver de 1227 d 1228, sur un roclier 



great that were I to write it down it would scarce be 
believed. It used to stand in the plain in an oblong shape, 
stretching from north to south, at the foot of Mount Anti- 
libanus, between it and the sea, and was an exceeding fair 
city. Out of its ruins another city has been built, a small 
one indeed, but a fortified one, had it but a garrison. It 
stands partly on the sea, and has on either side two well- 
fenced castles, one on the north, built on a rock standing 
in the sea. This castle was built there by pilgrims from 
Germany. The other castle is on the south side, and 
stands on a hill. It is fairly strong. These castles, and 
the city also, are held by the Knights Templars. 

The adjoining land is exceeding fertile, abounding with 
all good things, and has a very healthy climate. There are 
excellent sugar-canes and vineyards. 

Before the eastern gate of the ancient city, now in ruins, 
stands a chapel on the place where the Canaanitish^ woman 
came and besought Him for her daughter who was 
possessed of a devil, on the road leading to Ituraea and 
Caesarea Philippi. 

Mount Antilibanus is one league to the east of Sidon. 
This mountain begins at the afore- mentioned river 
Eleutherus, and reaches a distance of five days' journey, 
five leagues beyond Tripoli. It is never more than two 
leagues distant from the sea, except near Tripoli, where it 
is about three leagues distant. In some places it comes 
down so near to the sea that no road can pass. It abounds 
in excellent vines, as it is written, ' The scent thereof shall 
be as the wine of Lebanon.'^ This good wine is made all 
the way to the Castle of Margat. 

zso/e dans la mer, que Von munit (Vttti revetement de maconnerie. . . . 
/e chateau de Sajette fut evacue par les Francs eii \2<^\, a la suite de 
la prise d^Acre. — C. Rey, Monwnejits de C Architecture Militaire. 
^ Mark vii. 25. ^ Hos. xiv. 7. 



Nine leagues beyond Sidon is the noble and ancient city 
of Beyrout, where also the Lord is said to have preached, 
and the Jews^ made an image of paste in mockery of Him. 
When at last they crucified it, they drew much blood 
therefrom, which to this day is reverently preserved in 
many places. 

The Bishop of this city is suffragan to him of Tyre, as is 
'likewise the Bishop of Sidon. The metropolitan See of 
Tyre extends three leagues further, to the river called the 
Dog's Pass, which there runs into the Mediterranean Sea. 
Here in like manner ends the patriarchate of Jerusalem, 
and the patriarchate of Antioch and the county of Tripoli 
begin. This place is called the Dog's Pass,^ and cannot be 
passed by land save by leave of the Saracens, for a few men 
could forbid all the world to pass by there. 

Six leagues from Beyrout, by the sea-shore, is Biblium,^ 
the first city in the patriarchate of Antioch, with a Bishop 
of its own. Of this city Ezekiel makes mention in his 
praise of Tyre : * The ancients of Gebal and the wise men 
thereof were in thee thy calkers : all the ships of the sea 
with their mariners were in thee to occupy thy merchan- 
dise.'^ The Lord of Biblium is a vassal of the Count of 
Tripoli. At this day the city is called Sibleth,'' and is very 

Four leagues from Biblium is Botrus,^ a city that once 
was rich in exceeding noble wine, and in all this world's 
goods, but now it is utterly destroyed. 

1 Abbot Daniel, Ixix. ; Fetellus, p. 51 ; John of Wiirzburg, xxiv. 
p. 63; 'The City of Jerusalem,' p. 48 ; Theoderich, p. 71; Jacques 
de Vitry, I. xxvii., p. 1067 of Bongars. 

- The Dog's Pass is at Nakr el Kelb (Dog River), N. of Beirut. 
' Byblium is Gebal, now Jibeil, north of Beirut. 
* Ezek. xxvii. 9. 
Phocas spells it HifSeXh ; Abulfeda Giblet. 
Botrus is Batriin, north of Gebal. 



Threa leagues further is the Castle of Nephin,^ nearly the 
whole of which stands in the sea. It belongs to the Prince 
of Antioch. In it I have seen twelve good towers, and the 
place is strongly fortified. The wine of this town is the 
most noted of all the wines of those parts. 

Two leagues beyond Nephin is Tripoli, an exceeding 
noble city, standing almost entirely in the sea, like Tyre. 
It is full of people, for therein dwell Greeks and Latins, 
Armenians, Maronites, Nestorians, and many others. Much 
work is done there in silk. I have heard for certain that 
therein there are weavers of silk and camlet and other like 

The land round about it may without doubt be called a 
paradise, because of its endless beautiful vineyards and 
plantations of olives, figs, and sugar-canes, the like of all 
which I do not remember to have seen in any other part of 
the world. 

The plain before the gates of the city is one league in 
length, and half a league in breadth. In this space there are 
gardens, wherein divers fruits grow in such plenty that it 
is said that every year they bring their owners three hundred 
thousand golden byzants. 

Three leagues beyond this city is Lebanon, at whose fooi^ 
rises the 'fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and 
streams from Lebanon,' of which v/e read in Solomon's 
Song.^ This fountain seems to rise meanly, but of a sudden 
gathers strength, and makes a strong and exceeding great 
river. It waters all the gardens and the plain between 
Tripoli and Lebanon, and wondrously enriches the country. 

1 Ritter, xvii. (i) 609 sq., thinks that this castle of Nephin, or 
Nefrino (Nefro), as the Crusaders called it, was Cape Theouprosopon, 
the modern Ras esh Shakkah, not Enfeh. A tower still stands in the 
pass of /^ds esh Shakkah. 

The Nahr Kadisha^ rising in Lebanon, waters Tripoli. 

^ Cant. iv. 15. 



Its water is excellent, being cool and sweet, and upon its 
banks many oratories and many churches are built. It 
comes, as aforesaid, from the foot of the mountain, partly 
circles round the Mount of Leopards, and then is led 
through gardens to water them. It enters the sea in three 
good-sized streams, without counting the other brooks 
which likewise flow into the sea in divers places. Of a 
certainty what is said in the Book of Esther^ is true of this 
fountain : * As it were from a little fountain was made a 
great flood, even much water.' 

Two leagues from Tripoli is the Mount of Leopards, 
which is round in appearance, and somewhat high, standing 
at a distance of one league from Lebanon. At its foot, on 
the north side, I have seen a cave wherein there is a tomb, 
twelve feet long. The Saracens devoutly visit this place, 
and say that it is Joshua's tomb,- which I do not believe to 
be true, because the text saith that he was buried at 
Timnath-heres, which is on the side of Mount Ephraim, 
near Sichem, I am rather inclined to believe this to be the 
sepulchre of Canaan, the son of Ham, the son of Noah, or 
that of some one of his sons' children, who may be proved 
to have dwelt in this very place, as shall be told hereafter. 

About three leagues to the north of this cave is the end 
of Antilibanus, and also of Lebanon. At the place where 
they both end one is shown at this day the Castle of 
Arachas,^ which Aracheus, son of Canaan, built and called 
by his own name, as we learn from the gloss on Gen. x. 
and I Chron. i. 15. Exceeding glorious, beauteous, and 
fertile is this land at the end of Lebanon. As for the 
situation and length of Lebanon, I will tell you of this when 
I come to make mention of Caesarea Philippi, and the 
source of the Jordan. 

1 Esth. xi. 10. 2 Judg. ii. 9. 

2 Archas. See Fetellus, pp. 12, note, 24, 52 ; Anon. (Pseudo-Be da) 
vi., p. 51, etc. Arachas is now 'Ar^a/i, N.E. of Tripoli. 



Half a league to the eastward of the Castle of Archas is 
Sin — a town built by Syneus, the son of Canaan, Aracheus's 
brother, after the flood, not far from Arachas, as we are 
told by the gloss on Genesis. Howbeit a Nestorian who 
dwelt there told me, when I inquired of him, that the town 
was named Synochim, and I got the same answer from a 
Saracen at that place. 

Beneath the Castle of Arachas and the town of Synochim 
is a great plain, exceeding beauteous and fertile, reaching 
as far as the Castle of Krach, which once^ belonged to the 
Knights Hospitallers of St. John,^ and as far as Antaradus,^ 
now called Tortosa, being about eleven leagues long and 
six leagues broad. This plain contains many villages, and 
beauteous groves of olive-tree, fig-trees, and other fruit-trees 
of divers sorts, besides much timber. Moreover, it greatly 
abounds with streams and pasturelands ; wherefore the 
Turcomans, and Midianites, and Bedouins dwell there in 
tents with their wives and children, their flocks and their 
camels. I have seen there an exceeding great herd of 
camels, and I believe that there were several thousands of 
camels there. 

This plain is bounded on the east side by mountains of 
no great height. They rise near Arachas, and extend as 
far as Krach. In these mountains dwell a people called 
Uannini, a savage and malicious race which hates Chris- 

It is eight leagues from the towns of Arachas and Syno- 
chim across the aforesaid plain to Antaradus, which is so 
called because it stands over against Aradium. 

Aradium"* is an island in the deep sea, about half a 
league from the continent. Upon it down to my time 

1 Till 1271. 

2 Crac des Chevaliers is now el Hosn, N.E. of Tripoli. 

3 Tortosa stands on the shore east of the island of Aradus. 
* Aradium, ancient Arvad, is now the island er Rudd. 



there stood a fair city, which is mentioned by Ezekiel, 
saying,^ ' The men of Arvad [Aradium] with thine army 
were upon thy walls round about,' where the gloss says : 
* Aradium is a city set in the sea, over against Antaradus, 
near Tyre.' The truth is that it is five days' journey 
distant from Tyre. This city was founded by Aradius, a 
son of Canaan, after the flood. 

Here note that Ham, the son of Noah, begat Canaan 
after the flood. ' And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, 
and Heth, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the 
Girgasite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 
and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite.'^ 
By these were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 
Four out of these eleven sons of Canaan, to wit, Sidon his 
firstborn, who built Sidon, and Aracheus, who founded 
Arachas, and Sineus, who founded Synochim, and Aradius, 
who founded Aradium, as aforesaid — these four, I say, 
remained in that land at the end of Lebanon, as hath been 
told ; but the other seven, that is to say, Heth and the 
Jebusite, the Amorite, the Girgasite, the Hivite, the Arkite, 
and the Hamathite, them didst Thou leave to themselves, 
O Lord God of Lsrael, that they might learn to fight. 
The monuments and sepulchres of the four first are shown 
at this day one league before one comes to Antaradus, and 
they are exceeding rich and of. wondrous size. I have 
seen stones therein — for I measured the stone — four-and- 
twenty feet long, and as wide and deep as the height of a 
tall man, so that it is a marvel to behold them. How they 
can have been raised up and used for building, altogether 
passes man's understanding. 

Beside Antaradus, half a league to the east, there are 
some mountains ; but they are not very high, neither are 
they inaccessible, as some say. This is the land of the 

1 Ezek. xxvii. 8, 11. 2 Gen. x. 15-18. 



Assassins, and is so called. Their rites and customs will 
be described at greater length hereafter. 

St. Peter preached for a long time at Antaradus when 
he was on his way to Antioch, as we read in St. Clement's 
' Itinerary.'^ 

Here Clement found his mother. Here also St. Peter^ 
built the first church in honour of the Blessed Virgin, 
which church exists at this day. I have celebrated Mass 
therein, for I abode there for six days. 

Seven leagues from Antaradus is the Castle of Margat,^ 
belonging to the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John.^ It 
stands above the city of Valania,^ one league from the sea, 
and is strongly fortified and set upon an exceeding high 
mountain. The Bishop's see,^ which was at Valania, is 
now transferred to the castle because of the insults of the 

1 The text has sicu/ in Alveario Clejnentis legitiir. In Poloner the 
same passage occurs, but Itinerariu7n is substituted for the meaning- 
less Alveariu7n. See Poloner, p. 34, in this series ; J. de Vitry, i. 44 ; 
and Marino Sanuto, p. 5, in this series ; also p. 268 of Tobler's 
' Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae,' Leipzig, 1874, and his note thereon. 
The fullest account of St. Peter's doings at Antaradus will be found 
in the 'Acta S. Petri,' attributed to St. Linus, in 'Acta Sanctorum/ 
June 29. Compare J. de Vitry, xliv. 

- Anon., p. 27 ; City of Jerusalem, p. 48. De Joinville says: Je detnatide 
au roy quHl me laissast aller e7t pelermage a Nostre-Dame-de-Tortouze, 
la ou il avoit moult grafit pelerijiae^e pour ce que dest le premier autel 
qui onques fust fait en Vonneur de la Mere-Dieu sur terre, et y fesoit 
Nostre-Dame 7noult gra7it 77iiracles. 

^ Margat, now el Merkeb, near the shore, stood on a promontory to 
the south of Latakia. 

^ It was given them by Bohemond, Prince of Antioch, in 
1 1 86. 

Valenie is now Ba7iids^ near Margat. 
^' Vers la fin du xii^ siecle 7C7ie bourgade, oil vi7irent s'installer les 
habitants ainsi que Veveque de Valenie, s'etait elevee sur cette esplanade^ 
li77iitee au sud par le reduit for77ie d^un 77tassif considerable de bati- 
77ients et de Venorme tour, ouvrage capitate des defenses de la forteresse. 
—C. Key. 



Saracens. This Bishop is suffragan to the Archbishop of 
Apamea, as is the Bishop of Arachas. 

The city of Valania and the river of the same name, 
which runs past it, are the boundaries of the kingdom of 
Jerusalem. Here Hkewise begins the principality of Antioch, 
and here ends the county of Tripoli. This place is seven 
days' journey distant from the city of Acre, and it is four 
days' journey from it to Antioch. Now, albeit I have 
travelled beyond this place and viewed the country, yet 
I write nothing thereof, because I do not intend to write 
about any land save the Holy Land. 

Let what hath been said suffice for the first division. 


HI. The second division proceeds from Acre to the 
northward, and the first place to which one comes going 
due north from Acre is the castle which used to be called 
Montfort} This once belonged to the Teutonic Hospital, 
but now is utterly ruined. 

Four leagues further in the same direction is the Castle^ 
of Toron, a very strong place built by the Lord of Tiberias 
as a check to Tyre when Tyre was in the hands of the 
Saracens. It is seven leagues distant from Tyre. 

^ Montfort is KuPat el Kurei7i, east of Acre, buik by the Teutonic 
Order in the thirteenth century. 

- 'Anno 1 107 Hugo a Sancto Audomaro condidit Toronum.' — 
Laurent. L^assiette de cette place a ete choisie au soimnet d'u?ie col line 
arrondie^ d^ou lui est venu son appellation^ du vieux mot franqais 
touron ou toron, signifiant eminence^ ou colline isolee. — C. Rey^ Monu- 
ments de V architecture militaire des croises. It was built by Hugh de 
St. Omer, Prince of Tiberias, about 1104, according to M. Rey. It 
was twice taken by the enemy — first in 1187, by Saladin — then in 
1 2 19 by SuUan Melek el Mo'adam, who destroyed it. It was rebuilt 
in 1220. Toron is now Tibnin^ in Upper Galilee. 


Four leagues further is an ancient city named Hazor/ 
wherein dwelt that potent King Jabin, who fought against 
Joshua and Israel with the thirty-one Kings at the waters 
of Merom. Of this place we are also told, in Josh, xi., 
that he burned the strong city of Hazor with fire. The 
fame of this city is witnessed by its ruins even to this day. 

About six leagues to the north thereof is the city of 
Belinas,^ at the foot of Mount Lebanon. This, as we read 
in the Book of Judges,^ was at the first called Laish. Now, 
as it was far from Sidon, that is, about eleven leagues, and 
its people had no allies (it was in the valley that lieth by 
Bethrehob), the children of Dan took it, and called it 
Leshem Dan,^ after the name of Dan their father. It is 
often called simply Dan, after that passage in the Bible, 
* that all Israel be gathered together, from Dan even 
unto Beersheba for this city is the northern limit of the 
Holy Land, even as Beersheba is on the south. Thus we 
read in i Kings xix. 3, that * Elijah came to Beersheba, 
which belonged to Judah,' and further on, that 'he him- 
self v/ent a day's journey into the wilderness,' which no 
doubt adjoins that city. It is now called Giblin.^ Now, 
when Philip was Tetrarch of Ituraea and the district of 
Trachonitis, he wished this city of Belinas, or Dan, to be 
called after his own name Caesarea Philippi. The Greeks 
call it Paneas. But now all these names are forgotten, and 
it is commonly called Belinas. 

Above this city and on either side of it are the sources 
of two streams, Jor and Dan, at the foot of Mount 

1 Hazor was shown near the source of the Leontes. 

2 The ancient Caesarea Philippi, now Bania-^, which Burchard, as is 
usual with mediaeval writers, confuses with Dan. 

^ Judg. X. 4 Josh. xix. 47. ^ 2 Sam. xvii. 11. 

" Beersheba was believed to be at Bezl Jibrin (Gibilin) in the twelfth 
century. The true site was unknown. 



Lebanon. They meet before the gate of the city, and form 
one river — the Jordan. 

But mark, this is not the real source of the Jordan, for 
Josephus tells us, and truly, that about one hundred and 
twenty stadia to the south of that place there is a fountain 
named Phiale,^ which is ever full and never overflows, but 
runs underground to that place, and there comes forth and 
is called Dan. This has often been proved by casting 
straws into Phiale and finding them again at the source 
of Dan. The Saracens do not call this fountain Phiale^^ 
but Medan, that is, the waters of Dan, as much as to say, 
' This is the water of Dan,' for Me means ' water ' in Arabic, 
and Dan is one of the aforesaid springs. St. Matthew 
calls this place Magdala" (Magedan, Vulg.), and St. Mark 
Dalmanutha. It is not far from the city of Sueta,^ near 
the monument of the blessed Job, in the district of 
Trachonitis. This will be described at greater length 

The river Jordan having met before the gate of the 
city of Belinas,^ after making long circuits from those two 
sources, divides Trachonitis from Ituraea, and at length 
falls into the Sea of Galilee between Capernaum and 
Chorazin, four leagues from the city of Kedar, which is 
on a hill above it. 

Midway between Belinas and the Sea of Galilee it enters 

1 Fetellus, p. 26 ; John of Wiirzburg, p. 66 ; Theoderich, p. 65, etc. 

2 Dan is at 7>// el Kady. Phiale at Birket er Rdfn. 

2 Matt. XV. 39 ; Mark viii. 10. It has no connection with Magdala 
or Magadan, west of the sea of Galilee. The confusion is made by 
connecting the words ]Me-dan and ]\Iage-dan. 

* Sueta, in the twelfth century, was the Jaulan region called 
Ard es Suweidah^ ' black land,' from its basaltic soil ; but Job's 
monument (at Sheikh S'ad) lay further east, in Bashan, near 

Belinas is Ituraea is here wrongly placed north of Jordan^ 

in Coele Syria. 



a valley where it forms a pool at the time when the snows 
melt on Lebanon. This pool is called the waters of Merom 
to this day. Here Joshua fought with Jabin the King 
of Hazor and thirty other Kings, and he smote them and 
chased them unto the waters of Misrephoth and unto 
great Zidon, for about eight leagues.^ This water nearly 
all dries up in summer time, and bushes and grass grow 
there exceeding thick, wherein lurk lions and bears and 
other wild beasts, and royal^ hunting is to be had there. 
One half of this valley comes into this second division, 
looking northwards, the other half comes into the following 
third part. The third part, which is beyond this valley, 
and extends all along the east bank of Jordan to Lebanon 
on the left, and to Mount Hermon to the south-east, and 
to the city of Bozra to the east on Mount Sanyr, which 
adjoins Mount Hermon, this in the Book of Joshua is 
called the Plain^ of Lebanon, or the district of Trachonitis,* 
because, since that land is altogether lacking in running 
waters, its inhabitants collect the rain-water in channels 
and cisterns, and bring them from one place to another by 
tracones^ or pipes, that they may water themselves and their 

Here it seems necessary, since mention has been made 
of the Mounts Lebanon, Hermon, and Sanyr, that I should 
tell you about them more at length, that other matters may 

1 Josh. xi. 8. 

2 Poloner, p. 27 ; Marino Sanuto, p. 32 ; Abbot Daniel, p. 59. 

^ Planicies. In A.V., Valley of Lebanon (Josh. xi. 17). He con- 
fuses the Valley of Lebanon with Ituraea. Cf. Marino Sanuto, iii., 
part xiv., ch. iv. 

^ Trachonitis was not the Plain of Lebanon, which lies north of 
Hermon. Mount Sanyr (Shenir), which was a name of Hermon, is 
here placed at the Hill of Bashan {Jebel ed Druz). Trachon meant 
'basalt' (like the modern name Lejah\ and the translation is 

Fabri, i. 464; Marino Sanuto, p. 28. 



be understood. You must know, then, that the mountains 
beside the brook Arnon, which are between Ammon and 
Moab and the Amorites, also Mount Gilead, which is in 
the land of Og, King of Basan, Mount Sanyr and Mount 
Hermon above Baal-gad and the Sea of Galilee, and Mount 
Lebanon, are all one continuous mountain, called by divers 
names in divers places, as one may any day see done in 
the Alps which separate Germany from Lombardy. How- 
beit Gilead^ is the highest of all these mountains, and seems 
to be, as it were, the head of them all ; wherefore I think 
that verse of Jeremiah (xxii. 6), ' Thou art Gilead unto me, 
and the head of Lebanon,' is literally true. Mount Sanyr 
adjoins Mount Gilead. It is also called Seir,^ because Esau 
or Seir dwelt there, as shall be told hereafter, and it is 
beyond the Sea of Galilee, and fell to the lot of the half- 
tribe of Manasseh. At the same place it joins Mount 
Hermon, which borders on the district of Trachonitis, and 
extends even to Damascus, near to which it joins Lebanon, 
between Belinas and Damascus. Lebanon itself is, to my 
mind, higher where it passes the city of Belinas than any- 
where else along the whole range that is called Lebanon. 
At this place it is two leagues distant from Tyre, and can be 
plainly seen from Tyre — indeed, I have myself seen it from 
thence shining bright in the middle of the night. It is five 
days' journey long, and for all that distance has its top 
covered with snow. It comes nearer and nearer to the 
sea-shore, so that while at the outset, I mean above Belinas, 
it is twelve leagues away from the sea, at the end, that is, 
near Arachas, it is only three leagues away from it. Those 
who sail from Tyre to Antaradus by sea have it in sight all 
the way, and beneath it Antilibanus ever comes nearer to 
the sea. There are fertile valleys in both Lebanon and 

^ Mount Gilead (3,000 feet) is not as high as Hermon (9,000 feet). 
^ Seir is here confused with Sirion, a name for Hermon. 



Antilibanus, which are well tilled, and abound in meadows, 
vineyards, gardens, orchards, and, in short, all the good 
things in the world. In them dwell many races, as afore- 
said, such as Maronites, Armenians, Greeks, Nestorians, 
Jacobites, and Georgians, all of whom are Christians, and 
are, by their own account, subjects of the Church of 



IV. The third division proceeds from Acre to the south- 
east. Three leagues along this is the castle called Judin,^ 
on Mount Sharon, which once belonged to the Teutonic 
Order, but now is ruined. 

Three leagues further on is the Kings' Castle,^ in a valley 
which once belonged to that same Order, and abounds 
with all good things, and with fruits which even in that 
land are rarely found elsewhere. It is now in the hands of 
the Saracens. 

Four leagues further towards the Waters of Merom is the 
Valley^ of Zaanaim, where Heber the Kenite had pitched 
his tent, not far from the city of Hazor. It was his wife, 
by name Jael, who slew Sisera, the captain of the host of 
the King of Hazor, by smiting a nail of the tent into his 
temples, as we read in Judges. 

Two leagues from that valley is Kabul,^ which the 
Saracens call Zabul. This land is called Kabul, which 
signifies displeasure, as we read in the third^ Book of 

^ Judin is now KuVat Jeddin, east of Acre. 

- Chateau du Roi was at M^alia, near Judin. Marino Sanuto, 
p. 24. 

•' A.V. 'plain': Josh. xix. 33 ; Judg. iv. 11. 

Kabul was wrongly placed (see Marino Sanuto) at Nebi Sebeldn, 
in Upper Galilee, not at Kabiil^ south-east of Acre, the true site. 
I Kings ix. 12, 13. 



Two leagues to the south of this stands the castle and 
city of Sephet/ the fairest and strongest, to my mind, of 
all the castles I have ever seen, set upon an exceeding lofty 
rock. It used to belong to the Knights Templars, but was 
betrayed and taken in shameful sort, to the injury of the 
whole of Christendom ; for with it the Soldan holds all 
Galilee, that is to say, the tribes of Zabulon, Naphtali, 
Asshur, Issachar and Manasseh, and all the land, even to 
Acre and Tyre and Sidon. 

Four leagues to the north of this, not far from the Plain 
of Zaanaim, is Cadesh Naphtali,'^ whence came Barak, the 
son of Abinoam, who fought against Sisera on Mount 
Tabor. This was a city of refuge in the tribe of Naphtali, 
and abounds with all good things. At this place there are 
shown at this day vast ruins and exceeding beauteous 

Two leagues beyond the castle of Sephet,^ as one goes 
down the mountain to the eastward, a stone's-throw from 
the Sea of Galilee, above the road leading to the east, is 
the way up that mount, up which Christ Jesus so often 
went, where^ Matthew tells us that He preached the 
sermon, and where He satisfied five thousand men with 
five loaves and two fishes. Hither He was wont to go up 
and pray, sending the multitude away.^ He fled thither 
when they would have made Him King. Here He taught 
His disciples to pray. Here He passed the night in 

1 ' Castrum Templariorum, vocabulo Sepham, adversus Turcarum 
incursiones valde munitum.' — Theoderich, xliii. 

2 The Plain of Zaanaim is placed at /Cedes, in Upper Galilee. 

^ Saphet is Safed^ not Chateau Blanc {Safita), which lay north of 

^ Locus Mensa vocaius. Anton., ch. ix. ; Theoderich, p. 64 ; John 
of Wiirzburg, p. 68 ; Fetellus, p. 28 ; Marino Sanuto, p. 13 ; Ludolph 
von Suchem, p. 127. 

The Mensa Christiwas shown on the hill north of Minyeh, and of 
the Sea of Galilee, in the twelfth century. 



prayer. It was as He was coming down from this place 
that the centurion begged Him to help his palsied servant. 
Hither came unto Him the great multitude of sick and of 
those that were possessed by devils. Here He touched the 
leper and healed him. Here He stood in the fields with 
His disciples. From this mount one can see all the Sea of 
Gahlee, Ituraea, and the district of Trachonitis as far as 
Lebanon, and also Sanyr and Hermon, the land of Zabulon 
and Naphtali, even to Kedar/ and all Chinnereth^ even to 
Dothan, and Bethulia,^ and many other places. This 
mount is about two bow-shots long, and a stone's-throw or 
more wide : it is grassy and pleasant, and suitable for 
preaching from. Here is shown at this day the stone 
whereon the Lord Jesus Christ sat when He preached, and 
the places where the Apostles sat. (This place is called 
by Christians the Table.*) 

At the foot of this mountain near the sea, at some thirty 
pace's distance, there is a spring of living water enclosed by 
a wall, which spring they call a vein of the Nile,^ because it 
breeds the fish coracinus,^ which is found nowhere else. 
Josephlis calls this spring Capernaum, because the whole 
plain between that spring and the Jordan, a distance of 
two leagues, is called Capernaum. 

Some twenty paces beyond that spring, on the Sea of 
Galilee, is the place where Jesus stood on the shore after 
His resurrection, and said to His seven disciples who were 
fishing, ' Children, have ye anything to eat r When I was 

^ Josh. xiii. 27. 2 Gennesaret. 

Bethulia was shown at Safed in the twelfth century. 
^ See Tobler's note to Theoderich, xlv. ; also in this series, John of 
Wiirzburg, p. 68 ; Theoderich, p. 64; Marino Sanuto, 13 ; Anon., 54. 
This fountain is now ^Aiji et Tabghah. 
^' ' Coracinus est sparus chromis (petit castagneau, castagnotto).' — 
Dii Cange. Castagneau, nom vulgaire d'un poisson tres commun 
dans toute la Mdditerranee (type du genre chromis Cuvier). Littr^. 
Marino .Sanuto, who copies I3urchard, calls it corconus (p. 11). 



at this place on St. Augustine's Day,^ I saw three of the 
Lord Jesus's footsteps imprinted on a stone ; but when 
I came there again on the Feast of the Annunciation, the 
Saracens had taken the stone away. 

Ten paces thence is the place where the disciples came 
out of the ship and saw the fire of coals, ^ and fish laid 
thereon, and bread. (This place is called the Table by 

One league to the eastward of this place is Capernaum,^ 
once a noble city, but now an exceeding mean one, scarce 
containing seven houses of poor fishermen. Truly therein 
is the word of the Lord Jesus fulfilled, ' And thou, Caper- 
naum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be thrust 
down to hell.'^ 

Two leagues from that place the river Jordan enters the 
Sea of Galilee, on the further shore of which may still be 
seen the ruins of the city of Chorazin,^ on the Sea of Galilee. 

One league beyond that place, to wit, Chorazin, begins 
the ascent of Mount Sanyr, called by some Seir, and the 
entrance to Idumaea. 

Three leagues further is Kedar,^ a noble city built in a 
strong situation, on the eastern side of Mount Sanyr. 
Through this city passes the road which, as aforesaid, 
passes along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, and leads to 
the westward, as we are told in Tobit i. i. In Isaiah 
this is called 'the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, in Galilee 
of the nations.''' It is called ' the way of the sea ' because 
it leads all along the sea-shore. ' Beyond Jordan ' is added 
because it leads beyond Jordan into the country called 

1 August 28. 2 jQj^n xxi. 9. 

^ Capernaum is placed, as in the fourth century, at Te/l Hum. 

* Ptlatt. xi. 23 ; Luke x. 15. 

^ Chorazin is wrongly placed east of Jordan. 

" Kedar (see below) is placed at Gamala [el HosJi), east of the Sea 
of Galilee. " Isa. ix. i. 


Aram. It is called * Galilee of the nations ' because at 
that place Galilee is bounded by the Jordan. 

It is four leagues from this place where the Jordan flows 
into the Sea of Galilee to Kadesh Naphtali. Halfway 
between them is another half of the waters of Merom 
aforesaid. Jordan passes through the midst of the valley 
of the waters of Merom, and when it comes out thereof 
turns its course first to the east, and then to the south, 
and so falls into the Sea of Galilee. 

Four leagues to the north of the mouth of the river 
Jordan and the city of Chorazin is the city of Sueta,^ 
whence Bildad in Job was called the Shuhite. Near it, 
on the east side, is Job's tomb.^ 

On the plains" near this city, on the side toward the city 
of Kedar, Saracens of Aram, Mesopotamia, Hamath, 
Syria, Moab, Ammon, and all parts of the East, are wont 
to meet round about the fountain Phiale aforesaid^ and 
hold a fair all summer time because of the pleasantness 
of the place. They set up tents of divers colours, which 
make a very pretty sight for the people of Kedar on the 
hill to look at. These are what are called in Solomon's 
Song* the tents of Kedar. 

Four leagues to the east of the city of Chorazin is the 
city of Kedar, standing on a lofty mound. Josephus calls 
this the Camel, ^ because the mount whereon it stands is 
shaped like a camel, being long at the beginning like the 
head and neck of a camel, with a hump in the middle like 
his back, and coming down at the end like his tail. 

Here note that, as hath been already said, the whole 
country near the Jordan, on the east bank thereof, even 

1 Marino Sanuto, p. 9 ; Theoderich, ch. xlix. 

2 See preceding note on Sueta and Job's tomb, p. 23. 

•■' John of Wurzburg, ch. XXV. ; Theoderich, ch. xlv. ; Marino Sanuto, 
p. II. 

41.5. ^ Gamala, now E/ Hosn, east of the Sea of Galilee. 



to Mount Hermon and Bozra, is called the country of 
Trachonitis or the Plain of Lebanon. The west bank of 
Jordan is called Galilee of the Gentiles, or Ituraea, or 
Cabul, or Decapolis, and the 'way of the sea' passes 
through the midst thereof ; that is, leading from Acre 
through the valley of the land of Asshur, now called St. 
George's^ Valley, to the mountains of the district of 
Trachonitis, beyond which is the land of Aram. Where- 
fore the gloss on * There was a man in the land of Uz, 
named Job/- tells us 'Aram, the father of the Syrians, 
who founded Damascus and Syria, begat Uz, who founded 
the country of Trachonitis. He reigned in the land 
between Coele Syria and Palestine, which is called after 
him the land of Uz. So the man dwelt in the land of 
Uz, or the Uzzite country. 

This country was ruled by Philip the Tetrarch, as was 
also Ituraea, which is on this side of the Jordan country 
to the westvrard, and extends as far as the mountains of 
the Sidonians and Syrians and the people of Acre, v.hich 
divide it from Phoenicia, both in this third and in the 
preceding second. It is bounded on the north by Lebanon, 
on the east by Jordan, on the south by the Sea of Galilee, 
on the west by the mountains of Phoenicia. 


V. The fourth division starts from Acre, and goes due 
east, passing near the Castle of Sephet, which it leaves on 
the left. From thence on the shore of the Sea of Ga'ilee 
it passes before the city of Capernaum, before the place 

^ St. George {el Khudr) is at el B^aneh^'va the broad valley, east of 
Acre, leading to the Plain of Rameh. 
- Job i. I. 

^ The land of Uz was shown in Bashan from the fourth century, but 
in the Old Testament it lies in Edom. 



where the Lord called Matthew from the receipt of custom. 
Matthew's house, and the place where he used to sit, may 
be seen there at this day on the king's highway. Then 
the road goes up into the mountains of Hermon on the 
further side of Jordan. 

In this division there are the following cities : 
The first one, five leagues distant from Acre, is the 
village called Sangeor/ where that saint is believed to 
have been born.^ This stands in an exceeding fat, fertile, 
and beauteous valley among hills. This lovely valley 
reaches as far as the Sea of Galilee. It used to belong to 
the tribe of Asher, reaching even unto Sephet, about ten 
leagues. The saying of Gen. xlix. is literally true of it 
because of its beauty, ' Out of Asher his bread shall be 
fat, and he shall yield royal dainties,' a saying which hath 
been fulfilled in the lot of this tribe. 

Four leagues thence, to the southward, but somewhat to 
the east thereof, is the village of Naason,'^ of the tribe of 
Naphtali, in a valley. We read of this place in the Book 
of Tobit.4 

Three leagues further to the south is Dothan,^ where 
Joseph found his brethren. It stands at the foot of 
Mount Bethulia, one league distant from it, and is an 
exceeding fair town, abounding in vines, olives, and figs, 
and in rich pastures. 

At this place in the field is still shown the pit^ into 

^ San Geor lay at e/ BaJiieh, in the Valley of St. George. 

'-^ See Laurent's note on Willibrand of Oldenburg, II. 3, i, p. 25. 

3 Naason seems confused with Nasor (a corrupt reading for Hazor), 
near Kadesh Naphtali. 

*• Tob. i. 2, in the Vulgate ; A.V., Thisbe. See Smith's 'Dictionary 
of the Bible,' art. ' Thisbe.' 

^ Dothan or Dothaim was shown in the twelfth century at Khan 
Jubb Yuse/ (the inn of Joseph's pit), by Minieh, on the north shore of 
the Sea of Galilee. The true site {Tell Doihdn) was known in the 
fourth century. " Cisterna. 



which Joseph was put by his brethren. I have seen it 
there by the side of the road which leads from Gilead, 
and at Bethsaida joins the road that leads from Syria into 
Egypt. It goes up from Dothan to near Mount Bethulia, 
then crosses the Plain of Esdraelon, passes by Mount 
Tabor on the left hand across the plain of Megiddo, goes 
up Mount Ephraim, enters Ramathaini Zophim,^ and 
thence by Gaza to Egypt. It was along this road that 
the Ishmaelites came who bought Joseph. 

We read in the second Book of Kings about this town 
(Dothan), that the Syrians compassed about Elisha therein, 
and he led them thence to the midst of Samaria, which is 
about one day's journey distant. 

Note that Dothan is not only the (name of the) town, 
but also of the country called after the town, which has 
belonged to it from of old, in a flat district, bounded on 
either side by low hills, watered by springs, and therefore 
good pasture, fit for feeding cattle. 

Two leagues to the east of Naason, and about three to 
the north of Dothan, is the city of Naphtali,^ from whence 
came Tobias, standing in a strong place ; for on the west 
side it has an exceeding lofty mountain up which no man 
can climb, save on one little space on the east side. This 
city was, I think, called Jotapata at the time of the 
extirpation of the Jews, according to Josephus. In it 
Josephus himself was besieged and taken prisoner by the 
Romans, as he himself tells us. At this day it is called 
Syrim,^and is little more than a league away from Sephet. 

Two leagues from Naphtali, at a corner of the Sea of 
Galilee, where it begins to curve from the north towards 

^ Ramathaim Zophim was placed at Rainleh in the twelfth century. 
2 Naphtali is Kadesh Naphtali, now Kedes. It was not Jotapata 
{Jefdt), south-west of Safed. 

^ Syrim is probably an error for Meirim^ near Safed. 




the south, extends Bethsaida/ the city of Andrew and 
Peter and Philip. At this day it has scarce seven houses, 
which stand by the side of the road from Syria to Egypt. 
In ancient times it had a watercourse leading from the 
river, which Josephus calls the little Jordan,^ which runs 
into the Sea of Galilee halfway between it and Capernaum. 
Traces of this may be seen to this day. 

Two leagues further to the south is Magdalum,^ the castle 
of Mary Magdalen, whose house I have seen still standing 
there, and have been inside it. It stands by the sea-shore, 
about three leagues to the south-east of Bethulia. On its 
western and northern sides it has a great grassy plain. 

Note that this fourth division has no more towns on this 
side of the Sea of Galilee ; but on its other shore there are 
many cities and castles that belong to this division, in the 
land of the Gerasenes, which is directly over against this. 

Herein there are many cities ; for example, Gerasa, 
Gadara, Pella, Sueta, the city of Bildad the Shuhite, 
Teman, from which came Eliphaz the Temanite, and 
many others. 

Now, the town of Gerasa^ stands on the shore of the Sea 
of Galilee, at the foot of Mount Seir, nearly over against 
Tiberias, but a little to the north of it. This used to 
belong to the half-tribe of Manasseh, whose lot fell beyond 

Note that this land beyond the Sea of Galilee is very 
mountainous, as it seems to me ; but I have never been in 
it. It was part of the kingdom of the King of Bashan. 
Part of it is called Mount Seir, because Esau dwelt there, 

^ Bethsaida was shown near Minieh at Sheikh Seiydd, a small 
shrine on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. 

2 Little Jordan is here IVddy el Hamdm^ west of Minieh. 

- Magdalum is Mej'del, west of the Sea of Galilee. 

* Gerasa is placed probably at Khersa, east of the Sea of Galilee. 
The true site (Jerdsh) in Gilead was lost. 



as I shall shortly tell you. In another place it was called 
Mount Sanyr/ because he was there, and it was also called 
Mount Hermon, because he was there also. Thus divers 
places and mountains in this land were called by divers 
names; yet the whole of it belonged to the half-tribe of 
Manasseh. But the half-tribe never possessed it ; for the 
children of Esau dwell in parts thereof to this day. They 
are commonly called Saracens, because they do not differ 
from them either in language or customs, unless, perhaps, in 
their way of wearing their hair and their clothes. 

But, nevertheless, you must know that there is another 
Mount Seir, or Edom, over against the wilderness of the 
Red Sea, whereof we read in Gen. xiv., how Chedorlao- 
mer and other kings with him overthrew the Horites in 
their Mount Seir.^ It was not then called Mount Seir, 
because Esau, who was called Seir, and after whom the 
mountain was named, was not yet born ; so we must believe 
it to have been so called by anticipation. So also in 
Deut. ii.: ' Ye are to pass through the coast of your 
brethren the children of Esau, which dwell in Seir, and 
they shall be afraid of you.'^ This was first said to the 
children of Israel when they came out of Egypt, when they 
were in Kadesh Barnea, and were about to come to Mount 
Seir, which is near Kadesh Barnea, where they then were. 
But it is certain that the children of Israel never came up 
to the boundary of this Mount Seir, which is beyond the 
Sea of Galilee, for this Mount Seir adjoins Damascus, 
whither they never reached. 

The other Mount Seir of which we read adjoins the 
wilderness of Paran,* round about which the children of 
Israel wandered for many days, because the Lord forbade 

1 Deut. iii. 8, 9. 
3 Deut. ii. 4. 

2 Gen. xiv. 6 ; Deut. ii, 12. 
* Gen. xiv. 6 : Deut. ii. i. 



them to enter therein. We also read of this Mount Seir in 
Deut. ii.: ' They dwelt in Mount Seir beforetime.'^ 

On this Mount Seir, which is near the Sea of Galilee and 
Mount Gilead, Esau was dwelling at the time when Jacob 
came back from Mesopotamia of Syria. We read in 
Gen. xxxvi. that Esau, who doubtless was dwelling with 
his father in Beersheba, took all that he had and went into 
another country — this, no doubt ; and he separated himself 
from his brother. Now, he met Jacob on his return from 
Mesopotamia at the ford of the brook Jabbok, which ad- 
joins that land to the southward. And in Gen. xxxii. 31, 
we read that 'as Jacob passed over Peniel the sun rose 
upon him'; and further on, 'Jacob lifted up his eyes 
and looked, and, behold, Esau came,' etc. This place 
Peniel is shown at this day by that same name, not far from 
Succoth, in the east country beyond Jordan, whither we 
read that Jacob straightway afterwards came. This same 
place is at the foot of Mount Seir which adjoins the Sea of 
Galilee ; for that Mount Seir wherein the Horites dwelt of 
old, in whose place the children of Esau now dwell, is many 
days' journey distant from this place, and Esau could not 
have come thence of a sudden to see his brother, because it 
is far away beyond the Dead Sea, about five days' journey 
off. These different tribes of the children of Esau, and 
the different places wherein they dwell, arise, I think, from 
Esau's having many wives, so that the children that he had 
by (Mahalath)2 Ishmael's daughter, the sister of Nebajoth, 
dwelt in Mount Seir, which is near the wilderness of Paran, 
in the same country wherein dwelt his father-in-law Ishmael, 
of whom we read in Gen. xxi. that he became an archer, 

^ Deut. ii. 12, but the text runs, '• in monte Seyr oliin habitabant 
(Jilii Israel pro eis)' The Horims also dwelt in Seir beforetime ; but 
the children of Esau succeeded them, when they had destroyed them 
from before them, and dwelt in their stead, etc. — A.V. 

^ Gen. xxviii. 9. 



and dwelt in the wilderness of Paran, where we are told 
that he and his descendants abode. Now Esau married 
other wives besides these his first wives, among whom was 
Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah, the daughter of Zibeon 
the Hivite. This Hivite was a son of Canaan, and doubt- 
less dwelt in the country of Scythopolis in Galilee, near 
the mountains of Gilboa, not far from the Sea of Galilee. 
Very near this place is another Mount Seir, where Esau 
dwelt at the time when Jacob was coming back from Meso- 
potamia. Thus he might easily meet his brother there, as 
the text seems to hint ; for we read in Gen. xxxii. that, 
when he departed from Laban, he went on his way and met 
the angels of God, and he said, ' This is God's host,'^ and he 
called the name of that place Mahanaim — that is to say, 
'camps' (the place is at this day at the foot of Mount 
Gilead, in the tribe of Gad) — and from thence sent mes- 
sengers to his brother, who returned back thither to him. So 
we read further that he set apart from his flocks a present 
for Esau, his brother, and sent it by the hands of his 
messengers. And we read : ' So went the present over 
before him, and himself lodged that night in the camp ' 
(that is, in Mahanaim); ' and he rose up that night, passed 
oyer the ford Jabbok ' (which is still shown there), * and 
there wrestled a man with him,' etc. And further, ' Jacob 
called the name of that place Peniel.' This place stands 
at this day on the banks of the brook Jabbok, also in the 
tribe of Gad. * And as he passed over Peniel the sun 
rose upon him,' and then " Jacob lifted up his eyes, and saw 
Esau coming,' etc. Behold, we know the places where Esau 
came to him, and they are all near this Mount Seir, which 
is beyond the Sea of Galilee. 

There is also a third Mount Seir, in the country of 
Ashdod and Ascalon, which fell to the lot of the tribe of 
^ Gen. xxxii. i, 2. The Vulgate reads cas^ra, the A.V. /losis. 


Judah, when the land was divided ; but why it was so called 
I do not remember to have read. But the inhabitants 
thereof were called Idumaeans, even as the other posterity 
of Esau were called Idumaeans from Edom. Wherefore 
Antipater and his son, Herod of Ascalon, were called 

So much for this subject. 

This mountain ends in the lot of the tribe of Gad in 
Mount Gilead, over against the place where the river 
Jordan flows out of the Sea of Galilee, not far from the 
mountains of Gilboa, near the city of Bethshan. Thence 
going down the east bank of Jordan is the country of two 
tribes and a half-tribe, reaching down to the pastureland 
of Moab at the foot of Mount Abarim in Shittim, over 
against Jericho. Going on further to the south along the bank of Jordan is the land of Moab, reaching even to 
Petra in the wilderness, which is now called Krach.^ After 
this comes a part of the land of Ammon, for all the length 
of the Dead Sea, and it encompasses its southern end even 
unto Mount Seir, which adjoins the wilderness of Paran 
near Kadesh Barnea, having on the side the wilderness of 
Sinai and the Red Sea. 


VI. In the second division of the eastern quarter starting 
from Acre to the south-east, four leagues from Acre one 
comes to Cana of Galilee, where the Lord turned water 
into wine. The place is shown at this day where the six 
water-pots stood, and the dining-room wherein the tables 

^ ' Urbem, cui nomen pristinum Petra Deserti, modernum vero 
Crach,' says William of Tyre, book xxii., ch. xxviii. Bongars, 
p. 1039. Compare Marino Sanuto, p. 3, note, also note on p. 7 of this 



Now, these places, like almost all the other places wherein 
the Lord wrought any work, are underground, and one 
goes down to them by many steps into a crypt. So it is 
in the place of the Annunciation, the Nativity, in this Cana 
of Galilee, and in many other places which are shown 
underground. The only reason that I can find for this 
is that owing to the frequent destruction of the churches 
built over these places, the ruins raised the soil above them, 
and then, after they had been levelled carelessly, other 
buildings were built upon them. Christians therefore who 
were zealous to visit these places, and wished to get to the 
very spot where the thing was done, had to clear out the 
places and make steps leading down to them. Wherefore 
almost all these places seem to be in crypts. To the north 
Cana of Galilee has a tall round mountain, on whose slope 
it stands. At its foot, on the south side, it has a very fair 
plain, which Josephus calls Carmelion ;^ it reaches as far 
as Sephora, and is exceeding fertile and pleasant. 

About two leagues to the south of Cana of Galilee, on 
the road from Sephora to Tiberias, is a village named 
Ruma, wherein the prophet Jonah is said to have been 
buried. This village stands beneath the mountain which 
comes from Nazareth, and bounds the aforesaid Valley of 
Carmelion on the south side. 

About a league and a half to the east of Ruma^ there is 
a large village, once, it seems, called Abel-mehola, whereof 
we read in Judith'^ that Holofernes, when going against 

^ Carmelion. In the LXX. 6poc to KapfirjXiov stands for Mount 
Carmel. Sephora is Sepphoris {SeffiirieJi). The Valley of Carmelion 
(Carmel) seems to be Wady el Melek, running towards Carmel from 

- Ruma, according to Marino Sanuto, was Gath-Hepher, the home 
of Jonah. The ruin Rfuneh, in the Buttauf plain, may here be in- 
tended, north of el Mesh-hed where Jonah's tomb is still shown. 

^ Judith vii. 3 ; i Kings iv. 12 ; i Kings xix. i6. 



Bethulia, came thither. And so he must have done, for by- 
reason of the difficulties of these places there could be no 
other road thither. This village is believed to have been 
the birthplace of the prophet Elisha, as we read in the first 
Book of Kings. It stands in the country which is called 
Dothan, about half a league to the west of that village. In 
it there are many marble columns and great ruins, all of 
which show that it was once a glorious city. It stands on 
a lofty and strong place. 

One long league from Abel-mehola is Mount Bethulia, 
where Judith slew Holofernes. This mount can be seen 
throughout almost all Galilee, and is exceeding fair and 
fortified. There are still many houses thereon, and many 
ruins. At the end of this mount a castle has been built 
to protect the mount. There are the traces of the camp of 
Holofernes to this day in the field near Dothan, and the 
valley wherein Judith washed herself, and which she 
compassed on her way back to Bethulia, I examined this 
as diligently as I could, for I abode in Dothan for one 

Two long leagues south-east of Bethulia, on the shore of 
the Sea of Galilee, is the glorious city Tiberias of Galilee, 
after which the Sea of Galilee is sometimes named. This 
was in ancient times called Gennesareth, and after it the 
sea was called the Sea of Gennesareth ; but in process of 
time it was restored by Herod, the Tetrarch of Galilee, and 
named Tiberias in honour of Tiberius Caesar. It is 
exceeding long, and stands lengthwise along the sea-shore. 
At its southern end there are medicinal baths and many 
ruins. Great palm-trees grow there, and there are vine- 
yards and oliveyards, and the soil is exceeding fertile. 

Here note that the country called Decapolis ends at this 
city of Tiberias. The Lord James of Vitry, Patriarch of 
Jerusalem and Legate of the See of Rome, says in the book 



which he wrote about the conquest of this land as follows : 
' The boundaries or ends of the country of Decapolis are 
the sea on the east, and Great Sidon on the west.' This is 
the width thereof. Its length extends from the city of 
Tiberias and all the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee 
even to Damascus. It is called Decapolis from the ten 
chief cities therein, which are Tiberias, Sephet,^ Kadesh- 
Naphtali, Hazor, Caesarea Philippi, Capernaum (which 
Josephus calls Julia), ^ lotapata, Bethsaida, Chorazin, and 
Bethshan, which was also called Scythopolis. But there 
are therein many other cities beside these. 

Here, however, note that nevertheless this land is called 
by divers names to this day. As aforesaid, it is called 
sometimes Ituraea, sometimes Trachonitis, sometimes the 
Plain of Lebanon, sometimes the Land of Roob,^ sometimes 
Cabul, sometimes Galilee of the nations, sometimes Upper 
Galilee ; and it is one and the same country, albeit called by 
divers names, and is not much more than a day's journey 
in length or in breadth, neither do I think that it is more 
than a very little longer than it is broad. But beyond the 
territory of Sidon and the mountains between us and the 
Saracens, who are called Bacharites and dwell about the 
Dog's Pass, lies Ituraea* proper, in the valley called Bakar,^ 
and because lengthways it reaches up to the foot of Mount 
Lebanon it is called the Forest of Lebanon. 

Coming back from Tiberias, six leagues to the west, two 
leagues to the south of Cana of Galilee, is Sephora, a very 
fair town with a castle above it. Here Joachim, the Blessed 

1 Safed, see Tob. i. 2 (in Vulgate). 

2 Josephus, B. I. iii. 9, § 7, says that the Jordan enters the Lake of 
Gennesareth at the city Julias. 

Bethrehob, Judges xviii. 28 ; Num. xiii. 21. 
* Ituraea is wrongly placed in the Bukd!ah valley (Coele Syria), 
east of Lebanon. 

Nasir-i-Khusrau, 13; Fetellus, 24; Ludolph, 135; Theoderich, 
71 ; J. de Vitry, ch. xlvii. 



Virgin's father, is said to have been born. It stands in the 
tribe of Asshur, near the Valley of Carmelion.^ 

Two leagues to the south of Sephora, but rather to the 
eastward, is Nazareth, that blessed city of Galilee wherein 
the branch of the stem of Jesse,- after her angelic salu- 
tation by the Holy Spirit, conceived in her womb the 
blessed Jesus Christ. It is seven leagues from Acre. In 
it the place still remains where the angel Gabriel brought 
the tidings of salvation to the Blessed Virgin, saying, ' Hail, 
thou that art full of grace, the Lord is with thee : blessed 
art thou among women.' I have said many Masses at that 
place, and even on the day itself — I mean the day of the 
holy Annunciation, when the Lord became flesh. May 
the name of the Lord Jesus Christ be blessed for ever and 
ever ! 

There are three altars in the chapel, which is hewn out 
of the living rock, even as is the place of the Nativity, the 
Passion, and the Resurrection, and of old a great part of 
Nazareth was hewn out of the rock, as may be seen at this 
day. To this day there stands there the synagogue, now 
made into a church, wherein as Jesus was teaching the 
Book of Isaiah the prophet was handed to Him, and He 
read, ' The Spirit of the Lord God is upon Me, because the 
Lord hath anointed Me,' etc. Moreover, at the end of the 
city, in St. Gabriel's Church, there is a well which is 
venerated by the inhabitants, from which it is said the boy 
Jesus often drew water when serving His mother. 

About four bow-shots to the south of the city is the 
place called the Lord's Leap,^ where they would have 
cast Jesus down, but He passed out of their hands, and 
suddenly, as is shown there, was seen on the side of a 

* See note, p. 39. 
'•^ Isa- xi. I. 

•"' The Mount of Precipitation was shown from the twelfth century 
as at present, at the cliff south of Nazareth. 



mountain a bow-shot away. There one may see on the 
rock T^^^^pQ print of His features and clothes. From that 
mount one can see Mount Tabor, and the little hill of 
Hermon, and Hermon/ the village of Endor, Nain, Jezreel, 
and almost all across the Plain of Esdraelon. 

leagues from Nazareth, to the east, is Mount Tabor, 
where h\Q Lord was transfigured, and there to this day are 
shown the ruins of the three tabernacles, or cloisters, which 
were built according to Peter's wish. Moreover, there are 
exceeding great ruins- of palaces, towers, and regular 
buildings, now lurking-places for lions and other wild beasts. 
There is royal hunting to be had here.^ The mount is 
hard to climb, and is exceeding high, and suitable for 
building a castle on. 

At its foot, on the south side, over against the village of 
Endor, beside the road that leads from Syria to Egypt, is 
the place where Melchisedek is said to have met Abraham 
as he came from the battle with the four kings near 
Damascus. At its foot, on the west side, over against 
Nazareth, a chapel is built in the place where the Lord 
when He came down from the mount said to His disciples, 
' Tell no man what ye have seen.'^ From its foot on the 
east runs the brook Kishon, where Barak fought against 
Sisera and overthrew him and put him to flight. 

This brook Kishon is formed by the rain-water from 
Mounts Tabor and Hermon, runs down toward the Sea of 
Galilee, and enters it near the Castle of Belvoir,^ which 
used to belong to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. 

1 Little Hermon is /ede/ Nebi Dhahy, south of Tabor. Endor 
{Anciur) and Nain {Nem) are on its north slope. 

- The fortress on Mount Tabor was ruined 1263. 

2 Poloner, p. 26 ; Marino Sanuto, p. 26 ; Abbot Daniel, Ixxv. 
* Matt. xvii. 9. 

Belvoir {Kaukab el Hawa) is east of Tabor ; but the Kishon flows 
west only from Tabor. 



A league to the east of Mount Tabor is the village of 
Endor, which stands on the little hill of Hermonium (szc). 
This Hermonium is not a mount of itself, but is, as it were, a 
swelling of the ground coming down from Mount Hermon 
toward Mount Tabor, and joining itself to it. Upon it 
stands the village of Endor, whereof we read in the psalm,^ 
* who perished at Endor.' In this village dwelt the woman 
who had a familiar spirit, who at the instance of Saul raised 
up Samuel, as we read in the first Book of Samuel. 
Samuel lies buried in Ramathaim Zophim, about two days' 
journey from that place. 

Two leagues from Nazareth, and more than one league 
south of Mount Tabor, is the little hill of Hermon, on whose 
north side is the city of Nain, before whose gate the Lord 
raised the widow's son from the dead. 

This mount reaches lengthwise about four leagues over 
against the Sea of Galilee, and ends not far from the place 
where the river Jordan flows out of the Sea of Galilee. 


VII. In the third division of the eastern quarter, which 
proceeds southward, the first place one comes to after 
leaving Acre is the first part of Mount Carmel, four leagues 
distant from Acre. Here is the place where Elijah the 
prophet slew the priests of Baal, at the brook Kishon, as 
we read in i Kings xviii. 40. A little way further the 
brook Kishon runs into the Mediterranean Sea, one league 
away from the city of Haifa, but about three from the city 
of Acre. 

With regard to this brook Kishon, note that, albeit as a 
matter of fact it seems to be one and is spoken of as one, 

^ Psa. Ixxxiii. 1 1. 



yet it must be taken in a double sense, because it runs two 
ways. One part of it runs eastward into the Sea of Galilee, 
and another runs westward into the Mediterranean Sea. 
This double course arises from Mounts Tabor and Hermon 
being at no great distance from one another, and each 
sending out a rising ground toward the other, so that each 
mount seems joined to the other at its foot. This rising 
ground is highest on the side of Mount Hermon, and is 
called Hermonium, whereof mention has already been 
made, whereon stands the village of Endor. Now, this 
rising ground hinders the rain-water which falls on either 
mount running down all in the same direction, but one 
part runs eastward and enters the Sea of Galilee not far 
from the city of Bethshan. It was at this brook Kishon 
that Barak fought with Sisera, as we read in Judg. v. 
The other part runs down to the west into the Mediterranean 
Sea. It was at this brook Kishon that Elijah slew the 
priests of Baal, as we read in i Kings xviii. 40. And this 
stream that runs westward is fed by many waters from 
Mount Ephraim and the neighbourhood of Samaria, and 
from all the Plain of Esdraelon and Mount Cain and 

Three leagues south of the place where the priests of 
Baal were slain is the castle on Mount Cain, called Caymon,^ 
at the very end of Mount Carmel, the place where Lamech 
slew Cain with an arrow, as is told in Gen. iv. 23. ' I have 
slain a man to my wounding.' 

Three leagues south of Mount Cain is Megiddo,- which at 

this day is called Suburbe. Here died Ahaziah, King of 

Judah, whom Jehu, King of Israel, wounded with an arrow 

near Jezreel, at the going up to Gur,-^ what time he slew 

^ Caymon, now Te/l Keiinun^ east of Carmel, is the ancient 

^ Megiddo is placed at Ezbuba, near Taanach. 
■' 2 Kings ix. 



Joram, King of Israel, with an arrow and cast him in the 
portion of the field of Naboth the Jezreelite. At this same 
Megiddo Josiah, King of Judah, was slain by Pharaoh, 
King of Egypt, when he was marching to the river 

Here note that the Field of Megiddo, and Esdraelon, and 
the Plain of Galilee are one and the same thing, but all 
those names have passed away, and it is now com.monly 
called the Plain of Faba, after the castle named Faba,^ which 
stands three bow-shots from the city of Aphek. But in 
very truth this is the Plain of Galilee, bounded on the east 
by the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan, on the south by 
Mount Ephraim and Samaria, on the west partly by Mount 
Ephraim, and partly by Mount Carmel, on the north by the 
mountains of Phoenicia and Lebanon. This plain seems 
to be about ten leagues long, and six or more wide ; in 
some parts it is exceeding fertile in corn, oil, and wine, and 
abounds in all the good things in the world, so that I do 
not think that I have ever seen better land, if only our 
demerits and sins did not prevent its being cultivated by 

More than two leagues east of Mount Cain is the village 
of Mesrha f it stands on the brook Kishon, one league from 
the foot of Mount Hermon. 

A league to the south of Mosrha is the castle called 
Faba. On its western side, three bow-shots away, on the 
right-hand side of the road to Jezreel, are shown the ruins 
of the city of Aphek, where the Syrians fought against Ahab, 
King of Israel, what time they said, 'Their gods are gods 
of the hills ... let us fight against them in the plain. 

A league to the east of Aphek, on the left-hand side of 

1 Castellum Fabae ('bean castle') was at FUleh ('the bean '). 

2 Mesrha is the ruin el Mezra^h, near Fuleh. 
2 I Kings XX. 23. 


the road to Jezreel, on the south side of Mount Hermon, 
one is shown the city of Shunem, whither Elisha often 
went when on his way from Carmel to Gilgal or the 
Jordan ; for this was the less hilly road for him when he 
would go to Jericho, where he abode with the sons of the 
prophets, from Carmel, that is to say, through Shunem to 
Bethshan, and thence along the Plain of Jordan to Gilgal. 
Wherefore we read in 2 Kings iv. 8 how, whenever he 
went to Jordan, he must needs pass by Shunem,^ and there- 
fore used to stay with the woman of Shunem. It was from 
this same city that this same woman came to him when 
her son died, to Carmel, which is four leagues distant from 
that place, and Elisha raised her son from the dead. Here 
the Philistines pitched their camp when Saul came to 
Gilboa. From this city of Shunem came Abishag, the 
Shunamite, who cherished old King David and lay in his 

Two leagues to the east of Shunem, but rather to the 
south of east, is the city of Bethshan, standing between 
Mount Gilboa and the Jordan, but half a league away from 
the Jordan. On its walls the Philistines hung the corpses 
of Saul and his sons after they had slain them on Mount 
Gilboa. Once it was called Scythopolis, as Josephus tells 
us, but now all men call it Bethshan. ^ It is an exceeding 
luxurious place. 

Above it, on the western side, is Mount Gilboa, which 
reaches as far as Jezreel, two leagues to the west. 

Two leagues to the west of Bethshan there springs a 
great fountain, two leagues above Bethshan. This is the 
* fountain which is in Jezreel spoken of in i Sam. xxix. i, 

^ Shunem is now Sulein^ east of Fuleh. 
^ Bethsan is Bethshan, now Beisdii. 

^ The Fountain of Jezreel is placed at 'Ain Jaliid^ below Jezreel to 
the east. 



where the Philistines pitched their camp when they were at 
Gilboa, between that fountain and Bethshan. 

A little way, about two bow-shots, from that fountain is 
the city of Jezreel.^ It stands on a somewhat high spot, 
and was once one of the royal cities of Israel, but at this 
day it scarce has thirty houses. It is now called Zaraein,^ 
and stands at the foot of Mount Gilboa, on the west side 
thereof Before its gate is still shown the field of Naboth 
the Jezreelite. It is two short leagues distant from the city 
of Shunem, which stands to the north of it, on the south side 
of Mount Hermon. 

These two mountains — I mean Mount Hermon and 
Mount Gilboa — are so placed that Mount Gilboa is to the 
south and Hermon to the north, with a space of two short 
leagues between them. They extend lengthways from 
east to west, and at the east both end at the Jordan. They 
are two leagues or more long. 

Upon the plain between them many great battles have 
been fought. Here Gideon fought against Midian, Saul 
fought against the Philistines, and Ahab fought against 
the Syrians. In modern times also the Tartars fought the 
Saracens there. 

[But note regarding this Mount Hermon that there is yet 
another mount of that name beyond Trachonitis, near 
Mount Sanyr, which is far greater and higher than this 
one ; and in many places it is that one, not this one, whereof 
the Scriptures make mention.] 

In the plain between these two mountains begins the 
valley" which is called * the illustrious valley,'^ because of its 

1 Jezreel {Zer^in) was called Gerinum and Gerayn in the twelfth 
century. Parvum Gerinum was Jem7i. 

This is Laurent's emendation of the valley Zaracin. Cf. Will. 
Tyr, p. 1037, Bongars. 

2 See Marino Sanuto, p. 30, note. J. de Vitry, p. 1074, Bongars. 

4 ' The illustrious valley ' is the Vulgate rendering for Moreh 



beauty and fertility. It reaches from that place all the way 
down Jordan to the Dead Sea. Before the Lord destroyed 
Sodom and Gomorrah it was this illustrious valley that * was 
well watered everywhere, even as the garden of the Lord, 
like the land of Egypt,' as we read in Gen. xiii. lo. 

From Jezreel there is a fine view over all Galilee, even to 
Carmel and the mountains of Phoenicia, of Mount Tabor 
and Mount Gilead and the parts beyond Jordan, and of all 
Mount Ephraim, even to Carmel. 

The road from Mount Gilead to Jezreel goes along the 
south side of Mount Gilboa on the level from Jordan, past 
Aenon and Salim,^ where John baptized. It was along 
this road also that Jehu came from Ramoth Gilead, when 
the watchman said, * I see a company,^- etc. It is not true, 
as some say, that neither dew nor rain falls upon the moun- 
tains of Gilboa, because when I was there on St. Martin's 
Day^ the rain fell upon me till I was wet to the skin ; 
moreover, the valley was filled with water by that rain.* 
But it is true that in some places they are stony and dry 
and barren, like the other mountains of Israel. 

Four leagues to the south of Jezreel is Engannim,^ a 
town which once was walled, but whose walls have fallen 
down. It stands at the foot of Mount Ephraim. At this 
town Galilee ends and Samaria begins. Engannim is 
about seven leagues to the west of Jordan. 

This country is bounded on the south by the land of 
Tappuah,^ which has exceeding lofty mountains.'' 

(Gen. xii. 6). It is here applied to the Valley of Jezreel, because the 
hill Moreh (Judg. vii. i) was by that valley. 

^ St. John iii. 23. ^ 2 Kings ix. 17. ^ November 11. 

* Cf. Anon., p. 34 ; Thietmar, ch. ii. 7. 

^ Engannim is /entn — Little Gerayn in the twelfth century. 

^ The land Tamnah, Tampne, or Tappuah, often noticed, was the 
region east of Mount Ephraim named from Taininu7i^ north-east of 
Shechem. Josh. xii. 17 ; xv. 34 ; xvi. 8 ; xvii. 7, 8. 



Four leagues south of Engannim is the city of Sebaste, 
which once was called Samaria, when it was the capital of 
the kingdom of the ten tribes, which was called Israel. 
Now its sins have caused it to have not so much as one 
house, but there are two churches built in honour of St. 
John the Baptist. Howbeit, the Saracens have made one 
of these into a mosque, namely, that which was the chief 
one and was once the Bishop's cathedral ; more especially 
have they so done with the sepulchre of the same St. John 
the Baptist, which was all of marble, like the Lord's 
sepulchre, where the prophet lay buried between Elisha 
and Obadiah. This church stands on the side of the moun- 
tain, as one goes down it. The Saracens pay great honour 
to St. John next to Christ and the Blessed Virgin, and 
think a great deal of him. They truly declare that Christ 
is the Word of God, but they say that He is not God. 
They say that the Blessed Virgin conceived of the Holy 
Ghost, bore Him as a virgin, and remained a virgin. They 
say that John was a great and exceeding holy prophet. 
They say that Mahomet was God's messenger, and was 
sent by Him to themselves alone. This I have read in the 
Alcoran, which is the book of their law. The other church 
stands on the brow of the hill, where the King's palace 
once stood. Therein dwell Greek monks. Christians, who 
received me kindly and gave me food. In that church 
these same Greeks show the place where they say that John 
was imprisoned and beheaded by Herod ; which I say is a 
vain thing, because the Chronicle,^ and Josephus, and the 
legends of the saints, and the writer of the Histories, and 
the ' Ecclesiastical History,' all agree in saying that he was 

^ The passage quoted by Burchardus occurs in the ' Historia 
Scolastica' of Petrus Comestor, Strasburg, 1503. On page D 2 we 
read : ' Chronica et xi. liber historie ecclesiastice tradunt loannem in 
Castello Arabic trans lordanem, dicto Macheranta, vinctum et 



beheaded at Macherunta, which is now called Haylori; 
beyond Jordan. Furthermore, the Herod who beheaded 
John was Tetrarch of Galilee and of the country beyond 
the river, which is the land of Gilead, or of the two tribes, 
and he had no authority in Samaria, which was in Pilate's 
jurisdiction, even as was Jerusalem or Judaea ; wherefore 
he could neither imprison John nor behead him, because he 
had no power there. But after he had been beheaded, in 
Macherunta as aforesaid, his body was buried in Samaria by 
his disciples between the aforesaid prophets, but his head was 
buried at Jerusalem. I have nowhere in the Holy Land seen 
such great ruins as at Samaria, and yet I have seen great 
ones. The city did not stand as the writer of the Histories 
seems to think in his commentary on the text, ' The gods 
do so unto me, and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall 
suffice for handfuls for all the people that follow me.^^ He 
seems to think that the city wall and top of the mountain 
were of equal height, and that buildings were built thereon ; 
but this was not so, for the city wall was at the foot of the 
mountain, well fenced with exceeding strong towers, and 
the mount was within it, rising gradually, set about with 
buildings even as a bunch is set about with grapes, and 
lofty, rising by degrees to a point. The palace- was on the 
mountain-top, and was exceeding fair. There may be seen 
there to this day very many of the marble columns which 
supported its palaces and colonnades. Round about the 
mount, below the palace and below the mansions of the 
nobles, on the site of the public place or market for buying 
and selling, one may find to this day, all round about the 
mount, marble columns standing within the walls. These 
columns used to support the vaults of the streets, for the 

^ I Kings XX. 10, 

^ This palace at Samaria {Sebustieh) was the ruin of Herod's Temple 
to Augustus. 



streets of this city were vaulted according to the custom of 
the Holy Land. In short, I have no more to say about 
this city, which has now come to such misery that in real 
truth it is a garden of herbs,^ such as Ahab, its King, wanted 
to make of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, because 
it was near his house. Indeed, at this day, by the just 
judgment of God, not only that vineyard, but also the 
King's palace itself, has been turned into a garden of herbs. 
The situation of this city was an exceeding beauteous one ; 
froQi it one had a view even to the sea at Joppa, to Anti- 
patris and Caesarea of Palestine, over all the mountains of 
Ephraim even to Ramathaim Zophim, and to Carmel by 
the sea near Acre. It abounds with fountains, gardens, 
vineyards, and all the good things that a man wants in this 

Four leagues to the east of Samaria stands the city of 
Tirzah,- on a high hill. Here the Kings of Israel reigned for 
some time before Samaria was built. It was in the lot of 

Six leagues east of Tirzah, on the road leading to the 
Jordan, is the land of Tappuah which, among other 
mountains, has one exceeding lofty one. This also was in 
the lot of Manasseh, and reaches as far as the plains of 
Jordan over against Macherunta.^ 

Two leagues south of Samaria, near the road which leads 
to Sichem, upon a lofty mountain on the right-hand side, is 
Mount Bethel, whereon Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, set up 
one of the golden calves wherewith he made Israel to sin. 
The Saracens corruptly call this place Bothil, not being 
able to say Bethel. 

Half a league thence beside the road on the left hand is 

' T Kings xxi. 2. 

2 Tirzah is placed perhaps at Teiasir, north-east of Shechem. 

3 Macherunta is Machaerus {^Mekhaur\ east of the Dead Sea. 



another mount, loftier than the first one. It is called Dan,i 
and is above the city of Sichem.^ Some say that the other 
golden calf was set up thereon ; but others say that it was 
in the city of Dan, which now is called Belinas, or Caesarea 
Philippi. And this seems to be rather what is meant by 
Jerome. A man must choose which he pleases ; this much, 
however, is certain, that this mount is called Dan. 

Between these two mounts lies the city of Sichem, now 
called Neapolis. It is exceeding pleasant, and full of good 
things, but is not fortified, neither can it by any means be 
fortified ; but all that the inhabitants can do if the enemy 
come to one gate is to flee out of the other, if they be fewer 
in number : for the city stands in a valley between very 
high mountains, so that anyone could cast stones into it by 

About two bow-shots from its southern gate is Jacob's 
Well, beside the road leading to Jerusalem. Here is the 
Lord's seat, where He sat by the well, and begged the 
woman of Samaria for drink. 

Above this well, on the right hand, is a high mountain 
with two crests,^ one of which is called Mount Gerizim, and 
the other, Mount Ebal. Joshua built an altar on Mount 
Gerizim, and wrote Deuteronomy (?), and they stood bless- 
ing and cursing, and answered from Mount Ebal, as they 
were commanded in Deut. xxvii. Upon Mount Gerizim 
there is shown at this day an exceeding ancient temple, the 
hospice of Jupiter Olympius, which Sanballat,^ the Governor 
of the country beyond the river, built in the likeness of the 
Temple at Jerusalem for his son-in-law Manasseh, who 
wished to be Chief Priest. This temple stood there down 

1 Dan is here placed near Gerizim. See Marino Sanuto, p. 17. 
^ Supra civitatem Sichem. Laurent says that he does not know 
v/hat mount is meant, or what is the meaning of supra in the text. 
^ Deut. xi. 29, 30. 
* 2 Mace. vi. 2. 



to the time of the destruction wrought by the Romans, and 
the traces and ruins thereof are to be seen at this day. It 
is this mount and this temple that the woman of Samaria 
is thought to have meant and pointed to when she said to 
the Lord, ' Our fathers worshipped in this mountain.'^ 

On the left-hand side of this well there is a great town, but 
in ruins, which I believe was Old Sichem, because there are 
exceeding great ruins of marble palaces and admirable 
columns, standing two bow-shots from Jacob's Well and 
resting-place, and on a very pleasant site, save that it is 
without water. Nowhere have I seen so fertile and rich a 
spot. It is two bow-shots distant from the city, which is 
called Neapolis.2 I think that this Neapolis was the town 
of Thebes.^ 

Near this well is the parcel of ground^ which Jacob gave 
to his son Joseph, apart from his brethren. It is a long and 
fertile and very beauteous valley, and I do not know any 
other valley equal thereto in richness. 

In Sichem Joseph's bones are buried ; they were brought 
thither from Egypt. 

Four leagues to the south of Sichem, near the road on 
the right hand as you go to Jerusalem, is the village of 
Libnah, a very fine place. There is another village named 
Libnah^ in the tribe of Judah, but this was in the tribe of 

Five leagues to the south of Libnah is the town of Mich- 
mash, a fairly large one, which was the boundary of the 
tribe of Ephraim towards the south. It is now called Bira.^ 
In former days it belonged to the Knights Templars. 

^ St. John iv. 20. 

2 Neapolis {Ndblus) is confused with Thebez {Tubas), to north-east. 

3 Thebez. Judg. ix. 50 ; 2 Sam. xi. 21. * St. John iv. 5. 
Libnah is Lebonah {Khan LubbeJt), west of Shiloh. Libnah of 

Judah (Josh. x. 29) is unknown. 

Michmash i^Mukhmds) is confused with Bireh. 



Near its south side is the boundary between the tribe of 
Ephraim and the tribe of Benjamin. 

One league south of Michmash is Gibeah^ of Saul,^ where 
the wife of the Levite, who came from Bethlehem, was 
abused, for which deed almost all the tribe of Benjamin 
was destroyed. It was the birthplace of Saul, the son of 
Kish, the first King of Israel. 

One league south of Gibeah is the village of Rama,^ 
standing on a hill, not far from the roadside, on the left 
hand as you go to Jerusalem. It was of this place that 
Jeremiah is believed to have said, ' In Rama was a voice 

Two leagues south of Rama is the glorious city of 
Jerusalem, whereof I say nothing at present, as I wish to 
go back to Sichem, and first mention the cities in the 
corner of Mount Ephraim, and take up my description 
where I broke it off. 

Note, however, that there are many villages named 
Rama in the Holy Land :^ one near Tekoa, on the road 
from thence to Hebron ; another in the tribe of Naphtali ; 
a third not far from the castle of Sephet. The fourth is 
Shiloh, which likewise is called Rama. Rama, being 
interpreted, means *' high,' and, indeed, all these villages 
stand upon exceeding high hills. 

Now, as one goes south {sic) from Sichem toward 
Jordan, the first place, four leagues off, is Emon^ (Chephar- 
haamonai),^ a very good town, standing in a fair place, 

1 Gibeah of Saul is now/ed'a, south of Mukhmas. 

2 I Sam. xi. 4. 

2 Rama is now er Rdjn^ near Jeb'a, on the west. 

^ Rama near Tekoa is Rdmet el Khalil, north of Hebron. Rama 
near Sephet is Rdmeh^ south-west of Safed, Rama of Naphtali is 
Rdmeh^ south-east of Tyre. Shiloh and Ramathaim Zophim were both 
shown in the twelfth century at Nebi Samwil, north of Jerusalem, and 
the latter also at Ranileh. 

^ Emon is ICe/r 'Ana, north of Bethel. ^ Josh, xviii. 24. 



abounding in all this world's goods. It was in the lot of 
(the tribe of) Ephraim. 

Four leagues to the east of Emon, at the going down of 
Mount Ephraim, on the plain, two leagues from Jordan, 
is the village of Phesech,^ at the place where the brook 
Cherith runs down from the mountain. Here Elijah abode, 
when the ravens brought him food in the morning and in 
the evening. 

One league from Phesech, to the left hand, toward the 
land of Tappuah,'^ is the castle of Docus,^ wherein Ptolemy, 
the son of Abobus, treacherously slew Simon Maccabeus. 
From this place one can plainly see the land of Gilead and 
the land of the two tribes and the half-tribe, the land of 
Heshbon and the hill country of Moab, Mounts Abarim, 
Pisgah and Nebo. 

Here one goes down into the plain of Jordan. This 
plain reaches to Jericho and beyond it, all the way down 
Jordan even to the Salt Sea. Mount Abarim, Pheger and 
Pisgah^ stand straight over against this place, beyond 
Jordan. You must know, also, that from the source of 
Jordan at the foot of Mount Lebanon even to the wilder- 
ness of Paran, for about one hundred miles and more, the 
Jordan has wide and fair plains on either bank. Further 
on these same plains, with exceeding high mountains on 
either side, extend as far as the Red Sea. 

Five leagues to the southward, but a little to the east- 
ward of Phesech, is the place Gilgal, where the children of 

' Phesech is for Phasaelus {^Ficsail), in the Jordan Valley, here sup- 
posed to be the Brook Cherith. 
2 I Mace. xvi. 15. 

' Docus is placed too far north. It was ^AinDuk, north of Jericho, 
ac the foot of the Quarantania Mountain. 

* Nebo is Jebel Neba, south-west of Heshbon. Phegor (Peor), 
Abarim (Mount), and Pisgah, are placed near, at the sites shown in 
the fourth century. 



Israel long lay in leaguer after crossing Jordan. There 
some of them were circumcised. 

Half a league from GilgaF on the way to Jericho, on the 
right-hand side of the road, is the mount called Quaren- 
tena,- where the Lord fasted forty days and forty nights, 
and it is exceeding high and hard to climb. But He was 
tempted on another mountain three leagues away from 
this one, up in the wilderness, on the south side of Bethel 
and Ai. 

About two bow-shots below Quarentena Elisha's foun- 
tain^ rises and flows forth, whose waters Elisha healed,^ 
because they were bitter and barren. This stream runs 
near Gilgal, on the south side, and turns great mills. 
After this it is divided into many channels, waters sugar- 
canes, orchards and gardens, as far as Jericho and beyond 
Jericho, and then runs into Jordan. 

Near Gilgal, half a league to the south, is the Valley of 
Achor,^ at the foot of a mountain, in which valley Achan^ 
was stoned for theft of the accursed thing. 

One league to the east of Gilgal stands Jericho. Once 
it was a noble city, now it has scarce eight houses. There 
are the traces of a poor village, and all the memorials of 
the holy places therein have been utterly destroyed. 

Two leagues from Jericho, beside Jordan, is a chapel 
built in honour of St. John the Baptist,^ on a spot where the 
Lord is believed to have been baptized. Yet some think 

1 Gilgal seems to be here placed west of Jericho. Quarantania 
{Jebel Koruntul) is north-west of Jericho. 
^ See Tobler's note on Theoderich, ch. xxix. 

^ Elisha's Fountain {Ras el 'Am) is the site of ancient Jericho 
Jericho is here placed at the modern er Riha^ to the East. The ruin s 
of the sugar mills still exist at the foot of Quarantania. 
I Kings ii. 21. 

^ The Valley of Achor is Wddy Kelt. 

^ Josh. vii. 

St. John on Jordan is now Kusr el Yehud. 



that it was done at Salim/ but the traditions of the Church 
deny this. 

What came to pass in Jericho is well known, and there- 
fore I forbear to write it down. 

Two leagues from Jericho, near the Dead Sea, is Beth- 
hoglah,- where the children of Israel mourned for the death 
of Jacob their father, after they brought his body out of 
Egypt. This place is one league distant from the Jordan. 
Greek monks dwell there. 

Three leagues from Jericho, one league from St John's 
Chapel by the Jordan, is the Dead Sea, which is also called 
the Lake of Asphalt, that is, of bitumen, or the Salt Sea. 
It divides Arabia from Judaea. On its eastern shore is the 
land of Moab and Ammon and Mount Seir, whereof I have 
told you before, and it reaches to Kadesh Barnea and the 
wilderness of Paran. 

About midway on its eastern shore is shown Monreal,^ 
which of old was called Petra in the wilderness, and now is 
called Krach, an exceeding strong fortress built by Bald- 
win, King of Jerusalem, to enlarge the borders of the 
Kingdom of Jerusalem; but now the Soldan holds it, and 
lays up therein all the treasures of Egypt and Arabia. 

Two days' journey south-east of Krach is Arcopolis,^ now 
called Petra, the capital city of the whole of the Second 
Arabia, described above. Of old it was called Ar, and 
stood on the brook Arnon, on the borders of the Moabites, 
the Ammonites and the Amorites. 

On this same shore is the place where Balaam was led 
into the mountains of Moab to curse the children of Israel. 

Five leagues to the south-west of Jericho is the town of 

^ St. John ill. 23. 

2 Bethhoglah is now /Cusr Hajlah. 

^ Montreal {Shobek) is wrongly placed here at Kerak. Ludolph, 
118; Fabri, ii. 182. 
^ Arcopolis (for Areopolis) is Kabbah^ south of Kerak. 



Segor/ at the foot of Mount Engaddi. Between this and 
the Dead Sea stands the Pillar of Salt, into which Genesis 
tells us that Lot's wife was turned. I strove hard to see 
this, but the Saracens told me- that the place was unsafe 
because of wild beasts and serpents and worms, and more 
especially because of the Bedouins who dwell in those 
parts, who are exceeding bold and evil men. These 
arguments kept me from going thither, but I have learned 
since that it was not so. 

The Dead Sea measures six leagues in width from east 
to west ; its length from north to south, the Saracens told 
me, was five days' journey. It is always smoking,^ and 
dark like Hell's chimney. Much has been written and said 
about this sea by divers people, which I pass over as known 
to many ; nevertheless, you must know that I fear not to 
tell what I have seen with my own eyes, and many others 
with me, which is, that the whole of the valley which used 
rightly to be called the Illustrious^ Valley, from the end of 
this sea which is in the wilderness of Paran even to half a 
day's journey or so beyond Jericho, is made barren by the 
smoke of this sea, so that it neither bears grass nor herb of 
any sort throughout its whole breadth, which is five or, in 
places, six leagues, save near the city of Jericho, where 
sugar-canes and gardens and orchards are watered by 
Elisha's Fountain. This is indeed a dreadful judgment of 
God, who for so many centuries so punishes the sins of the 
Sodomites, that even the land itself pays the penalty 
thereof after so many thousands of years. 

Above the sea, on the right hand and on the left, are 

^ Segor (Zoar) is placed at Zuwez'rak, on the south-west shore of the 
Dead Sea. The true site {Tel/ esh Shaghur) was north-east of the 
Dead Sea. 

- Ludolph, 117 ; Fabri, ii. 150-153. 

^ The alteration of sinicans in the text to fu?na72s is obvious. 

* So the Vulgate translates Moreh, Gen. xii. 6, etc. See note, p. 48. 



barren and waste mountains, or only inhabited by Bar- 
barians for many miles into the land, as far as that smoke 
can reach when driven by the wind. 

Some declare that Jordan does not mix its waters with 
that sea, but that they are swallowed up by the earth 
before they reach it ; but Saracens have told me that of a 
truth it both enters the sea and leaves the same, but 
shortly after leaving it is swallowed up in the earth. 

At times this sea overflows, owing to the melting of the 
snow on Lebanon and the other mountains, the flooding of 
Jordan and the brooks Jabbok, Hermon,^ and Zared,^ and 
to rain falling in Galilee, Mount Gilead, the land of Moab, 
Ammon, and Seir, from all of which the water runs down 
the Jordan into this sea. Moreover, bitumen is found in 
it, brought up from its bottom ; which bitumen, when the 
wind stirs the sea, clings together and is cast up on the 
shores in great quantities. It is strong and medicinal, 
cannot be melted save with menstruous blood, and is 
called Jews^ pitch. Hence it is called the Lake of Judaea, 
or the Lake of Asphalt — that is to say, of bitumen. We 
are told in Gen. xiv. that there were many slime-pits in 
the Vale of Siddim, which now is the Salt Sea ; and at 
this day there are many on its shore. There is always a 
pyramid built beside each pit, which thing I have seen 
with my own eyes. Let what I have said suffice about 
that sea. 

Three leagues from the aforesaid place Gilgal, and the 
same distance from Elisha's Fountain, to the northward, in 
the mountains, on the northern side of Mount Quarentena, 
is the city of Ai, which Joshua took by storm, and slew its 
king, as we are told in the Book of Joshua (ch. viii.). 

One league north, but a little west of Ai, is the city of 

^ Hermon is a mistake for Arnon. 
2 Numb. xxi. 12. 



Bethel/ which once was called Luz, in the tribe of Benjamin. 
It was here that Jacob, when going eastward, fleeing from 
before the face of his brother Esau, slept with a stone for 
his pillow, and saw the ladder set up on the earth, with its 
top reaching to heaven, and so forth, as we read in Genesis ; 
and here he set up the stone for a pillar, and called the 
name of the place Bethel. Those who say that this took 
place- at Jerusalem are mistaken, because Melchisedek was 
then reigning at Jerusalem, and it was a noble city ; neither 
would it have been necessary for Jacob to sleep there in 
the field, least of all on Mount Moriah, which then was, 
and now is, adjoining the city. Moreover, the proofs of 
this thing are shown at Bethel at this day : there is the 
stone set up for a pillar, and the tomb of Deborah, Rebecca's 
nurse," down below in the valley. Yet some say that 
Jerusalem was named Bethel, foolishly pinning their faith 
to the verses : 

' Solima, Luz, Bethel, Jerusalem, Jebus, Aelia, 
The holy city Jerusalem was called, and Salem too.' 

I should be glad to learn from these people in what 
places in the Old or New Testament they find any proof 
of Jerusalem's being called either Luz or Bethel, unless, 
perhaps, they mean to call the Temple Bethel — that is, 
God's House. Moreover, upon the text of Gen. xiii. 3, 
' Abram went on his journeys from the south, even unto 
Bethel,' Jerome, who had seen the place, has the following 
gloss : ' Bethel is a city twelve miles from Jerusalem, in 
the tribe of Benjamin, on the right hand as thou goest to 
Neapolis.' Neapolis is Sichem, near Luz, which is in the 
tribe of Ephraim, and the border between the tribe of 
Benjamin and Ephraim passes through the midst thereof. 

1 Bethel is now Beitin. ~ John of Wiirzburg, ch. iv. 

2 Gen. XXXV. 8. 


A league north of Bethel, towards Rama, is the palm- 
tree of Deborah, the wife of Lapidoth, who judged Israel, 
and sent Barak to fight against Sisera on Mount Tabor. 

Two leagues from Bethel, one league from Jerusalem, 
not far from Rama of Benjamin, is Anathoth,^ a little 
village of priests, which was the birthplace of the prophet 

To the east and south of Anathoth begins the wilderness 
which is between Jerusalem and Jericho, which now is 
called the wilderness of Quarentena, and reaches beyond 
Gilgal, even to the wilderness over against Tekoa and 

Near the Dead Sea, on its western shore, one league 
from. Zoar, is the going up of Mount Engaddi,^ where 
we read that David once lay hid when Saul sought for him 
to slay him. 

On this mount and round about it was a garden of 
balsam ; but in the days of Herod the Great, Cleopatra, 
Queen of Egypt, out of hatred for Herod and by favour of 
Mark Anthony, removed it to Babylon in Egypt.^ So 
there I saw it when I came into Egypt to the Soldan, 
who had me taken thither ; and I carried off much 
balsam-wood, and bathed in the well which waters the 
garden. The gardeners told me that from noon on Satur- 
day even to Monday oxen would not draw water from 
that well, even if they were cut in pieces. 

This garden is two bov/-shots long, and a stone's-throw 
or more wide. The garden of balsam in Egypt is tilled by 
Christian gardeners alone, and is watered from a well 
wherein the Blessed Virgin is said to have often dipped the 
boy Jesus. 

^ Anathoth appears to be correctly placed at \4ndla. 

Engaddi (Engedi) is at 'Ain Jidy, north of Zuweirah. 
2 Ludolph von Suchem, ch. xxx., p. 68. 



Yet even to this day there are some exceeding noble 
vine-stocks on Engaddi ; but Saracens do not tend them, 
and no Christians, who would tend them, live there. 

Beneath Engaddi, by the side of the Dead Sea, there are 
exceeding beauteous trees ; but their fruit, when plucked, 
is found to be all ashes and dust within. 

The mountains of Engaddi are exceeding high, and are 
strangely shaped with precipices and valleys, so that I 
have never seen the like, and they strike terror into the 

Four leagues to the west of Jericho, on the road to 
Jerusalem, to the left of Quarentena, is the Castle of 
Adummim,^ the place where the man who went down from^ 
Jerusalem to Jericho fell thieves. This has befallen 
many on the same spot in modern times, and the place 
has received its name from the frequent blood shed there. 
Of a truth it is horrible to behold, and exceeding dangerous, 
unless one travels with an escort. 

Two leagues west of Adummim is Bahurim^ in the tribe 
of Benjamin. This was the city of Shimei, the son of 
Gera, who abused David when he fled from before the 
face of Absalom, as we read in 2 Sam. xvi. 5. It is a fair 
castle, and stands upon a high hill. 

In the valley beneath, on the east side on the king's high- 
way leading from Adummim, is the stone of Beon^ of the 
children of Reuben, which is as big as a pot, and looks 
like marble. 

Two bow-shots to the west of Bahurim, on the slope of 

1 Adummim is correctly placed at Tal'at ed Duimn. 

^ Josh. XV. 7 ; xviii. 18. See Tobler's note on Theod., ch. xxviii., 
Ernoul, p. 60, and Fabri, ii. 65. 

Bahurim is placed east of Bethany. 

* This stone of Beon (Bohan), may be the Roman milestone called 
Dabbus el ^Abd ('slave's club ') on the Jericho road, but the true site 
was near Gilgal. 



a hill, stands Bethany, the village^ of Martha and Mary. 
Before its door, less than a stone's-throw away, near a 
cistern in the field, is shown the place where first Martha 
and then Mary, called by her, met the Lord when He 
came to Bethany. 

In Bethany they still show the house of Simon the 
leper, wherein the Lord sat with him at table, and likewise 
Martha's house, wherein He was often a guest. This is 
now made into a church dedicated to them. (They also 
show) Lazarus's tomb, from whence he was raised, which 
is not far from the church/^ At this place a very fair and 
beauteous marble chapel has been built, and a monument, 
which is itself covered with marble, down into which I 
went. The Saracens greatly honour this sepulchre because 
of the miracle of resurrection which the Lord wrought 

As you leave Bethany, you do not at first see Jerusalem, 
because of the Mount of Olives, which stands between ; 
but first you climb a rising ground, and then you see part 
of the beloved city and Mount Sion. O God, how many 
devout tears have been shed at this place by those who 
have there beheld the joy of the whole earth, the city of 
the great King ! O what delight will it be to see the 
place of Thy glory, blessed Jesus, when we see the place 
of Thy shame and confusion with such exultation ! But 
let us put aside all this and come as quickly as we can to 

NovV we go down the mount, and again the beloved city 
is hidden from our sight Moreover, on the east side of 
the Mount of Olives, near Bethphage, a very small village, 
which we pass a stone's-throw off, on the left hand in the 

1 Castellum. So kw^?/ is translated in the Vulgate. See Smith's 
' Dictionary of the Bible,' art. ' Bethany.' 

- The tomb of Lazarus is still shown In a crypt-chapel in Bethany 
el ^Azeriyeh^ as in the fourth century. 



valley, at the foot of the Mount of Offence/ the road goes 
up along the south side of the Mount of Olives and circles 
round it. We now come to the place where the Lord 
mounted the ass, and straightway there shines forth the 
city with the Temple, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
and the other holy places. We come now to the going 
down the Mount of Olives, where He saw the city and 
wept bitterly over it, while crowds went before and after 
Him, shouting ' Hosanna to the Son of David!' and re- 
joicing at His blessed coming. Let us go on, pass over 
the brook Cedron between the place of His prayer when 
in an agony and His capture in Gethsemane, and follow 
Him, if haply we may be suffered to come to Golgotha, 
where His feet stayed nailed to the cross, and running 
with blood ; let us die there with Christ, that together 
with Him we may rise again. 


Vni. Now, Jerusalem, the city of God most high, 
whereof very excellent things- have been spoken and are 
spoken daily, stands on mountainous ground. The moun- 
tains stand round about it, nevertheless it has good and 
fertile land in its neighbourhood, save only on the east 
toward Jordan. It is thirty-six leagues from Acre, which 
is to the north, sixteen from Sebaste or Samaria, thirteen 
from Sichem, thirty -seven from Nazareth. All these 
places are to the north of it. It is thirteen leagues from 
Joppa, which stands a little north of west from it. It is 
seven leagues from Jericho, which is to the east of it. It 
is two leagues from Bethlehem, eight from Tekoa, and 
eight from Hebron. These places are to the south of it. 

1 Mount of Offence was a mediaeval name for the south part of 

^ Ps. Ixxxvii. 2. 



It stands in a twofold fashion on the slope of a hill ; 
that is to say, on the south and west sides thereof. On 
the southward it stands alongside of Mount Sion, or, rather, 
part of it is on Mount Sion itself, and part on the slope 
thereof. Its length extends from Mount Sion towards 
the north. On its west side it has Mount Gihon, and from 
it its width reaches eastward even to the brook Cedron 
or the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which is the same thing. 

It is a pretty large city, as I shall tell you hereafter, 
and does not, as some vainly declare, stand in a different 
place to what it did at the time of the Lord's Passion. 
The argument on that side is that since the Lord suffered 
without the gate, and the place is now within the city 
walls, therefore the city must stand in a different place. 
But they know not what they say, and want to show what 
they have not seen. The city stands now where it hath 
ever stood, for since the Lord's Temple stands within the 
city walls, it would be foolish, nay, altogether impossible, 
to move it to another place because of the walls wherewith 
it is fenced on all sides, the like whereof it could in nowise 
have elsewhere. But as a matter of fact it has spread 
itself out, in width, though not in length, and the whole 
of the ancient city, together with Mount Sion, is now 
within the walls, and is inhabited ; but at this day there 
are very few inhabitants for so great a city, because the 
people thereof dwell in continual terror. I have to the 
best of my ability traced out its ancient position. 

In ancient times, as at this day, Mount Sion partly over- 
hung the city, being a roomy place, which of itself could 
contain a pretty large city. This mount begins at the 
Water Gate, or Gate of the Fountain of Siloam, on the east 
side, and forms a half-circle round by way of the south to 
the west side, where was the Tower of David. Throughout 
all this circle was steep rock and arches like those of the 



half-circle called Mello, to fill up which between Mount 
Sion and the lower city we read that the Kings of Judah 
worked very hard. The Tower of David stands on the 
west side, on a hill somewhat higher than the steep wall 
of rock, and the torrent-bed which comes from the south 
side of Mount Sion, and follows it to the west side, straight- 
way turned round from west to east as soon as it came to 
the tower, encompassing the same. Thus, the tower stood 
on a rock in a bend of the torrent-bed. The valley or 
torrent-bed which girded it round about was divided into 
two deep valleys, one of which pointed toward the north, 
and the other toward the east. These two valleys made 
another corner, over against the corner where the Tower 
of David stood, which was the corner of the lower city, 
as will be explained hereafter. 

Now, this valley which came down from the Tower of 
David passed along the north side of Mount Sion even 
to Mount Moriah, where was the Temple, parting Mount 
Moriah and all the lower city from Mount Sion. This 
torrent-bed went yet further, even to the brook Cedron, 
through the place where the Water Gate now stands, 
between Mount Sion and Solomon's palace, which is built 
on the southern side of Mount Moriah. Thus this torrent- 
bed in ancient times encircled Mount Sion on every side. 
This was the city of David. At this day the whole of 
this torrent-bed is filled up; nevertheless, its traces maybe 
made out after a fashion.^ 

The second torrent-bed or valley which split off from it 
at the Tower of David, as aforesaid, went northward, and 
formed the town-ditch on the west side for the whole length 
of the city, even to its northern end. All the way along it 
was overhung on the inner side bv' the rock called Acra by 

1 See the ' Survey of Western Palestine,' vol. vi. (Jerusalem), 
p. 230. 



Josephus, upon which rock the city wall was built. This 
wall enclosed the city on the west, even to the Gate of 
Ephraim, where it turned away again to the east, up to the 
Gate of the Corner, which stood at the corner of the city, 
which is the north-east corner. Here the wall turned again 
from north, round eastward to south, passing outside the 
Temple area, enclosing it and the King's house and the 
Fountain or Water Gate, near Mount Sion on the east. 
This was the circuit of the city. Now, the rock whereon, 
as aforesaid, the west wall of the city was built was very 
high, especially at the corner where the west part of the 
wall joined the north part. This place was much loftier 
than the rest, and here was built the tower called Nebu- 
losa,^ and an exceeding strong castle, whose ruins are there 
still. From it one has a view of Arabia and Jordan and 
the Dead Sea and many other places. Yet some would 
have it that the Tower Nebulosa was near the Temple — a 
thing whereof the form and slope of the ground does not 
admit. From this exceeding high rock on the west side, 
as aforesaid, the breadth of the city sloped down gradually 
to the east wall, which stood above the brook Cedron. 
This place then was, and now is, the lowest part of the city, 
wherefore the refuse of this city used to run down through 
the Dung Gate into the brook Cedron. 

Beyond this oft-mentioned torrent-bed or valley on the 
west side of the city, on the left hand as one comes out of 
the Old or Judgment Gate, the Lord was crucified ; and 
long after His Passion the torrent-bed was filled up, and 
another wall brought round from the Tower of David^ even 

1 Psephinus is here rendered Tsephon, 'dark' or 'cloudy,' and 
placed at KaVat Jalud, or the Castle of the Pisans, in the north-west 
corner of modern Jerusalem. The true site was probably further off 
to the north-west. 

2 This wall is supposed by Burchard to run from Da\id's Tower on 
the west, to the Gate of Judgment east of the Cathedral, passing just 



to the Gate of Ephraim, which is now called St. Stephen's 

Thou seest, therefore, that the city was overhung on the 
south by Mount Sion, and on the west by that rock, part of 
Mount Gihon,^ which rose exceeding high along the western 
side, and that the whole city lay as it were on a slope to 
the eastward and northward, at the feet of these two 

Mount Moriah, whereon the Lord's Temple and the 
King's palace were built, was somewhat higher than the 
city, as is clearly seen from the position of the Temple and 
its courts, as described by Josephus ; and each of them are 
described in (his) histories. But all these places are now 
utterly levelled, and are almost lower than any other part 
of the city ; for the mount was pulled down by the Romans 
and cast into the brook Cedron, together with all the ruins 
of the Temple and its courts, as may be clearly seen at this 
day. The Temple area is square, and is more than a bow- 
shot long and wide. The Temple which is now built 
thereon almost touches the city wall, which the true and 
ancient Temple did not, because there were four courts 
between it and the wall ; but now it is not more than about 
a hundred feet away from the wall and the brook Cedron. 

Not far, that is to say, less than a stone's-throw to the north 
of the Temple area, is the Valley Gate, (so called) because 
through it one goes down into the Valley of Jehoshaphat. It 
was also called the Sheep Gate, because through it came the 
sheep for sacrifice in the Temple. Adjoining it stood a 
tower, which some have thought to be the Tower Nebulosa 

south of Calvary ; then to have turned north to St. Stephen's Gate 
(see p. 81), now the Damascus Gate. 

1 Mount Gihon is the hill west of Jerusalem, the Upper Gihon 
being (wrongly) supposed to be Birket Mamilla^ and the Lower 
Gihon (not noticed in the Old Testament) to be Birket es Sultdii^ a 
pool made in the twelfth century A.D. (See ' City of Jerusalem.') 



or Tower of Hananeel ; but it really was the Tower of 
Phaselus. Its ruins may be seen to this day. 

Entering through the Valley or Sheep Gate, one straight- 
way finds on the left hand, near the Temple area, a sheep- 
pool, wherein the Nethinims used to wash their victims, 
and then give them to the priests to be offered in the 
Temple. This is shown, still having the five porticoes 
wherein St. John tells us the sick people lay awaiting the 
troubling of the water. 

On the right hand of the way as you enter by the afore- 
said gate, in St. Anne^s Church, there is shown another 
great pool,^ which is called ' the inner pool.'^ Hezekiah 
made this in the following manner : He stopped the 
upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought its waters under- 
ground to the west of the Tower of David, through the 
aforesaid valley, digging the hard rock with iron, as we 
read in Ecclesiasticus, and brought the water through the 
midst of the city into this pool, that in time of siege the 
people might have water to drink, and the Assyrians might 
not be able to hinder them.^ But as for the fountain of 
water on Gihon, which is near the Fuller's Field,^ this he 
brought into the upper pool, which is above the bathing- 
pool of Siloam. Ahaz began to make this pool, but did 
not finish it. It is of this pool and this spring that Isaiah 
spake when he said, ' Go forth ... at the end of the con- 
duit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field 'f 
for this pool is, and is called higher in respect to the bath- 
ing-pool of Siloam, because the bathing-pool of Siloam 
receives water both from this pool and from the Fountain 
of Siloam, because it lies lower than they. 

1 The ' Inner pool' is that west of St. Anne. The ' Sheep pool ' is 
Birket Israil. The Sheep Gate is now St. Stephen's Gate. 
- 2 Kings XX. 20 ; 2 Chron. xxxii. 30 ; Ecclus. xlviii. 17. 
■' Isa. vii. 3, xxxvi. 2 ; 2 Kings xviii. 17. 
Isa. vii. 3. 



Note now these divers pools and their names. The first 
and chief pool in Jerusalem was the sheep-pool, with five 
porticos. Solomon made this for the service of the Temple. 
The second was near it, on the north, in St. Anne's Church, 
and was called the inner pool. Hezekiah made it, and it 
has been described just before. The third is the bathing- 
pool of Siloam, which was at the foot of the Mount of 
Olives and of Mount Sion, near Aceldama, and got its water 
from the Fountain of Siloam. Hezekiah made this also. 
The fourth was the upper pool, aforesaid, which also Heze- 
kiah made. And if you find it anywhere stated that this 
fourth pool was within the city, it is not true ; nay, it is 
altogether impossible. I know that both in the gloss and 
in the text of the ' burden of the valley of vision one reads 
that the upper pool was in the city, and had its water from 
the Fountain of Siloam ; but this can nowise be, seeing 
that the city is more than four hundred cubits higher than 
the Fountain of Siloam, and water cannot flow up to so 
great a height. Yet it is true that it has its water from the 
Fountain of Siloam and from the lower fountain of Gihon, 
because it stands without the cit}^, beneath those fountains, 
not far from the bathing-pool of Siloam. Other pools I 
have not seen, neither have I read of there being, or having 
of old been, any other in Jerusalem, unless one would like 
to count the * brazen sea ' that stood before the Temple as 
a pool. However, in modern times some bathing-places 
have been built within the city, not far from the Patriarch's 
house and St. John's Hospital, which are not mentioned in 

The Valley of Jehoshaphat also enclosed the city, passing 
along its east side at the foot of the Mount of Olives. 

^ Isa. xxii. 

- For these pools see note on Piscina Interior in the ' City of Jeru- 
salem,' and notes to Marino Sanuto, p. 49. 



Though this valley is pretty deep, yet is it much filled 
up ; for the Romans, as Josephus tells us, when they were 
besieging the city on that side, cut down the olives and 
other trees, made mounds of them, and filled up the valley 
with the mounds. Moreover, after the city had been taken, 
Helius (sic) Adrianus caused all the ruins of the courts and 
of the temple to be cast into the brook Cedron, and Mount 
Moriah to be levelled, so that the place might not again 
be fortified, and he had the city sown with salt. All of 
this is obvious to anyone on the spot, for the glorious 
Virgin's sepulchre, which stands in the Valley of Jehosha- 
phat, and not at the bottom of it, but at the foot of the 
Mount of Olives, was nevertheless hardly higher than 
the bottom of the valley, or above the surface, at the 
time when Jerusalem was dwelt in before its destruction, 
and now it is far beneath the earth, so that the whole 
church, albeit high and vaulted, is now quite underground 
and entirely covered, and the valley above it is quite 
smooth, so that there is a road along which one can walk 
over the top of the church. Howbeit, on the surface of 
the earth there is a building in the form of a chapel, 
which you enter and go down many steps underground 
into the church itself, and you will come to the glorious 
Virgin's sepulchre. I believe that there are sixty steps. 
The sepulchre stands in the midst of the choir before the 
a^tar, and is of marble, and wondrously adorned. I have 
been in this church and have seen the sepulchre. But 
this church is exceedingly damp inside, because beneath 
it runs the brook Cedron, covered up with the aforesaid 
fillings-up, and whenever there is a flood of rain-water, 
this brook, which still runs in its old channel under the 
fillings-up, bursts forth and fills the church, so that often 
it runs up all the steps and out at the mouth of the chapel 
at the top of them. In the burying-ground of the church, 



not far from its door, the natives draw water from a well, 
which in Nehemiah (ii. 13) is called the Dragon Well/ 
which is before the Valley Gate or Sheep Gate.^ The 
Blessed Virgin's church is lighted within by east windows 
looking on the Mount of Olives, where, from the nature 
of the ground, the daylight can well come at them. 

To the eastward — not far — that is, about fifty feet, from 
the door of the chapel leading into the church, there is 
the door of another church, which is called Gethsemane, 
where was the garden into which the Lord entered with 
His disciples. It is on the side of the mount, and is 
built against a hollow rock that hangs down from the 
mount. Beneath this rock the disciples were sitting when 
the Lord said to them, ' Sit ye here, while I go and pray 
yonder.'^ The place where they sat is shown there at 
this day. There also is shown the place where He was 
taken by the multitude, and Judas betrayed Him with a 
kiss. The imprint of His skull may be seen in the over- 
hanging rock,^ and the marks of His head and of His hair. 
This imprint He is said to have made when He caught 
hold of the rock, when the multitude laid hold on Him. 
Note that not even dust, so to speak, can be broken off 
from this stone ; albeit, I worked much with iron tools, 
that I might carry away a piece thereof, and yet the afore- 
said prints can be seen as plainly as if the rock had been 

A stone's-throw south of Gethsemane is the place where 
He prayed apart from them, and His sweat was like 
drops of blood falling upon the ground. Here also is a 

^ Ludolph, p. 49. 

^ The Dragon Well is (wrongly) placed at the tank outside the 
present St. Stephen's Gate. 
3 Matt. xxvi. 36. 
* Fabri, i. 476. 



Stone of the same sort, having like prints of His knees and 

Between this place and Gethsemane, in front of the 
Blessed Virgin's church, passes the road which leads up 
to the Mount of Olives, Bethany, and Jordan. 

IMore than a stone's-throw to the south of the place 
where the Lord prayed, over against the Temple, and at 
the foot of the Mount of Olives, in the Valley of Jehosha- 
phat, stands that King's sepulchre, having an exceeding 
beauteous monument built above it. 

At the foot of Mount Sion, over against Solomon's 
palace, on the west side of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, is 
the Fountain of Siloam, from which the water flows through 
a conduit to the upper pool and the bathing-pool of Siloam, 
when the fountain there overflows with water : for it flows 
not continually, but at intervals. 

Both these pools are at the foot of Mount Sion, between 
it and Aceldama. Water also runs into these pools from 
the lower spring of Gihon,^ which rises beneath the Fuller's 
Field, near the place where Rabshakeh stood and railed 
against the Lord. 

Near these pools, but a stone's-throw further along the 
valley to the south, is the Field of Aceldama, where pilgrims 
are buried, which was bought with the thirty pieces of 
silver for which Judas sold the Lord. In this field there 
are many costly tombs. 

Below the pools and the Field of Aceldama, on the east 
side of them, runs the brook Cedron, with the additional 
waters which it brings down with it from parts above, to 
wit, from Rama and Anathoth, and the sepulchre of the 
Queen of Adiabene.^ Its noise can be heard far beneath 

' The Lower Gihon is here Birket es Sulidn. 

- The tomb of the Kings of Adiabene, here placed in the Kidron 
Valley, was really north of Jerusalem. 



the Church of the Blessed Virgin as it runs down to this 
place. Moreover, the overflow waters from these pools 
join it, and so they all run down together into the Valley 
of Gehennon, also called the place of Tophet. In this 
valley is the stone Zoheleth, and likewise the well Rogel/ 
where Adonijah made a feast when he tried to be King. 
There also was buried Isaiah, who was sawn asunder near 
the Fountain of Siloam : the place is more than a bow-shot 
away from it. All these places are exceeding pleasant 
with gardens and green shrubs, full of good fruits, and 
watered by the brook Cedron. 

Above this place is the Mount of Offence. In this valley 
there was a grove, and they used to pass their children 
through the fire and worship idols there. 

Let what has been said suffice for the description of the 
places round about the city. 

Note now that there are many holy places in the city 
which stir men to devotion, so many that one day does not 
suffice for visiting them all. However, among all these the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre holds the first place. 

This church is round, and measures in diameter between 
the columns seventy-three feet, without counting the apses, 
which measure thirty feet round from the wall of the 
church. 2 Above the Lord's sepulchre, which is in the 
middle of the church, there is a round opening, so that the 
whole of the crypt of the sepulchre stands in the open air. 

Adjoining this is the Church of Golgotha. It is oblong, 
and joins the choir of the Church of the Lord's Sepulchre, but 
is somewhat lower. But both of them are under one roof. 

The cave wherein is the Lord's sepulchre is eight feet 
long, and likewise eight feet wide. It is entirely cased 
with marble on the outside, but within it is bare rock, even 

1 En Rogel is here 'Am Eyub (Job's or Joab's Well). 

2 See Anon., p. 21, note. Compare Marino Sanuto, iii., xiv. 7, p. 



as it was at the time of His burial. The doorway into this 
cave enters from the east, and is very low and small. 

On the right hand as one enters is the tomb of the holy 
sepulchre, against the north wall. It is of gray-coloured 
marble, and is three palms above the surface of the pave- 
ment, and eight feet long, even as is the crypt or cave itself 
within, and is closed on every side. No light from without 
can be "had inside, because there is no window to bring 
light into it ; but nine lamps hang above the Lord's 
sepulchre, which give light within. There is also another 
cave outside of this cave, of the same length and width 
and arrangements both without and within. From without 
these two caves seem to be one, but when you enter you 
will see that they are divided in the middle one from the 
other. First one enters the one, and then the other, 
wherein is the sepulchre. It was the first one which the 
women entered when they said, ' Who will roll away the 
stone for us ?' etc. This stone was rolled up against the 
doorway into the inner cave, and at this day a great part 
of it lies before the door of the inner cave, against which it 
was rolled, in the midst thereof The other part of it has 
been translated to Mount Sion, to support the altar there. 
This piece also I saw at that place. 

Mount Calvary, whereon the Lord was crucified, is 
seventy feet distant from the place of the sepulchre. One 
goes up eighteen feet above the paved floor of the church, 
to the place where the cross was fixed in the rock. The 
rent in this same rock wherein the cross was fixed is as 
large as my head, and extends lengthways eighteen feet, 
from the place of the crucifixion down even to the pave- 
ment below. Even to this day the colour of the blood of 
our Lord Jesus Christ may be seen in the rent in the rock. 
This rent was beneath His left hand. Near this place 
where His left hand was a very beauteous marble altar has 



been built. I have said a Mass of the Passion and read 
the Passion according to St. John in a Mass celebrated at 
the very place of Christ's Passion. 

This chapel is entirely paved with marble, and its walls 
are covered with marble and adorned with mosaic work of 
the purest gold. 

Twenty-four feet to the east of Calvary there is an altar 
beneath which is part of the pillar whereat the Lord was 
scourged, which has been brought thither from the house 
of Pilate. It is covered in by the stone of the altar, yet in 
such sort that it can be touched, seen, and kissed by the 
faithful. It is a piece of dark porphyritic stone, with natural 
red spots, which the vulgar believe to be the stains of 
Christ's blood. 

Another part of this pillar is said to have been translated 
to Constantinople. 

Ten feet east of the altar of this column, one goes down 
forty-eight steps to the place where Helena found the 

Here there is a chapel and two altars far beneath the 

The place wherein the cross was dug up seems to me to 
have been one of the ditches of the city, into which the 
crosses were cast after the bodies had been taken down 
from them, and all the refuse of the city heaped upon 
them, until Helena cleansed the place and found the cross ; 
for the place of the Passion was near the city, and there 
was a garden in the place. 

Now, the place where the Blessed Virgin stood near the 
cross with the other women was not beneath the arm of 
the cross on the north side, but before her Son's face on 
the west side, or nearly. The place where she stood before 
her Son's face as He hung upon the cross is shown at the 
foot of the mount and rock wherein the cross was fixed. 



and is venerated by the faithful. I have often seen this 
place. Moreover, Christ, when hanging upon the cross, 
turned His face to the west, not to the east, as some would 
have it. This is clear, because the great torrent-bed afore- 
said, which served as a ditch to the city on the western 
side, was at the back of the cross, and the cross was cast 
into it, and afterwards found therein as aforesaid. 

There are many well-decorated altars in this church. 

Before the west door of this church, outside, is the place 
where Mary^ of Egypt prayed before the Blessed Virgin's 
image after she had tried to enter the church and had been 
miraculously driven away from it, and was consoled by the 
Blessed Virgin's answer to her prayer. 

Going on from thence toward the Tower of David and 
Mount Sion, is the place where St. James was beheaded 
by Herod Agrippa. As you go thence toward Mount Sion, 
you will find the house of Caiaphas, where the Jews mocked 
Christ, and the place wherein they shut Him up until the 
morrow, which place is called the Lord's Prison. A 
stone's-throw south of this is the place to which the Blessed 
Virgin Mary removed and dwelt for as long as she lived 
after the Lord's ascension. Near this place is the great 
supper-room, wherein the Lord supped with His disciples, 
washed their feet, gave them His Body and Blood, and 
appeared to them many times after His resurrection, 
where Matthias was chosen an Apostle by lot, where the 
Holy Ghost was sent down, and many glorious works were 

Note that the city of Jerusalem stands on exceeding 
lofty ground. From it you can see all Arabia, Mounts 
Abarim, Nebo, and Pisgah, the plain of Jordan, and Jericho 

1 Anon., pp. 12, 19, 23 ; Fabri, ii. 25 ; Guide Book, pp. 9, 15 ; ' Con- 
dition of Jerusalem,' p. 35 ; Marino Sanuto, p. 41, all in this series ; 
also Willis's ' Holy Sepulchre,' p. 102. 



and the Dead Sea, even to Petra in the wilderness. I have 
never seen any city or place which had a finer view. One 
goes to it uphill from every quarter, because it stands on 
the highest ground in that land, save only Shiloh, two 
leagues distant therefrom. 

With regard to the size of the Holy City, you must know 
that, according to Josephus, the city, without Mount Sion, 
measured thirty-three stadia round about. Together with 
Mount Sion, the outer wall — that is to say, the third wall — 
according to the same Josephus, had ninety towers, each 
tower being at a distance of two hundred cubits — that is, 
four hundred feet — which makes sixty paces between tower 
and tower. If we multiply these sixty paces by the ninety 
towers, the result will be five thousand four hundred paces, 
which form the circuit of the city. Now, seeing that a 
hundred and twenty-five paces make a stadium, if you 
divide five thousand four hundred by one hundred and 
twenty-five, the quotient is forty stadia, which make five 
miles. This was the circuit of the city at the time of its 
destruction by the Romans, as Josephus tells us. But 
since then the Christians have enlarged the city, and have 
enclosed the place of the Lord's sepulchre within the walls. ^ 
The venerable Lord and Father James of Vitry, Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, in his book- on the conquest of the Holy 
Land, says, among other matters : ' This often-mentioned 
and often-to-be-mentioned city stands altogether on a lofty 
mountain ; it is enclosed on all sides by a strong wall, and 
is neither straitened by excess of smallness nor is it ukely 
to offend by over-greatness. It measures four bow-shots 
across from wall to wall, and has also on the west side a 

1 Doubts seem to have been already raised as to the site of the 
Holy Sepulchre. Mediaeval Jerusalem was not larger, but smaller, 
than the Jerusalem of the time of Christ. 

1 * Historia Abbreviata,' Ix. 



fortress of squared stones cemented together unbreakably 
with mortar and lead, which on one side serves as a wall 
to the city, and is called the Tower of David. This is 
what some call Antony's Tower,^ and has on its south side 
Mount Sion, whereon David built him a house, and where 
also he is buried, together with the other kings. He called 
it the City of David. But Mount Calvary, whereon the 
Lord was crucified, stood without the city wall, on the west 
side ; howbeit Aelius Adrianus rebuilt the city, which Titus 
and Vespasian had destroyed, and so greatly enlarged it 
that he included the place of the crucifixion and the 
sepulchre within the circuit of the walls, the whole site, 
nevertheless, remaining as before.' Thus far I have quoted^ 
the Lord James's words. 

Let us now describe its gates, and the mountains that are 
round about it, and its notable places. 

The first gate was David's Gate, which was on the west 
side of Mount Sion, where is the corner of the lower city, 
over against the Tower of David, at the place where the 
two torrent-beds branched off away from one another, one 
toward the north, the other toward the east. Here there 
was a vaulted building before the gate, but on the further 
side of the valley, through which the road out of the city 
led. On the right hand of this vaulted building Judas 
hanged himself on a sycamore-tree. This was called the 
Fish Gate, because through it passed the road from Joppa 
and Diospolis and the sea-shore, along which road they 
used to bring fish. It was called the Gate of the Merchants, 
because through it passed the road to Bethlehem, Hebron, 
Gaza, Egypt, and Ethiopia. It was also called David's 
Gate, because the Tower and the City of David over- 
hung it. 

1 ' Ipse eadem est que a quibusdam eciam Antonii dicitur.' 
- Very loosely. 



The second gate counting from this was in the same side 
<jf the wall — that is, looking westward — but was at a distance 
to the north of the first, and was called the Old Gate, 
because it had been there from the time of the Jebusites. 
It was also called the Gate of Judgment, because judgment 
was given before it, and sentences, after judgment had 
been given, were carried out without that gate. Without 
this gate the Lord was crucified, for the Pavement, or Place 
of Judgment, is within the city wall near that gate. Traces 
of this gate are still to be seen in the old wall of the city, 
and in the new wall which encloses the Lord's sepulchre, 
there is a gate which answers thereunto, and is called by 
the same name. It leads to Shiloh, Beth-horon, and 

The third gate is to the north of this, and is called the 
Gate of Ephraim, because the road to Mount Ephraim led 
through it. At this gate the new wall which was built to 
enclose the Lord's sepulchre, met the old wall. This is 
.now called St. Stephen^s Gate,^ for he was stoned without 
that gate. It leads to Sichem, Samaria, and Galilee. 

The fourth gate is to east of this one, at the corner of the 
city above the brook Cedron, and is called the Gate of the 
Corner. It is also called the Gate of Benjamin, because 
through it led the road to Anathoth, and Bethel, and the 
wilderness, and the other cities of (the tribe of) Benjamin. 

The fifth gate was to the south of this one, and was 
called the Dunghill or Dung Gate. It stood above the 
brook Cedron. Through it likewise a road led into the 
desert. But this gate was not much frequented, because 
the places to which it led were uncivilized. 

The sixth gate in like manner was to the south of this 
one, and was called the Sheep Gate, because the sheep for 
sacrifice in the Temple were driven in through it, because 

1 P. 68, note 2. ^ Now the Damascus Gate. 



the sheep-pool was near it. It was also called the Valley 
Gate, because the road throu^^h it led into the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat. The Blessed Virgin's sepulchre is a stone's- 
throw distant from it. It was overhung by the tower called 
Phaselus, built by King Herod. It was also called the 
Gate of the Dragon Well, because without it was the well 
called the Dragon Well. Along this road one goes to the 
Mount of Olives, to Bethany, and to the Jordan. 

The seventh gate is also to the south of this, and is called 
the Golden Gate. It also stood above the brook Cedron, 
but it was in the courtyard of the Temple. But mark that 
this was not a gate of the city, but of the Temple.^ Through 
it, however, led a road by a short cut from the Mount of 
Olives on the further side of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, 
through an arch. Within it was the gate of the Temple 
which was called Beautiful. From this gate a road led to 
Bethany, Jericho, and Jordan. 

The eighth gate was also to the south of the above, and 
stood in the valley above the brook Cedron, between Mount 
Sion and the Mount of the Temple. It was called the 
Gate of the Fountain of Siloani, or the Water Gate, because 
it led to the fountain and bathing-pool of Siloam, and the 
Valley of Gehennon, and Aceldama, and the King's garden. 
I should incline to believe that this was the Dung Gate, 
from its position, rather than the other one aforesaid.^ Mor 
do I believe that there were any more gates in Jerusalem, 
because, from the situation of the city, they were not needed 
all round about Mount Sion ; and if a gate were needed, 
yet there could not possibly have been one there, for the 
form of the ground, which is steep on every side, for- 
bade it. 

^ The identification of the ancient gates has no value, because the 
course of the old walls was not understood, and none of the gates are 
correctly placed. 

- Neither position is correct. 



The mountains round about Jerusalem were as follows : 

To the east of the city was the Mount of Olives, which 
stood above it, being greater and higher than the other 
mountains round about it. On its top a church has been 
built, on the place where the Lord ascended into heaven. 
This place is in the midst of the church, and above it there 
is an opening, that the space in the air through which He 
ascended may remain open also. It is true that the stone 
whereon He stood when He ascended, and which contains 
the prints of His feet, was placed there for a memorial. 
This stone is so placed as to block up the east door ; but 
without mortar, so that one can easily put in one's hand 
and touch the footprints, but cannot see them. On the 
south side a chapel adjoins^ this church, wherein in a cave^ 
is buried Pelagia,^ once a noted courtesan, upon whom the 
Lord subsequently bestowed the grace of repentance, and 
made her an example to sinners. It is said that none living 
in mortal sin can pass between her tomb and the wall 
beside it ; but I know not the truth of this ; I have seen 
many pass through there. 

On this same mount, less than a stone's-throw to the 
south, there is another church, which is called the House of 
Bread, where the Lord taught His disciples to pray, and 
wrote the Lord's Prayer on a stone there. 

The Mount of Offence adjoins the Mount of Olives on 
the south, and is fairly high; but the two are separated by 
a valley between them. It is called the Mount of Offence 
because Solomon set up a temple of Moloch thereon, over 
against the Temple, and provoked the Lord to anger. 

At its foot, on the south side, is the Place of Tophet, or 

1 Adheret. 

2 St. Pelagia's vaulc is still shown near the summit of Olivet. 

^ Cf". Antoninus, xvi. ; Theoderich, ed. T. Tobler, St. Gall and Paris, 
1865, p. 245 ; and in this series Anon., ii. 7 ; v. i ; vii., med. ; ' City of 
Jerusalem,' p. 40 ; Fabri, i. 499. 


To the south-east of the city stands the Field of 
Aceldama, with a very high mount above it called by the 
same name, which reaches almost all the way over against 
the south side of the city. 

The Fuller's Field adjoins this on the west side, and above 
it there is a mount as high as the aforesaid one. 

On the west side of the city Mount Gihon adjoins the 
Fuller's Field, but the road leading from David's Gate 
passes between them. This Mount Gihon overlooks the 
city on the west side, but gradually falls away, so that 
over against the Old Gate it is not very high. 

Howbeit, the ground to the west and north is hilly as far 
as Helena's^ sepulchre, which stands over against the Gate 
of Benjamin, which looks upon the brook Cedron. 

Beyond the brook Cedron, on the north side of the 
Mount of Olives, there is another mount, which also is 
very high, like the Mount of Olives. It is four stadia from 
Jerusalem, and is where Solomon built a temple to 
Chemosh, the idol of the Moabites. On it afterwards, in 
the time of the Maccabees and Romans, a castle was built, 
whereby the people of Jerusalem were greatly annoyed ; 
traces of it are there at this day.^ 

These mountains are all near the city walls, yet not so 
near that the city could be assailed from them by any 
military engines. 

Let this that has been said suffice about the position of 
the city, its gates, and the mountains round about it. Let 
us now return to the description of the remainder of the 

IX. Two leagues to the north-west of Jerusalem is 
Mount Shiloh, now called St. Samuel's, the highest of all 
the mountains in the Holy Land, for it overtops them alL 

' The Queen of Adiabene. 

- The tower Akra was built in Jerusalem, not on Olivet. 



It is more than a league from Gibeah of Saul. Here for a 
long time stood the Ark of the Lord and the Tabernacle 
of the Covenant, which Moses made in the wilderness.^ 

A short league from thence is Gibeah, a city of Benjamin, 
standing on the same mount, wherefore the chief of the 
high places is said to have been there. The people of this 
city sent envoys to Joshua at Gilgal, and made peace with 
him by craft, pretending that they dwelt in a far country.^ 

Four leagues west of Jerusalem is Emmaus, where the 
Lord walked with the two disciples as a stranger, and was 
known to them in the breaking of bread. It is now called 

Three leagues west of Jerusalem, at the foot of Mount 
Shiloh, is Beth-horon* the lower, which is mentioned in the 
Book of Joshua,^ and in the first Book of Maccabees.^ 

Four leagues and a half west of Jerusalem, on the road 
to Diospolis or Lydda, is Kirjath-jearim, which was one of 
the cities of the Gibeonites, where the ark abode for twenty 
years after it was taken into the country of the Philistines. 
About west of Kirjath-jearim is Lachis, which also was one 
of the cities of the Gibeonites, and was besieged by 
Sennacherib in the days of Ezekiel.'^ 

Two leagues south, or thereabout, from Kirjath-jearim, is 
the town of Beth-shemesh,^ which, to distinguish it from the 
other which is in Naphtali, is called Beth-shemesh of Judah, 
though as a matter of fact it was in the tribe of Dan. 

1 St. Samuel (or Shiloh) is now JVeh' Samwil. The true site ot 
Shiloh {Seilun) was lost. 

^ Gibeah is for Gibeon,. now el Jib. 

^ Emmaus Nicopolis i^Amwds) is not the Emmaus of the New 

^ Beth-horon the Lower is Beti ' Ur et Tahta. 

^ Josh. xvi. 5, xvii. 13. ^ i Mace. vii. 39 el seg., ix. 50 

These positions for Kirjath-jearim and Lachish (now 'Erma and 
7>// el Hesy^ are incorrect, and it is doubtful where they are supposed 
to have lain. *^ i Sam. vi. 12, 13. 



It was to the field belonging to this town that the two 
milch kine from Ekron drew the Ark of the Lord when 
they of Beth-shemesh^ were reaping their wheat harvest in 
the valley, and seventy thousand of the people died because 
they had seen the Ark of the Lord unveiled. 

Ten leagues from Jerusalem is Ramathaim Zophim,^ 
which was partly in the tribe of Benjamin and partly in the 
tribe of Ephraim ; it stands on Mount Ephraim, as that 
plain is called, albeit it is not a mountain, but a plain. It 
was called Arimathea, whence came Joseph, the honourable 
counsellor,'^ who buried the Lord. The prophet Samuel 
was born here and was buried here. At this day it is 
called Ramula. 

Three leagues west of Ramula is the city of Joppa, where 
Jonah went on board ship to flee unto Tarshish, that is, to 
the isles of the sea, from the presence of the Lord. 

Below it is lamnia/ another port of Judaea, two leagues 
to the south. Judas Maccabeus took this port and 
burned it. 

Two leagues south of Jerusalem is Bethlehem, the city 
ennobled by the birth of the true David. It stands on the 
left-hand side of the road that leads to Hebron, but a bow- 
shot away from the road. Before this, however, one comes 
to Rachel's sepulchre, on the right hand, by the roadside. 
Over against Bethlehem is the tower of Edar, or of the 
flocks, where Jacob is said to have sojourned and fed his 
flocks for some time after Rachel's death.^ At this place 
also the shepherds, keeping watch over their flock by night 
at the hour of Christ's nativity,*^ saw and heard the angels 

^ Beth-shemesh is placed correctly at 'Am Sheins. 
Ramathaim Zophim was placed at Ra?nleh in the twelfth century. 
Mark xv. 43. 

* lamnia is Jamnia, now Yebnah, south of Joppa. 
^ Cien. XXXV. 21. 

^ The Shepherd's Field is placed (as now) east of Bethlehem. 



singing ' Glory to God in the highest/ and announcing the 
Saviour's birth. 

Bethlehem stands upon a mount, which is tolerably high, 
but narrow, stretching from east to west. It has a gate on 
the west side, and there near the gate is the well from 
which David longed to drink when he was besieged there.^ 

At the east end of this city, beneath a rock which stood 
near the city wall, and, after the custom of that land, seems 
to have been a place used as a stable, having a manger 
hewn out of stone, as is the custom in those parts, Christ 
Jesus, the Sun of Righteousness, arose upon the world, born 
of a virgin mother. By His choice of so foul a place to be 
born in and arise from He showed that by His birth He 
would take away all the foulness and darkness of the 

Near the aforesaid rock there is another larger one four 
feet away from it, beneath which was the manger wherein 
that sweet Babe when newly born was laid before the ox 
and the ass, wrapped in swaddling clothes. But it seems 
certain to me that there was at first only one rock, but a 
doorway has been made through the midst of the rock, 
through which one goes up into the choir out of this 
chapel. One goes from the church into the place of the 
most sweet Nativity down the steps, for reasons explained 
above. This chapel is all lined w^ith mosaic work, paved 
with marble, and most sumptuously built. Over the place 
where the Blessed Virgin was delivered, Mass can be said 
on a marble slab which is laid there. One also sees a piece 
of the bare stone whereon Christ was born. In like manner 
a part of the manger wherein Christ lay is left uncovered. 
These places are kissed with the greatest devotion by the 
faithful. I passed one night in these two places, kissing 

^ The Well of Bethlehem is now shown at a cistern north of the 



now the one and now the other. I have never seen or 
heard anyone say that he had seen a holier church anywhere 
in the whole world. Therein are four rows of pillars, 
admirable not only for their number, but for their wondrous 
size. Moreover, all the nave of the church above the 
pillars, even to the roof, is of most beauteous and noble 
mosaic work [wherein is set forth all history from the 
creation of the world to the coming of the Lord to 
judgment]. Likewise the whole church is paved with 
marble of divers colours, adorned with paintings of all 
history from the creation of the world to the coming of the 
Lord to judgment, whose price it is thought by man could 
not be estimated. One might write things passing belief 
about the fabric of this church. The Saracens honour all 
churches dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, but this one 
above all. In this church I have seen a notable miracle.^ 
The Soldan, when he saw the exceeding precious ornaments 
and slabs and pillars of this church, ordered them all to be 
pulled down and taken to Babylon,^ wishing to build a 
palace for himself with them. O miracle ! when the work- 
men came with their tools, and the Soldan himself with 
many others was standing by, out of the sound solid wall, 
which it seemed that not even a needle could pierce, there 
came a serpent of wondrous size, and gave a bite to the 
first slab to which he came. The slab split across. He 
did the like to a second, a third, and a fourth, even to the 
thirtieth, and the same thing befell them all. All were 
astonished. The Soldan himself straightway gave up his 
intention, and the serpent vanished away. So the church 
remained, and remains to this day, as before, yet some 
traces of the serpent's body may be seen even to this day 
on gach slab which he passed by, as though they had been 

' Marino Sanuto, iii. xiv. ii, p. 53; Fabri, part i., p. 1598; and 
Ludolph, p. 94, note. ^ Cairo. 



burned with fire. Above all, it seems a miracle that the 
serpent should have been able to pass lengthways along 
the wall, which is as smooth and polished as glass. 

At the north door of this church there is the cloister of 
a convent of monks, wherein is St. Jerome's cell, his bed, his 
sepulchre, and the store-rooms of the convent of which we 
read that St. Jerome was the head. On the south side of 
the choir is shown a place where a great part of the 
Innocents are said to have been slain and buried. 

About a stone's-throw to the east of this church is the 
Church of SS. Paula and Eustochium, and there also are 
their sepulchres. 

Half a league west of Bethlehem is a village called Bezek, 
which abounds with excellent wine, so that there is no better 
to be found in the land. The people of this village are all 
Christians. They tend these vines and those of the neigh- 
bouring villages down the Valley of Rephaim, even to the 
brook Eshcol ;^ they have received from the Soldan the 
privilege of dwelling there and tending them, and from 
them they return a great revenue to the Soldan. 

Six leagues east of Bethlehem, on the shore of the Dead 
Sea, is Mount Engaddi, described above. 

Three leagues south of Engaddi is the hill Achila,^ 
which afterwards, when Herod had built an impregnable 
castle thereon, was called Masada.^ Here David is said to 
have lain hid more than once when he fled from Saul. 

Two leagues from Bethlehem in the direction of Achila 
is the city of Tekoa, standing on a mountain. It was the 
city of the prophet Amos, who was also buried there ; 
whom Ahaziah, King of Jerusalem, struck by night through 
his temples and slew him. 

^ Numb. xiii. 24. 

Achillas. See Marino Sanuto, p. 15, in this series. 
3 The Hill Hachilah is here (wrongly) placed at Masada {SebbeJi). 


Adjoining this city is the wilderness of Tekoa. 

l^etween Tekoa and Engaddi lies the Valley^ of Berachah,^ 
where Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, fought with the 
Idumaeans and the children of Ammon, and overthrew 

A league hence is a castle built by Herod the Great, 
called Herodium/' standing on high ground. In it Herod 
himself is buried, according to Josephus. 

Five leagues south-east of Tekoa is the town of Ziph,* 
near the wilderness of the same name, where we read that 
David lay hid.^ 

Adjoining this on the south is the wilderness of Maon,^ 
wherein is Mount Carmel, where dwelt Nabal the Car- 
melite, who sent away David's envoys. 

Adjoining the wilderness of Maon, on the south, is the 
land of Amalek. Over against a tongue of the Dead Sea 
is Kadesh Barnea, whence Moses sent out twelve spies. 

Three leagues south of Bethlehem on the road leading to 
Hebron is Beth-haccerem, a village standing on high ground. 
Adjoining it on the south is another village called Rama.''' 
It is exceeding lofty. I have stood therein on a high hill 
with many companions, and have seen the whole land of 
Arabia even unto Mount Seir, all the places round about 
the Dead Sea, and all David's lurking-places ; the Jordan 
also even to Shittim^ and Mount Abarim. To the west- 
ward I saw all the shore of the Mediterranean Sea from 

1 The Valley of Beracbah is now Wddy Breikut^ south-west of 

- 2 Chron. xx. 26. 

Herodium seems rightly placed at Jebel Fureidis. 

Ziph is correctly placed at Tell Zif. 
^ I Sam. xxiii. 15. 

" Maon (Tell MaHti) and Carmel (^Kurmul) are correctly placed. 
' Rama is Rdinet el Khalil. Beth-haccerem is doubtful. The 
view described is quite impossible. 
^ Numb. XXV. I. 


Joppa to Gaza and Beersheba, even to the Wilderness of 
Shur ; moreover, all the land of the Philistines from 
Ramathaim Zophini past Gath, and Ekron and Ashdod 
and lamnia and Ascalon, together with all the plain at the 
foot of the hill country of Judaea. 

More than a league from Rama, on the right hand, near 
the King's highway that leads to Hebron, is Mamre, where 
Abraham dwelt for a long time, and where, when he sat at 
the door of his tent beside the oak of Mamre, he saw three 
men standing near him, and so forth, as we read in Genesis.^ 
This oak-tree is shown at this day before the door of 
Abraham's tent. Howbeit, the old tree is dead, but another 
has sprung from its roots.- 

Half a league from the oak of Mamre, on the right hand, 
by the roadside, is Hebron, that ancient city, once called 
Kirjath-arba, where David reigned for seven years. It 
stands upon a right high and strong mount, but is 
altogether destroyed. Its ruins are great, and it seems 
to have been a noble city. 

A bow-shot south of this city is New Hebron, built on 
the place where was the double cave wherein Adam and 
Eve, Abraham and Sara, Isaac and Rebecca, and Jacob and 
Leah, are buried. The Saracens have built an exceeding 
strong fortress round about this double cave, within which 
is the cathedral church. In its walls I have seen stones 
measuring twenty-six, twenty-eight and thirty feet. I have 
never seen so strong a place built on flat waterless ground. 
I visited the tombs of the patriarchs there, and abode 
there for one night. 

A bow-shot west of the double cave is the Field of 
Damascus, where Adam was formed from clay. As a 

^ Gen. xviii. 1-3. 

2 Abraham's oak was shown at the present site north-west of 



matter of fact, this field has exceeding red earth, which 
can be moulded like wax. I took a great quantity thereof 
away with me. So do the other pilgrims and Christians 
who visit these places ; moreover, the Saracens carry this 
earth on the backs of camels to Egypt, Ethiopia, India and 
other places, and sell it for a very precious spice. ^ Yet 
there seems to be only a small hole dug in the place. It is 
said that at the end of the year, however big a hole may 
have been dug, it is miraculously filled up again. I forgot 
to inquire about the truth of this, but I can say this much, 
that when I was there the hole was a small one, so that 
four men could scarce have sat therein, and was not deeper 
than up to my shoulders. It is said that no beast attacks 
him who carries any of that earth, and that it saves a man 
from falling. This valley over against Hebron is exceeding 
fertile and fair. ' 

A bow-shot south of the place where the earth is dug is 
the place where Cain slew his brother Abel. Also two 
bow-shots west of where the earth is dug, on a hill by the 
side of Hebron, is a cave in the rock, where Adam and 
Eve mourned for their son Abel for a hundred years. In 
the cave there are their beds at this day, and a fountain 
springs up inside the cave, from which they drank. 

Two leagues south of Hebron is Debir,^ or Kirjath- 
sepher, that is, the city of letters, which Othniel, the son of 
Kenaz, the younger brother of Caleb, took, and he gave 
him Achsah his daughter to wife.^ 

Two leagues north of Hebron is Neel Eshcol, which is, 
being interpreted, the Brook of the Cluster, or the Vale of 

^ Cf. Fetellus, p. lo, note. Sir John Maundeville, ch. vi., says : 
' In that valley is a field where men draw out of the earth a thing 
they call cambylle, which they eat instead of spice, and they carry it 
to sell,' 

^ Debir is perhaps correctly placed at edk Dhaheriyeh, 
" Josh. XV. 15-17. 



Tears, from whence the spies brought the branch with one 
cluster of grapes, and bare it between two upon a staff.^ 

Half a league to the left of this valley runs down the 
brook wherein Philip baptized the eunuch. - 

Four leagues toward Jerusalem from Neel Eshcol is the 
house of Zacharia,^ into which the Blessed Virgin entered 
and greeted Elizabeth. Here also St. John the Baptist 
was born. 

Two leagues north of this house is Nob/ a city of priests^ 
where Abimelech the priest gave David the sword of 
Goliath of Gath. 

More than a league from Bethlehem, on the road leading 
to Tekoa, is the sepulchre of St. Karioth,^ the Abbot, with 
all his monks, who all departed this life together with him. 
Once crowds of people used to visit this place. 


X. The first division of the southern quarter starts from 
here like all the others. First, four leagues from Acre, 
comes the city of Haifa, at the foot of Mount Carmel. 

Three leagues south of Haifa is Pilgrims' Castle,*^ belong- 
ing to the Knights Templars, the most strongly fortified of 
all the places ever held by the Christians. It stands in the 
deep sea, and is fenced with walls and outworks, and such 
strong barbicans and towers that the whole world ought 
not to be able to take it.^ 

^ Numb. xiii. 23. 

2 Neel (for Nachal) Eshcol is placed near Philip's fountain ('Am 
Hani7ia\ south-west of Jerusalem. 

2 Zechariah's House is placed at ' Ain Kdrivi. 
^ Nob is placed (wrongly) at Beit Nuba. 

^ St. Karioth is the ruined monastery Khareitun (St. Chariton), 
near Tekoa. ^' Ludolph, p. 65. 

' It was built by the Templars 1 192, and taken by the Saracens 
1291 A.D. 



A league from Haifa, on the left of the road to Pilgrims' 
Castle, upon Mount Carmel, is Elijah's cave and Elisha's 
dwelling and well, where the sons of the prophets dwelt, 
and the Carmelite friars now dwell. I abode with them 

Five leagues from Pilgrims' Castle is Caesarea, the 
metropolis of Palestine, which once was an Archbishop's 
see. This place was first called Dor, and after that Pyrgos 
Stratonis ; but Herod the Great rebuilt it, and named it 
Caesarea. Josephus writes at length about its buildings 
and defences. It is bounded on the west by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, and on the east by a deep fresh-water marsh 
wherein is a multitude of crocodiles. At this place I fell 
into very great danger, but the Lord of His mercy saved 
me. The city has a strong position, but at this day is 
altogether ruined.^ Philip and his daughters had a mansion 
here. Here likewise Peter baptized Cornelius the centurion, 
who was the first Bishop of Caesarea. Moreover, it was 
here that Paul disputed with such eloquence against the 
orator Tertullus, in the presence of King Agrippa and 

Three leagues south of Caesarea is a village called Assur;^ 
but once it was called Antipatris, after Antipater, Herod 
the Great's father. This place belonged to the Knights 
Hospitallers, who, albeit they have lost it, yet pay thirty- 
eight thousand golden bezants a year to the Lord of Assur 
and his heirs. 

Four leagues east of Assur is Micmethah,^ now called 

Chaco.^ It stands on the plain at the foot of Mount 

' Sultan Bibars destroyed it in 1268. 

2 Assur {Arsuf) was Apollonia, not Antipatris. 

2 Josh. xvii. 7. Marino Sanuto, who follows Burchard, has on 
his map Caco maiiatat. This, therefore, is the old spelling, which, 
however, has been amended in later editions. Benjamin of Tudela 
mentions the place, which he calls ' Kakun the Keila of Scripture.' 

* Chaco {Kaknn) has no connection with Mictnethah, near She- 



Ephraim, not far from Mount Sharon. The Saracens have 
placed a garrison of soldiers here to watch Pilgrims' 

Four leagues south of this is the town of Saron, men- 
tioned in the Acts of the Apostles.^ 

It is eight leagues from Assur to Joppa, which stands on 
the sea-shore, and is described above. 

Four leagues from Joppa is Gath,^ which stands not far 
from the sea, and was one of the cities of the Philistines. 

Two leagues from Gath is Beth-shemesh of Judah, de- 
scribed above. 

Two leagues south of Beth-shemesh, in the hill country 
of Judaea, one sees Mount Modin,^ where the Maccabees 
were born. Their sepulchres are shown at this day even 
from afar off ; for they can be seen from the sea, because 
the place stands high. 

Four leagues south of Beth-shemesh, not far from the 
sea, is Ekron,^ the second of the five cities of the Philistines. 
It is now a small village. 

Four leagues south of Ekron is Ashdod, the third of 
the five cities of the Philistines. It also is now a small 

Two leagues from Joppa is Lydda or Diospolis, described 
above. Two leagues east of this is Libnah, which was 
taken by Joshua^ and besieged by Sennacherib. Three 

chem, or with Anathoth (east of Jerusalem), or Keilah (west of 
Hebron). A mediaeval tower still exists at Kakun. 
^ Acts ix. 35. 

2 Gath is here placed, as in twelfth century, at Ibelin (Jamnia) 
south of Jaffa. The true site was unknown. 

3 Modin is placed, as in twelfth century (Benjamin of Tudela), at 
Toron {Latrun), not at the true site, el Medyeh^ but this is north of 
Beth Shemesh (MzVz Shcins). 

* Ekron is at 'Akir, Ashdod at Esdtid, correctly placed. 
^ Josh. X. 29, etc., xii. 15. 


leagues further, on the road to Gibeah, is the town of 
Azekah, and Makkedah hard by it, both of which Joshua 
took after he had relieved the Gibeonites. This is where 
the five Kings hid themselves in the cave. Three leagues 
to the east of this, not far from Nob, is Shochoh of Judah, 
near the Valley of the Terebinth, ^ where the boy David 
slew Goliath of Gath with his sling and his stone. 

Three leagues from Nob is Emmaus, now called 

A league and a half from Emmaus one goes up the 
Valley of Rephaim, by the side of the house of Zacharia, 
which travellers to Jerusalem leave on their left hands ; 
and a league and a half from that house is a very strong 
castle;- Bethsura,^ standing on a mountain side over against 
Bezeth'^ (Bethsech) and Bethlehem. 

Six leagues south of Ashdod is Ascalon, the fourth city 
of the Philistines, standing on the sea-shore in the form of 
a half-circle, and very strongly fortified. 

Five leagues south of Ascalon is the city of Gaza, on the 
sea-shore. It is now commonly called Gazara.^ 

Five leagues from Gaza is Beersheba, which now is 
called Giblin, and is the border of Judaea and the Promised 
Land to the south. 

After these parts of the Promised Land which fell to the 
lot of the tribe of Judah, comes the great wilderness, which 
reaches even to the River of Egypt. In this wilderness the 

^ The Valley of the Terebinth (Elah) was wrongly shown at Koldnia 
— the head of the Valley of Sorek — a site still pointed out. Nob is 
here Beit Nuba. The site of Shochoh is doubtful. The true site 
SJurdjeikeh was further south in Wady es Sunt. 
- The castle seems to be Belmont {Soba). 

I Mace. iv. 6i. 
* I Mace. vii. 19. 
Gaza and Gazara. {Tell Jezar) were often confused in the twelfth 


children of Israel sojourned for a long time, moving about 
from place to place. 

Let what has been said suffice about the land and the 
places therein. 


XI. Now let me add an account of its length and breadth, 
reckoned according to the best of my ability. 

You must know, then, that the length of the Holy Land 
begins at the foot of Mount Lebanon, where stands Caesarea 
Philippi, and extends southward even to Beersheba in 
Judaea, which is at the south. Its length and breadth, 
where the twelve tribes dwelt, is not very extensive, 
according to the best of my observation when I saw it 
with my eyes, and walked over it with my feet. It 
seems to me to be as large as I shall hereafter describe ; 
but it is true that I only went a little way beyond Jordan, 
and did not pass through the land of the two tribes and 
the half-tribe, wherefore I do not set that down ; but it 
seems to me that its length, which reaches from the head 
of the Sea of Galilee on the north to the brook Arnon, 
where it ends, is about forty-seven leagues. As for the 
country of the ten tribes on this side of Jordan, Josephus 
thus describes its length and breadth : 

The tribe of Judah obtained the upper country, which in 
length reaches from Egypt to Jerusalem, and is said to 
contain twelve^ days' journey ; in breadth it reaches from 
the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean Sea on the west, a 
distance of fifteen leagues. 

The tribe of Simeon was given that part of the lot 

1 In the text 'xii.' Laurent has altered it to ' ii.,' because otherwise 
the final sum would not come right. But Josephus could not have 
meant that Jerusalem was only two days' journey from Egypt. 




of the tribe of Judah which is near Egypt on Mount 

The Benjamites got the land between Jordan and the 
Mediterranean Sea, fifteen leagues in length ; its breadth, 
from Jerusalem to Bethel, is four leagues. 

The tribe of Ephraim got the land between the river 
Jordan and Gadara, fifteen leagues in length ; and in breadth 
as far as the great plain, where Galilee begins, thirteen 

The half-tribe of Manasseh on this side of Jordan had 
its lot between the river Jordan and the Mediterranean 
Sea, twelve leagues in length ; and in breadth as far as 
Bethshan, five leagues. 

The tribe of Issachar got Jordan and Carmel, eight 
leagues in length ; and in breadth from Bethshan to Mount 
Tabor, five leagues. 

The tribe of Zabulon had from Carmel, near Mount 
Cain, to Gennesareth, nine leagues in length ; and in 
breadth from Mount Tabor across the valley of Carmelion, 
five leagues. 

The tribe of Asshur had all the country from Carmel to 
Sidon, a space twenty leagues long ; and in breadth from 
the Mediterranean Sea to Naason^ and Cabul, nine 

The tribe of Naphtali got the parts toward the east, 
even to Damascus and Galilee, ten leagues long ; and 
in breadth from the Sea of Galilee to Lebanon, seven 

The tribe of Dan got the valley toward the setting sun 
near the Mediterranean Sea ; its boundaries were Ashdod 
on the south, and Dora on the north. This was its length ; 
I do not set down its measurement in breadth. 

1 Tob. i. 2. The A.V. calls it Thisbe. See ' Dictionary of Bible,' 



According to the above description of the whole of the 
Holy Land on this side of Jordan, it nowhere seems to 
measure more than forty leagues in breadth, that is, 
between Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea, from east to 
west. In length, from north to south, it measures less than 
ninety leagues, by my reckoning. 

Lo, here you have a faithful description of the whole 
land — its length, its breadth, and all that is therein. This 
description, I think, is of no small use for reading the 
historical books, and, indeed, the whole Bible, if it be under- 
stood, and also for marking each single place, and knowing 
all about them. 


XII. Now, you must know that, as a matter of fact, the 
whole of the Holy Land was, and is at this day, the best of 
all lands, albeit some who have not carefully regarded it 
say the contrary. It is very fertile in corn, which is tilled 
and grown with scarce any labour. The soil yields many 
herbs. Fennel, sage, rue, and roses grow everywhere of 
their own accord on the plains. 

Cotton grows on certain shrubs, which are about as tall 
as a man's knee, and are annuals. Their leaves are like 
vine-leaves, but smaller. Upon them grow pods, wherein 
is the cotton. They are gathered at Michaelmas. 

Sugar-canes also grow there. These are like common 
canes, but bigger. Within they are hollow, but full of a 
porous substance like that which one finds in rods of elder- 
wood. This substance is very moist. The canes are 
gathered, cut in lengths of half a palm, and so are crushed 
in the press. The juice squeezed out of them is boiled in 
copper boilers, and, when thickened, is collected in baskets 
made of slender twigs. Soon after this it becomes dry 
and hard, and this is how sugar is made. Before it dries, a 



liquor oozes from it, called honey of sugar, which is very- 
delicious, and good for flavouring cakes. Moreover, they 
cut the canes into pieces as long as a man's finger, but so 
as to have a knot in the middle of each piece, for there are 
many knots on a sugar-cane. They bury these pieces at 
spring-time in damp ground, and from them new canes 
grow, two out of each one, from either side of the knot. 
This is how they plant them. 

You must know that in this land one hardly ever finds 
pears,, or apples, or cherries, as on this side of the sea. 
Some fruits are brought from Damascus, but they are quite 
soft, and cannot last long, because of the great heat v/hen 
they are on the tree, and the warmth of the land. 

Yet there are some fruits which remain on the trees all 
the year round, and men eat them at all seasons of the 
year. One finds on the trees at the same time both 
blossom and half-ripe, ripe, and over-ripe fruit, so that 
sometimes they have the four kinds of fruit all together. 
This fruit is what are called oranges, and lemons, and 
Adam's apples, from v/hich the natives make pickles to 
eat with fowls, fish, and other food, and they make food 
very palatable. 

There is also the fruit called peach, whereof an exceeding 
good preserve is made at Acre. 

There is also another fruit, called apples of paradise,^ a 
very fine fruit. It grows like a bunch of grapes, having 
many grains. This bunch is sometimes as big as a good- 
sized basket, and sometimes has sixty or more grains. These 
grains are oblong in shape, sometimes six fingers long, and 
as thick as a hen's egg. They have a thick rind, like the 
pod of a bean, but of a delicate yellow colour. The rind 
one throws away, but one takes out the fruit and eats it ; 

^ Banana. Cf. Jacques de Vitry, Ixxxv., p. 1099, Bonjars ; Anon., 
p. 34 ; and Thietmar, ch. xxix. 



and its taste is very sweet, like fine butter and honey from 
the comb. These grains have no seed in them, but are 
eatable throughout. This fruit takes more than one year to 
grow. The tree also lasts but a short time — two years at 
the most — and then straightway withers ; but when it 
begins to wither, another tree straightway sprouts from its 
root, and does even as the former tree did. The leaves of 
this tree are as long as the height of a man, and are so wide 
that with two of them a man can cover his whole body. 

There are many vines in the Holy Land, and there would 
be more, but that the Saracens, who now hold the land, 
drink no wine, except some of them in secret, and destroy 
the vines, all save a few, perhaps, who dwell near Christians, 
and grow them for profit, that they may sell them to 
Christians. The wine of the Holy Land is very good and 
noble, especially round about Bethlehem, in the Valley of 
Rephaim, and so on, from whence the children of Israel 
bore the branch on a staff. Good wine is grown round 
about Sidon, and beyond it along Lebanon, and at 
Antaradus and Margat, and all along that sea-coast, even 
to Cilicia, Cappadocia, Greece, and Hungary. But I have 
seen a wondrous thing at Antaradus, for there the natives 
told me that from one and the same vine grapes are 
gathered thrice in the year, in the following manner. In 
spring-time the vine-dressers see when the vine has formed 
as many bunches of grapes as each vine and each branch 
usually does ; then they straightway cut off all that re- 
mains of the branch beyond those bunches, and throw it 
away. This is done in March. In April a new branch 
sprouts from it with new bunches of grapes. When they 
see this they again cut off all of the branch that reaches 
beyond these bunches of grapes. In May the trunk puts 
forth a third branch, with its bunches of grapes, and thus 
they have three sets of grapes, which all grow alike ; but 



those which budded in March are gathered in August, 
those which budded in April are gathered in September, 
and those which budded in May are gathered in October. 
Thus they have three vintages in one year. 

Figs and pomegranates, honey and oil, and herbs of all 
sorts, such as gourds and cucumbers, and many other fruits, 
abound there. 

Wild-boars, roes, hares, partridges, and quails are so 
plentiful there that it is a wonder to see them. There are 
many lions there, and bears, and divers kinds of wild 
beasts ; moreover^ there are infinite numbers of camels and 
dromedaries, stags, buffaloes, and, in short, there are therein 
all the good things in the world, and the land flows with 
milk and honey. But they who dwell therein I cannot call 
brave men , but it contains the worst and basest sort of 
sinners, so that it is wonderful that the land should endure 


XIII. There are dwelling therein men of every nation 
under heaven, and each man follows his own rite, and, to 
tell the truth, our own people, the Latins, are worse than 
all the other people of the land. The reason of this, I 
think, is that when any man has been a malefactor, as, for 
example, a homicide, a robber, a thief, or an adulterer, he 
crosses the sea as a penitent, or else because he fears for 
his skin, and therefore dares not stay at home. Wherefore 
men come thither from all parts — from Germany, Italy, 
France, England, Spain, Hungary, and all other parts of 
the world ; yet they do but change their climate, not their 
mind -} for when they are there, after they have spent what 
they brought with them, they have to earn some more, and 
therefore return again to their vomit, and do worse than 

1 Hor., Ep., i. xi. 27. 



they did before. They lodge pilgrims of their own nation 
in their houses, and these men, if they know not how to 
take care of themselves, trust them, and lose both their 
property and their honour. They also breed children, who 
imitate the crimes of their fathers, and thus bad fathers 
beget sons worse than themselves, from whom descend 
most vile grandchildren,^ who tread upon the holy places 
with polluted feet. Hence it comes to pass that, because of 
the sins of the dwellers in the land against God, the land 
itself, and the place of our redemption, is brought into 

Besides the Latins there are many other races there ; for 
example, the Saracens, who preach Mahomet and keep his 
law. They call our Lord Jesus Christ the greatest of the 
prophets, and confess that He was conceived of the Holy 
Ghost and born of the Virgin Mary. But they deny that 
He suffered and was buried, but choose to say that He 
ascended into heaven, and sitteth upon the right hand of 
the Father, because they admit Him to be the Son of God.^ 
But they declare that Mahomet sits on His left hand. 
They are very unclean, and have as many wives as they 
can feed ; yet, nevertheless, they practise unnatural sins, 
and have ephebiae^ in every city. Yet they are very hospit- 
able, courteous and kindly. 

Besides these there are the Syrians. The whole land is 
full of these. They are Christians, but keep no faith with 
the Latins. They are clothed most wretchedly, and are 
stingy, giving no alms. They dwell among the Saracens, 
and for the most part are their servants. In dress they are 

1 Hon, Od., iii. 6, 46-48. 

2 The Moslem religion was much better understood in the thirteenth 
century than when the Crusaders first went to Palestine. 

^ Cf. Marino Sanuto, book iii., part i., ch. xi. : ephebaeum, i.e.^ 
lupanar epheboruin. 



like the Saracens, except that they are distinguished from 
them by a woollen girdle. 

The Greeks in like manner are Christians, but schis- 
matics, save that a great part of them returned to obedience 
to the Church at a General Council^ held by our Lord 
Gregory X. In the Greek Church all the prelates are 
monks, and are men of exceeding austerity of life and 
wondrous virtue. 

The Greeks are exceeding devout, and for the most part 
greatly honour and revere their Prelates. I have heard one 
of their Patriarchs say in my presence : ' We would willingly 
live in obedience to the Church of Rome, and venerate it ; 
but I am much surprised at my being ranked below the 
inferior clergy, such as Archbishops and Bishops. Some 
Archbishops and Bishops wish to make me a Patriarch, kiss 
their feet, and do them personal service, which I do not 
hold myself bound to do, albeit I would willingly do so for 
the Pope, but for no one else.' 

There are also Armenians, Georgians, Nestorians, 
Nubians, Jacobites, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Ethiopians, 
Egyptians, and many other peoples who are Christians. 
Of those there is an infinite number. Each of them have 
their own Patriarch and obey him. Their prelates declare 
that they would most willingly belong to the Church of 
Rome. Of these the Nestorians, Jacobites, and the like are 
so named after certain heretics who once were their chiefs.^ 

Moreover, there are in the Holy Land Midianites, who 
now are called Bedouins and Turcomans, who apply them- 
selves solely to feeding flocks and camels, of which they 

1 Council held at Lyons in 1274, so that Burchard must have 
written after that date. 

2 Great efforts were made by the Popes in the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries to reconcile the Eastern sects, and especially in the thirteenth 
to unite the Armenians, but very few except the Maronites were con- 


have exceeding great numbers. These people have no fixed 
dwellings, but wherever they learn that there is pasture, 
thither they go and pitch their tents. They are exceeding 
warlike, yet only use swords and lances in battle. They do 
not use arrows, saying that it is base beyond measure to 
steal away a man's life with an arrow. They are brave in 
war, but wear only a red shirt, and over it a large flowing 
mantle, covering their heads only with a cloth. All Syria 
is full of them, but for the most part they dwell round 
about the river Jordan, from Lebanon even to the 
Wilderness of Paran, because there are mountains for 
sheep and goats, and plains for cattle and camels. The 
sheep in those parts, and especially the rams, are very big, 
and have tails of such a size that one tail is as much as 
three or four men can eat. 

Round about the Castle of Arachas, beyond Tripoli, up 
to the Castle of Krach,i dwell the Saracens called Vannini.^ 
Adjoining them are the Saracens called Assassins, who 
dwell in the mountains beyond Antaradus near the Castle 
of Margat. They have many castles and cities and a 
fertile land, and are said to have forty thousand fighting 
men. They have one chief, not by hereditary succession, 
but by personal merit, who is called the Old Man of the 
Mountains — not because of his age, but of his wisdom. 
These people are said to be of Persian origin. I have 
passed through a part of this country. They are obedient 
even to death, and at their superior's bidding slay anyone 
soever, and say that thereby they gain paradise, even if 
they be slain before they have fulfilled their orders. A 
few years ago they wished to become obedient to the 
Church of Rome, and to this end sent an ambassador to 
Acre, who transacted the negotiation to his complete 

1 Krach des Chevaliers, now E/ Hosn, north-east of Tripoli. 
^ Marino Sanuto, p. 6, calls them Vavini. 



satisfaction, but on his homeward journey was murdered 
by his escort just before entering his own land, to the loss 
of the Church as a body, because the others, when they 
saw that Christians were not to be trusted, straightway 
drew back. The boundary between these people's land 
and that of the Christians is marked by some stones, on 
which on the side of the Christians are carved crosses, and 
on that of the Assassins knives. None of the Soldans 
have hitherto been able to subdue them, but they make 
their own laws and customs and follow them as they 
choose. They are a terror to all the nations round about 
because of their exceeding great fierceness. 

Now, it must be noted as a matter of fact, albeit some, 
who like to talk about what they have never seen, declare 
the contrary, that the whole East beyond the Mediterranean 
Sea, even unto India and Ethiopia, acknowledges and 
preaches the name of Christ, save only the Saracens and 
some Turcomans who dwell in Cappadocia, so that I 
declare for certain, as I have myself seen and have heard 
from others who knew, that always in every place and 
kingdom, besides Egypt and Arabia, where Saracens and 
other followers of Mahomet chiefly dwell, you will find 
thirty Christians and more for one Saracen. But the truth 
is that all the Christians beyond sea are Easterns by 
nation, and albeit they are Christians, yet, as they are 
not much practised in the use of arms, when they are 
assailed by the Saracens, Turks, or any other people 
soever, yield to them and buy peace and quiet by paying 
tribute, and the Saracens, or other lords of the land, place 
their bailiffs and tax-gatherers therein. Hence it arises 
that their kingdom is said to belong to the Saracens, 
whereas, as a matter of fact, all the people are Christians 
save those bailiffs and tax-gatherers and their families, as 
I have seen with my own eyes in Cilicia and Lesser 



Armenia, which is subject to the rule of the Tartars. I 
lived for three weeks in the palace of the King of Armenia 
and Cilicia, and there were a few Tartars at his Court ; 
but all the rest of his household were Christians, to the 
number of about two hundred. I used to see them frequent 
the church, hear Masses, kneel and pray devoutly.^ More- 
over, whenever any of them met me and my companion, 
they did us great honour by taking off their hats and 
respectfully bowing to us, greeting us, and rising up at 
our approach. Many, too, are frightened when they are 
told that in parts beyond seas there dwell Nestorians, 
Jacobites, Maronites, Georgians, and other sects named 
after heretics whom the Church has condemned, wherefore 
these men are thought to be heretics, and to follow the 
errors of those after whom they are called. This is by no 
means true. God forbid ! But they are men of simple 
and devout life ; yet I do not deny that there may be 
fools among them, seeing that even the Church of Rome 
itself is not free from fools. Now, all these aforesaid 
nations, and many others whom it would take long to write 
down, have Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, and other Pre- 
lates, even as we ourselves, and call them by the same 
names, all save the Nestorians, whose chief Prelate is 
called laselich.^ He is their Pope, and I have learned 
for certain that his jurisdiction reaches much farther in 
the East than that of the entire Western Church. The 
other Prelates of that sect, however, are called Archbishops 
and Bishops like our own. 

The chief Prelate of the Armenians^ and Georgians is 

^ ' Hormenii sunt homines valde religiosi et optimi Christiani.' — 
Wilbrand von Oldenburg, ch. xvii. 

2 See Riccoldus de Monte Crucis, xx. 70, who says ' the Patriarch 
of the Nestorians is called laselic, which is, being interpreted, 

^ Anon., p. 15, note. 



called the Catholicus. I stayed with him for fourteen 
days, and he had with him many Archbishops and Bishops, 
Abbots, and other Prelates. In his diet, his clothes, and 
his way of life, he was so exemplary, that I have never 
seen anyone, religious or secular, like him ; and I declare 
of a truth that in my opinion all the clothes that he wore 
were not worth five shillings sterling, and yet he had 
exceeding strong castles and great revenues, and was rich 
beyond any man's counting. He wore a coarse red sheep- 
skin pelisse, very shabby and dirty, with wide sleeves, and 
under it a gray tunic, very old, and almost worn out. 
Above this he wore a black scapular, and a cheap rough 
black mantle. I have seen the King of Armenia and Cilicia 
with all his nobles sitting humbly and with the greatest 
reverence at his feet, the King often having with him his 
eldest son, and most devoutly hearing from him the Word 
of God. He and all his prelates used to fast^ all Lent on 
bread and water, and so did the King and all his nobles, 
save on the Feast of the Annunciation, when in my pre- 
sence the Catholicus allowed himself to eat some fish and 
drink wine. On that day I heard a Mass in the presence 
of the same Catholicus, and of the King and Queen. Their 
ritual is an exceeding devout one : their priests and 
Bishops are robed like ours. They use unleavened bread 
in their Mass, and chant the Epistles, Gospels, and prefaces, 
the Sanctus, Pater Noster, and Agnus Dei in the Mass, in the 
same words that we do ; but in their own language and 
letters, for they have a language and alphabet of their own. 
The Catholicus and all the other Prelates are monks, and 
throughout all the East no one of any nation can be a 
Prelate unless he be a monk. All monks are greatly 
revered and honoured. Clerks and priests have no 
authority, neither do the laity pay any regard to them, 

Jacques de Vitry, Ixxviii. 


and they have no duties save celebrating Divine service. 
They mark all the canonical hours by beating a plank or 
other piece of wood, because they have no bells. When 
notice is given at night, they go to matins calling out to 
the people as they go through the streets to come to 
matins. After matins they do not go to sleep again, but 
sit in church and teach the people until dawn, when they 
say the first Mass, or till about the hour of tierce, if it be 
a feast-day. They have no authority besides this, save 
what is granted them by their vartabeds.^ All priests are 
married, and no one is suffered to conduct service unless he 
has a wife. They never celebrate Masses on Monday, nor 
yet thenceforth till Friday, inclusively, however great a 
feast may fall on those days, but are at liberty to con- 
verse with their wives ; but on Saturday and Sunday they 
celebrate Masses with great solemnity. After his wife's 
death a priest must be continent, and not marry a second 
wife. If he be guilty of fornication or adultery, he must 
lose his church and his office ; nor can any dispensation 
be made in his favour. If a priest^s wife be guilty of 
adultery, he must either be continent, or he must lose his 
office and his church, and his wife must lose her nose, and 
her paramour be castrated, even though he be a married 
man. This was done in my presence. When a priest 
dies, his wife must be continent. If she marries again, 
she shall be burned alive ; but if she becomes a courtesan, 
no harm is done to her. And they have a new command- 
ment among them, that a priest, like the Apostle, should 
have a virgin to wife. The Armenian and Georgian 
priests are distinguished from the laity by a white linen 
cloth, which they wrap round their neck and shoulders. 

Thieves who are guilty of petty thefts, or other evil- 
doers who commit the lesser sorts of crime, are castrated, 
that they may not beget children to imitate their fathers' 
^ Uerhabite. The Vaitabeds are celibate or widowed priests. 


misdeeds. This seems to me to be one reason why there 
are so many courtesans there, for there are many eunuchs 
there, and all of them are in the service of noble ladies. 
I believe that the Queen of Armenia had more than forty 
eunuchs when I was at her palace. No man visits her save 
by the King's special leave, and the King assigns to him 
some eunuch by name to show him in. So likewise is 
the custom with all noble ladies, both widows and married. 

All the Kings, Princes, and nobles are most willing to 
hear the Word of God ; wherefore every day at the hour of 
tierce^ some doctors or monks go to the Court of every King 
or Prince. The Princes or lords straightway come them- 
selves together with their children and their great men. Some 
book of Scripture is brought, and is read in their presence 
in the vulgar tongue, for they know no other. The monk 
expounds the text to them, and whenever the laymen feel 
doubts and raise questions, the monks instruct them accord- 
ing to the words of the saints. I have questioned these 
monks as to which doctors they chiefly follow, and they 
replied that their chief authorities were John Chrysostom, 
Gregory Nazianzen, and Cyril of Alexandria. Both clergy 
and laity are very devout in church, and never do anything 
there but pray or sing or do whatever else ought to be 
done there. I never saw anyone laugh or behave himself 
unseemly in church. 

The Office of the Mass is devoutly performed in their 
church. The cup is placed on the left hand of the altar in 
a place made for the purpose in the wall. At the offertory 
prayer the deacon, wearing a precious silk cloth, reverently 
raises it above his head. With a subdeacon carrying the 
thurible, and two acolytes carrying candles walking before 
him, they circle round behind the altar to the right-hand 
side thereof, and then the Bishop reverently takes it and 
offers it, even as our priests do. Two stand with lighted 
^ Circa 3 a.m. hora. 



candles behind the priest while the canon of the Mass is 
being read, and near them two with thuribles, wearing albs. 
Two deacons stand on the right and left hand sides of the 
altar, praying devoutly with joined hands, their faces 
turned to the Body of Christ, singing a sweet and pious 
melody and answering one another. Indeed, it is a most 
holy thing to see and hear. 

I have seen many other very commendable practices in 
that land, both among laymen, clerks, and monks, which 
in our land would scarce be believed to be done. 

I have travelled over the whole of this land, even to 
Cappadocia and Seleucia by the sea, and have sailed thence 
to Cyprus, and wandered over the greater part thereof. 
Thence I sailed to Syria and came to Tyre, and some days 
afterwards, sailing along the coast of Palestine or Philistia, I 
passed by Haifa, Mount Carmel, Dora, Caesarea of 
Palestine, Antipatris, Joppa, lamnia, Ekron, Ashdod, 
Ascalon, Gaza, and the whole sandy desert even to the 
mouths of the river Nile. Thence I came to Damietta, 
which of old was called Memphis. This is the land of 
Goshen, wherein the children of Israel sojourned of old, 
serving Pharaoh in mortar and in brick. ^ In this land also 
Jeremiah was afterwards stoned.^ 

Blessed be God and St. Matthew. Amen. 

1 Exod. i. 14. 

2 In this passage Burchard speaks of his voyage down the coast. 
He also visited Hebron, it would appear, and speaks of Samaria from 
personal knowledge. If the account was written about 1280 the only 
part of Palestine then in the hands of the Christians was the seashore 
from Tyre to Chateau Pelerin, and Carmel with the low hills East of 
Acre ; but by agreement with Egypt pilgrims were allowed to visit 
Nazareth, Jerusalem, and Bethlehem. The country east of Jordan 
was unknown, and the account is specially deficient in this part 
which never was recovered after 11 87, when conquered by Saladin, 
The border line was laid down by treaty with Egypt in 1282 A.D., as 
above described, ten years before the final loss of Acre and of all 
Palestine by the Christians. 



A is the Antwerp edition of 1536, which is worth all the editions of 

the second class. 
B is the Berne MS. 
C is Canisius's edition of 1725. 
St is Staphorst's Hamburg MS. 
\a is the first Wratislaw MS. 

„ second „ ,, 
\c „ third „ „ 
Vr stands for the three Wratislaw MSS. 
V is the Venetian edition of 15 18. 

Note. — Burchard's league means an hour's march. The hours 
spoken of by Van de Velde, Robinson, and others are hours on horse- 
back, but Burchard did his leagues on foot ; they are the German 
stunden. Arabic place-names are written English fashion. 

Chapter I. 


Names of Places. 


Various Readings. 


Acre ('Akka) _ 
Cayphas (Haifa)i 
Petra Incisa (Dustrey) 


1 Ludolph, p. 65. 




Chapter II. 

Names of Places. 


Various Readings. 

Acre ('Akka) j 
Casale Lamberti (Hamsin) i 
Scandalion (Iskanderuneh) 

The Well of Living 

Waters (Ras el'Ain) 

Eleutherus(conf jsed with 
the modern river Kasi- 

Sarepta of the Sidonians 

Sidon (Saida) 

Beyrout (Beirut) 

Biblium (Jebeil) 

Botrum (Batrun) 

Tripolis (Trablus) 

The Mount of Leopards 
Arachas (Arka) 
Syn or Synochim 
Antaradus (Tartus) 
Margat (Markab) 
Valania (Banias) 


3 1. (V^, v) 


I German mile 


2 miles {Yd) 


61. and 2 miles 

than I 



half a German 

than I 

mile (A) 


2 1. (Vr) 


3I. (A), 4].(V^, 



3 1. (A) 

5 (St) 

9 1. (Vr) 


9 mil. (Vr, C) 


6 1. (A) 



9 mil. (Vr) 

3I. (A) 





Chapter III. 


Acre ('Akka) 

Montfort (Kul'at el Kurein) 



4 mil. (V<5) 


Toron (Tibnin) 





3 1- (V^) 


Belinas (Banias) 


Sidon (Saida) 

1 1 

10 1. (v) 



Chapter IV. 


Variou** Readings. 


Acre ('Akka) 


Judin (Jiddin) 



Castellum Regium (M'alia) 


I 1. (A and v) 


Vallev of Zaanaim 





3 1. (A and v) 


Sephet (confused with 


3 1- (A) 

Bethulia) Safed 


Mensa Domini (the 


3 1. (A) 


Lord's Table) 

Capernaum (Tell Hum) 



Chapter V. 


Acre ('Akka) 


St. George (El B'aneh) 


5 mil. (Vr, C) 




2 1. 




3 1. (A) 

Bethsaida (Sheikh Sei- 


3 1. (A and v) 


Magdalum (el Mejdel) 


\ 1 CA) 


Bethulia (Safed) 


Chapter VI. 


Acre ('Akka) 


Cana of Galilee (Kana) 


5 1. (v) 


Ruma (el Mesh-hed) 


4 1. (v) 





Mount Bethulia (Safed) 


than I 




6 1. (Vr), 1 1. (A) 

than 2 


Sepphora (Seffurieh) 


3 1. (v) 




3 1. (A) 


Nairn (Nain) 


3 1- (B) 



Chapter VII. 










Acre ('Akka) 

Caymon (Tell Keimun) 
Megiddo (Ezbuba) 

Mesrha (el Mezra'ah) 

Castellum Fabae (el 

Aphek (el 'Afuleh) 

Shunem (Sulem) 
Bethsan (Beisan) 
Fountain of Jezreel 
Jezreel (Zer'in) 

Engannim (Jenin) 
Samaria (Sebustieh) 
Bethel (Beitin) 

Sichem (Nablus) 
Lebonah (Khan Lubban) 
Michmash (Mukhmas) 
Gibeah of Saul 
Rama (Nebi Samwil) 


than 2 

3 bow- 

2 bow- 

■ 2 



4 1. (C) 

6 1. (A, B, v), 8 1. 

3 1. (V^) 

2 1. (Vd) 

II 1. (A) 

4 1- (C, Vr) 
i 1. (C, Vr) 


5 1. (v) 

3l.(A, B, C, Vr, 
and v) 

4 I. (A), 61. (V^) 
3 1. (V^, V) 

Chapter VIII. 


Sichem (Nablus) 

5 5 




Phesech^ ('Ain Fusail) 



Docus ('Ain Duk) 





Ai (et Tell) 



Bethel (Beitin) 



Anathoth ('Anata) 




2 1. (V^) 

^ Phasaelis in Marino Sanuto's map. 



Chapter IX. 


Names of Places. 


Various Readings. 



Ramathaim Zophim 




Joppa (Yafa) 



Jamnia (Yebna) 


Chapter X. 

87 Bethlehem (Beit Lahm) 
89 ' Mount Engaddi ('Ain Jidy) 
89 I Achila^ (Sebbeh) 

3 1- (A) 

7 1(B) 

Chapter XI. 

H^iifa (Haifa) 

93 Pilgrims' Castle ('Athlit) 

94 Caesarea of Palestine 


94 Assur (Arsiif) 

95 Jf^ppa (Yafa) 

95 Gath (Yebnah) 

95 Bethshemesh of Judah 

('Ain Shems) 
95 Ekron ('Akir) 

95 Ashdod (Esdud) 

96 Ascalon ('Askalan) 

96 Beersheba (Beit Jibrin) 

4 (A and v) 
9 1. (A), 2 1. (v) 

4 1. (A and v) 
I 1. (A) 

Chapter XII. 

Joppa (Yafa) 


Lydda (Ludd) 


Lebna (for Libnah) 

4 1- (A) 





Succoth (Shuweikeh) 

^ Marino Sanuto, p. 12. 



Chapter XIII. 

Distances from Jerusalem. 


Names of Places. 


Various Readings. 

Rama (er Ram ?) 


1 1 (Vh and \\ 


Anathoth (Anata ?) 

Acre ('Akka) 

^8 1. (C), ^1. M 

Samaria (Sebustieh) 


17 1 CV^) 

Sichem (Nablus) 


8 1. (A) 

Nazareth (en Nasrah) 


27 1. (A B, C, 

V t/, V ^ 

17 1. (C) 

^6 I. (Vr) 




8 1. (A),23l.(v) 


Jericho (Er Riha) 





3 1- (B, C, Vr) 


Tekoa (Teku'a) 


4l.(B, C,Vr,v) 





Shiloh (Neby Samwil) 


4 1. (Cf 




10 1. (A),3l.(B, 

C, Vr) 


Lower Bethoron 


2 I. (A) 




4i (A, V) 


Ramathaim - Zophim 
















Sidon (Saida) 



li (C, Vr) 


Beyrout (Beirut) 

The Dog's Pass 
Nahr el Kelb 



Tripoli (Trablus) 




Mount of Leo- 





Aradium (Jeziret er 

T)re (Sur) 

5 days' 



Antaradus (Tartus) 

Four P\ramids 




Antaradus (Tartus) 

The Mountains of 

the Assassins 


2 I 

Valania (Banias) 

Acre ('Akka) 

8 d. j. 


Valania (Banias) 


4 d- j. 


Kedar (el Hosn) 

The mouth of the 





Sephet (Safed) 

Kadesh - Naphtali 



Caperriaum (Tell 

Mouth of Jordan 



Chorazin (Khersa; 

The going up to 
Mount Sanyr 



The going up to 
Mount Sanyr 

Kedar (el Hosn) 



Mouth of Jordan 

Kadesh - Naphtali 



Mouth of Jordan 





Kedar (el Hosn) 


10 1. (v) 



Dothan (Khan 
Jubb (Yusef) 


2 1. (Vr) 



Mount Bethulia 



Ramathaim - Zo- 


I day's 









Sepphora (Seffu- 

Cana of Galilee 











The Lord's Leap 

4 bow- 






3 1. (C, Vr) 



Endor (Andur) 



Endor (Andur) 

Ramathaim - Zo- 


phim (Ramleh) 

2 days' 



Little Hill of Her- 




Little Hill of Her- 

than a 










Mouth of Kishon 



Mouth of Kishon 



Mesrha(el Mezr'ah) 

Mount Hermon 


2 -1. (Yd) 


Jezreel (Zerin) 

Shunem (Sulem) 



Sebaste (Sebustieh) 




Vr, v) 



Land of Tappuah 


5 1. fB, Yd) 

J J 


Jacob's Well 

2 bow- 




Mount Quaran- 




Quarantena (Jebel 

Mount of the Temp- 


2 1. (\) 





Elisha's Fountain 

2 bow- 

(Ras el 'Ain) 




Valley of Achan 




Jericho (er Riha) 




St. John or Jordan 


(Kusr el Yehud) 



Beth-hoglah (Kusr 





Dead Sea 



Dead Sea 

St. John's Chapel 



Zoar (Zuweirah) 



Elisha's Fountain 

Ai (et Tell) 


2 1. (Vd) 


Bethel CBeitin) 

Deborah's Palm- 

tree ('Attarah) 



Adummim (Tal'at 


ed Dumm) 





I 1. (A) 



2 bow- 

I bowshot 



Mount Shiloh (Nebi 

Gibeah of Saul 






Gibeah of Saul 

Little Gibeon (el 




Kirjath-jeariiti (un- 

Lachish (uncei tain) 




Kirjath-jearim (un- 

Beth - shemesh of 

2 ■ 

3 1- (B) 


Judah ('Ain 









Tekoa (Teku'a) 



Valley of Berachah 

Herodium (Jebel 


(Wady Breikui) 



Tekoa (Teku'a) 

Ziph (Tell Zif) 


2 1. (A) 





4 1. (C, Vr) 




Oak of Mamre 

Old Hebron 


Philip's Fountain 
('Ain Haniiia) 

House of Zacharia 
(Mar Zakaria) 

House of Zacharia 
(Mar Zakaria) 



Assur (Arsuf) 
Bethshemesh ('Ain 

Nob (Beit Nuba) 
House of Zacharia 
House of Zacharia 






2 1. (A and 

than a 



Old Hebron 

(A and v) 

M. Sanuto 

New Hebron 

I bow- 

3 bowshots 




3 1. (A) 



3 1. (A ana 








8 1. (A), 6 1. 


Nob (Beit Nuba) 



St. Karioth's Sepul- 

more than 


I 1. (v) 

Elisha's Cave 


lil. (A) 



Mount Modin 


6 1. (A and 





Beihsura (Beit Sur) 


3 1. (A) 

1 Michmeihah, now called Chaco. Marino Sanuto has in his map 
Chaco manatat. This, therefore, is the old reading, which, neverthe- 
less, the editor of the Venetian edition thought proper to emend. 
Chaco is the modern Kakun, found by Ritter, xvi. 714, Laurent. In 
the 'Survey of Western Palestine' (sheet 11 Jm, 183), art. ' Kakon,' I 
find ' The small castle whose ruins are still standing at Kakon is men- 
tioned by Burchard, who identifies it with Michmethah (Josh. xvi. 5,6 ; 
xvii. 7), and says that it was built by the Saracens " contra Castrum 
Peregrinorum." Ricold (thirteenth century) mentions it as a castle 
twenty miles from Athlit. Michmethah belonged to Ephraim and 
Manasseh.' — A.S. 



Abarim, Mt., 38, 56, 98 ; visible 

from Jerusalem, 78 
Abel-mehola, 39, 40 
Abishag, 47 

Abraham, 3 ; his oak, 91 
Aceldama, 74, 84 ; gate leading to, 

Achan, 57 
Achila, the hill, 89 
Achor, Valley of, 57 
Acra, rock, 57 

Acre, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 21, 31, 38, 44, 
93 ; bishop of, 12 ; Jerusalem 
thirty -six leagues from, 65; 
peaches preserved at, 100 

Adiabene, Tomb of Oueen of, 74, 

Adrian, 80 

Adummim, Castle of, 63 
Aenon, where John baptized, 49 
Ahab, King of Israel, 46, 48, 52 
Ahaz, 70 

Ahaziah, King of Judah, 45, 89 
Aholibamah, Esau's wife, 37 
Ai, 3, 57, 60 

A in Duk (Docus) north of Jericho, 

,, EyzU (En Rogel), 75 
„ Hanhia^ 93 

„ Jaliid (the fountain which is 

in Jezreel), 47 
„ Sheins (Beth - shemesh of 
Judah), 95 
Ain et Tabghah^ 28 
'Akir, 95 
Akra Tower, 84 
Albanians (of the Caucasus), i 
Alexander the Great, 10, 11 

Alps, the, 25 
Ammon, 7, 25, 30, 58 
Amos, the prophet, 89 
Ainwas (Emmaus), 85 
Anathoth {A?tdta), 62 ; Cedron 

flows from, 74 ; road to, from 

Jerusalem, 81 
Andrew, St., city of, 34 
Anne, St., church at Jerusalem, 


Annunciation, the, 3, 29 
Antaradus, 6, 18-20; wine made 
at, loi 

Antilibanus, end of, 17 ; fertile 
valleys in, 25, 26; mountain, 14 

Antioch, 6, 2 1 ; patriarchate of, 1 5 ; 
prince of, 16 ; principality of, 21 

Antipater, Herod's father, 38, 94 

Antipatris, 52 ; Burchard sailed 
past. III 

Antony's Tower, 80 

Apamea, 6 

Aphek, city, 46 

Apollonius, I 

Apple of Paradise, 100 

Arabia, 5, 58, 68 ; visible from 
Jerusalem, 78 ; the whole land 
of, visible from Rama, 90 

Arabian Gulf, 5 

Arabias, the, 7, 8 

Arachas (^Arkah), 25 ; Bishop of, 
21 ; castle of, 17, i8, 105 

Aracheus, son of Canaan, 17, 18 

Aradium, 18, 19 

Aram, 30 

Arcopolis, 58 

Ard es Suweidah^ 23 

Arimathea, 86 

Armenia, Greater and Lesser, 2 ; 



account of the court, land, and 
religion of Lesser Armenia, 107- 

Armenians, 16 ; their religion, 104, 
106- II I 

Arnon, the brook, 7, 25, 58 ; land 
of the two tribes and the half- 
tribe ends at the, 97 

Ar, city, 7, 58 

Arvad (Aradium), 19 

Ascalon, 37, 96 ; Herod of, 88 ; 
Burchard sailed past, ill ; 
visible from Rama, 91 

Ashdod, 37, 95, 96; Burchard 
sailed past, 1 1 1 ; border of Dan, 
98 ; visible from Rama, 91 

Asphalt, Lake of, 58, 60 

Assassins, land of, 19, 20, 105, 106 

Asshur, lot of the tribe of, 9, 42, 

Assur (Arsuf) Apollonia, 94, 95 
Augustine, St., 29 
Azekah, 96 
e/ Azeriyeh, 64 


Baalbec, 19 
Baal-gad, 13 
Babylonia, the true, 5 
Bacharites, name of the Saracens 
who dwell near the Dog's Pass, 

Bahurim, 63 

Bakar, Valley of, 41 

Balaam, 58 

Baldwin L, 7, 10 

Balsam, garden of, 62 

Bananas, 100 

el B\i?ieh, 31 

Banids^ near Margat, 20 

Basan, Og, King of, 25 

Bashan, kingdom of, 7, 23, 31, 34 

Bathing-pool of Siloam, 70 

Baths, hot, at Tiberias, 40 

Batriln (Botrus), 1 5 

Beautiful Gate of the Temple, 82 

Bedouins, 18, 104, 105 

Beersheba, 3, 4, 22 {Beit Jibrin)^ 

36, 96 (Giblin) ; visible from 

Rama. 91 
Beisdn (Bethshan), 47 
Beit Jibrhi, Beersheba, 22 
Beit ' Uret Tahta (Beth-horon the 

nelher), 85 

Belfort, castle, 13 

Belinas (Dan), 22, 23, 25, 53 

Belmont {Soba)^ 96 

Belvoir, castle, 43 

Benjamin, lot of the tribe of, 5, 55, 
61,81,98 ; Bahurim in the tribe 
of, 63 ; gate of, at Jerusalem, 81, 

Beon (Bohan), stone of, 63 

Berytus, Bishop of, 12 

Bethany, 64 ; road from Jerusalem 

to, 74*; road leading to, through 

the Golden Gate, 82 ; through 

the Valley Gate, 82 
Bethel, 3, 52, 57, 61, 62 (Beitin), 

98 ; road to, from Jerusalem, 81 
Beth-haccerem, 90 
Beth-hoglah, 58 

Beth-horon the nether, 85 ; on 
road from Old Gate, 81 

Bethlehem, description of, 86^- 89; 
over against Bezeth, 96 ; road tp 
from Gate of Merchants at 
Jerusalem, 80 ; two leagues from 
Jerusalem, 65 ; wine made at, 

Bethphage, 64 
Beth-rehob, 22, 41 
Bethsaida {Sheikh Seiydd), 34, 

Bethshan, 7, 38, 41, 47; on the 
border of Issachar, 98 ; on the 
border of the half- tribe of 
Manasseh, 98 

Bethshemesh of Juda ('Ain 
Shems), 85, 86, 95 

Bethsura, castle, 91 

Bethulia, 28, 34, 39, 40 ; Mount, 

32, 33 

Beyrout, 6, 12, 15 

Bezek, near Bethlehem, 89 

Bezeth (Bethsech), near Bethle- 
hem, 96 

Biblium (Gebal,//<^^//), 15 

Bildad the Shuhite, 30 

Bireh, 54 

Birket er Rdvi (Phiale), 23 
Birket es Sultdn^ 67, 70 
Birket Mamilla^ 69, 70 
Bitumen, 58, 60 
Bosra, 7 
Bostrum, 7 
Botrus {Batrihi), 15 
Buzra, city of, 24 



Brachmans, i 

Bicka'ah, valley in Code Syria, 41 
Buzereth, 7 


Cabul, 31, 41 ; border of Asshur, 

98. See Kabul 
Cadesh Naphtali, 27 
Caesarea of Palestine, 7, 52, 94 ; 

Burchard sailed past, in 
Caesarea Philippi, 14. 17, 41, 53, 

97 ; why so called. 22 
Caiaphas, house of, 78 
Cain, Mount, 45 ; is the border of 

Zabulon, 98 
Calvary, Mount, 76, 80 
Cambylle, 92 

Camel, the hill so called (Kedar), 

Cana of Galilee, 38, 39, 41 
Canaan, son of Ham, his sons, 37 ; 

his tomb, 17 
Canaanites, families of the, 19 
Capernaum, 6, 23, 28, 29, 31 ; 

called Julia by Josephus, 41 
Cappadocia visited by Burchard, 

III; wine made in, loi 
Carmel, Mount, 6, 9, 46, 47, 49, 52, 

93, 94 ; (Carmelion), 39; boraer 

of Asshur, 98 ; of Issachar, 98 ; 

of Zabulon, 98 ; Burchard sailed 

past, III 
Carmel where Nabal dwelt, 96 
Carmelion, 39 ; valley, 42 ; valley 

is the border of Zabulon, 98 
Carmelite Friars, 94 
Casale Lamberti, 19 
Castagneau (fish), 28 
Castellum Fabae (bean castle), 46 
Castellum of Martha and Mary, 64 
Castle of Adummim, 63 

„ Arachas. 17, 18, 105 
„ Belfort(Kalates Shakif), 

„ Belmont, 96 

„ Btlvoir, 43 

„ Bethsura, 96 

„ Docus, 56 

„ Faba (bean castle), 46 

„ Herod the Great, 90 

Judin, 26 
„ King's, 26 
„ Krach (des Chevaliers, 
KuHat el Hosji), 18, 

Castle of Krach (Montreal), 7, 38, 

„ built by Maccabees and 
Romans near Olivet, 

„ Margat, 14, 20, 105 . 
„ Mary Magdalen (Mej- 
del), 34 

„ Mont tort {KnPaf el 

Kurein)^ 21 
., Nephin {Rds esh 

S/iakkah), 16 
„ Pilgrims' (Chateau Pele- 

rin), 7. 9, 93-95, m 
„ the Pisans, 68 
„ Scandalium, lo 
„ Sephet, 27, 31, 32, 55 
„ above the town of 

Sephora, 41 
„ on Mount Tabor, 43 
Toron, 21 
Catholicus, the Armenian, 108 
Caucasus, i 

Cave where Adam and Eve 

mourned for Abel, 92 
Caymon ( Tell Keimfln), 45 
Cedron brook, 67, 69, 72, 74, 81, 

82, 84 
Chaco [Kakim), 94 
Chaldaea, 3, 5 
Chaldaeans, 104 

Chapel at the way into the church 
of B. V. M. in Jehosha- 
phat, 73 
„ of the Invention of the 
Cross, 77 
of St. John Baptist on 
Jordan, 57, 58 
„ at Lazarus's tomb, 64 
„ of St. Pelagia, 83 
Chariton, St. {Khareililn), 93 
Charles, King of Sicily, 9 
Cherith, brook, 56 
Chinnereth, 28 
Chorazin, 23, 29, 41 
Chrysostom, St. John, no 
Church, St. Anne's, 70 
„ The Ascension, 83 
„ at Bethlehem, 87, 88 
„ of B.V. M.'s sepulchre, 72, 
73, 75 

„ of Gethsemane, 73 
„ of Golgotha, 75 
„ at Hebron, 91 



Church of Holy Sepulchre, 65, 75 
„ called the House of Bread 

(Pater noster), 83 
„ of Nativity at Bethlehem, 


„ on Mount Sion, 76 

„ of SS. Paula and Eusto- 

chium, 89 
„ built by St. Peter at 
Antaradiis, 90 

Churches at Sebaste dedicated to 
St. John the Baptist, 50 

Cilicia, 106 ; wine made in, loi 

Cleopatra, 62 

Coele Syria, 6 

Coenaciduni grande^ 78 

Columns, marble, at Sebaste, 51 

Coracinus, fish, 28 

Corner, Gate of the, 81 

Cotton, 99 

County of Tripoli, borders of, 15, 

Crocodiles, 94 
Crypts, holy places in, 39 
Cyprus, visited by Burchard, in 
Cyril of Alexandria, 58, no 


Dabbils el Abd, 63 
Dalmanutha, 23 

Damascus, 6, 7, 25, 31, 35, 43 ; 

fruits of, ICQ ; border of Naph- 

tali, 98 ; Syria of, 6 
Damielta, visited by Burchard, 


Dan (to Beersheba), 4 ; (Belinas), 
22, 53 ; lot of the tribe of, 85, 98 

David, city of, 67, 80 ; gate of, 80 ; 
tomb on Mount Sion, 80; tower 
of, 66, 67, 70, 78, 80 

Dead Sea, 4, 6, 8, 36, 38, 49, 58, 
62 ; description of, 59 ; border 
of Judah, 47 ; fruit, 63 ; a 
tongue of the, 90 ; visible from 
Jerusalem, 68, 79 

Deborah's palm-tree, 62 

Debir {edh Dhahertyeh)^ 92 

Decaptnis, 31 ; boundaries of, 41 

Demetrius, King, 13 

edh Dhahertyeh, 92 

Diocletian, 12 

Diospolis, or Lydda, 95 ; the way 
to, 85 ; a road from the Fish 
Gate at Jerusalem leads to, 80 

Divisions, Burchard's, of the Holy 

Land, 4, 8 
Docus, castle, 56 
Dog's Pass, 15, 41 
Dor, 94 

Dora, border of Dan, 98 ; Bur- 
chard sailed past, in 
Dothan, 28, 32, 33, 40 
Dragon's Well, 73 ; Gate of the, 


Dung Gate, 68, 8i, 82 

Ebal, Mount, 53 
Ecclesiastical History, the, 112 
Edissa, 6 
Edom, 31, 35 

Egypt, I, 33, 49 ; river of, 96 ; 
road to, from Gate of Mer- 
chants at Jerusalem, 80; St. 
Mary of, 78 

Egyptians, religion of the, 104 

Ekron, ark drawn from, 86 ; 
Burchard sailed past, iii; 
stands four leagues south of 
Bethshemesh, 95 ; visible from 
Ramah, 91 

Elah (Valley of Terebinth), 96 

Eleutherus, river, 13, 14 

Elijah, 9, 13, 22 ; his cave on 
Carmel, 94 

Elisha, 33; his birthplace, 40; 
the fountain whose waters he 
healed, 57, 89 ; his way from 
Carmel to Gilgal through 
Shunem, 47 ; his tomb at 
Samaria, 50 

Emmaus (Nicopolis), 85, 96 

Emon (Chephar-haamonai), 55, 56 

Endor, village of, 43, 44 

Engaddi, Mount, 59, 62, 89 ; 
vineyard of, 63 

Engannim, 49 

En Rogel, 75 

Ephraim, border and lot of the 
tribe of, 54-56, 61, 63, 86, 95, 
98 ; Mount, 17, 33, 45, 46, 49, 
52, 81 ; Gate of, 68, 69, 81 

Esau, 35-37 

Esdraelon, plain, 7, 43, 45, 46 
Esdiid^ 95 
Eshcol, brook, 89 
Ethiopia, 3 ; road to, through 
Gate of Merchants, 80 



Ethiopians, 104 

Eunuchs in Lesser Armenia, no 
Euphrates, 6, 8 


Faba, castle and plain, 46 
Families of the Canaanites, 19 
Field of Aceldama, 74, 84 

„ Damascus at Hebron, 91, 

„ Megiddo = plain of Es- 

draelon, 46 
„ Naboth the Jezreelite, 48, 


Field, Fuller's, 70, 74, 84 

,, Shepherd's, 86 
Fish Gate, 80 
Flagellation, Pillar of, 77 
Forest of Lebanon, the district 

called. 41 
Fountain, Elisha's, 57, 59, 60 
„ Gate, 68 
„ on Gihon, 68, 70 
„ of Siloam, 66, 70, 71, 
74, 75 

,, which is in Jezreel {'Am 
Jaliid), 47 

Framonia, 5 
Filleh, 46 

Fuller's Field, 74, 84 
Fusail^ 56 


Gad, tribe of, 37, 38 
Gadara, 34 ; border of Ephraim, 

Galilee, 7, 27, 81 ; border of, 49 ; 
border of Naphtali, 98 ; plain 
of, border of Ephraim, 98 ; 
plain of, 46 ; road to, from St. 
Stephen's Gate, 81 ; of the 
Gentiles, 13, 29, 30, 31, 41 ; sea 
of, 23, 27-29, 32-34, 36, 37, 40, 
43, 45, 46 ; land ot the two 
tribes and the half-tribe begins 
at the head of the, 97 ; is the 
border of Naphtali, 98 

Gamala, 30 

Game in Holy Land, 102 

Garden of Balsam, 62 

Gate Beautiful of the Temple, 82 

„ of Benjamin, 81, 84 

„ of the Corner, 81 

„ David's, 80 

I Gate of the Dragon well, 82 
Dung, 68, 81, 82 
of Ephraim, 68, 69, 81 

„ Fi=h, 80 

„ Fountain, 68, 82 

„ Golden, 82 

„ Judgment, 68, 81 

„ of the Merchants, 80 

„ Old, 68, 81, 84 

„ Sheep, 69, 70, 73. 81 

„ St. Stephen's, 69, 8 1 ; Dragon 
Well not outside, 73 

„ Valley, 69, 82 

„ Water, 66, 67 
Gath, 95 ; visible from Rama, 91 
Gath-Hepher, Jonah's home, 39 
Gaza or Gazara, 33, 96 ; road to, 

from Gate of Merchants, 80 ; 

Burchard sailed past, in ; 

visible from Rama, 91 
Gebal, 15 

Gehennon, Valley of, 75, 83 
Gennesareth, border of Zabulon, 

George, St., Valley of, 31 
Georgia, 2, 26 
Georgians, 104, 107 
Gerar, 3 

Gerasa {Kkersa), 34 
Gerayn (Jezreel), 48 

„ Little (Engannim), 49 
Gerinum., 48 
Gerizim, Mount, 53 
Gethsemane, 73, 74 
Gibeab (Jeb'a), 55, 85, 96 
Gibeon on the road leading from 

the Old Gate, 81 
Gibeonites, 96 

Gibilin, Gibhn {Beit Jibrhi), 22 
Gihon, Mount, 66, 69, 84 ; water- 
course of, 70 
Gilboa, 7, 37, 38, 47-49 
Gilead, land of, 51, 56; Mount, 

25, 36-38, 49 
Gilgal, 56, 57, 60, 63 
Gloria in excels is, 87 
I Golden Gate, 82 
\ Golgotha, church of, 75 
I Gomorrah, 49 
I Goshen, land of, in 
I Greece, wine made in, loi 
Greek sect, 3, 104 ; monks at 
Beth-hoglah, 58 ; at Sebasie, 



Gregory Nazianzen, no 
Gregory X., Pope, 104 
Gur, the going up unto, 45 


Hachilah (Achillas), 89 

Haifa, 9, 44, 93, 94 ; Burchard 

sailed past, in 
Ham, son of Noah, 17, 19 
Hamath, 30 
Hanisin^ 9 

Hananeel, tower of, 70 

Haylon, modern name of Machae- 
runta, 51 

Hazor, 21, 24, 26, 41 

Heber the Kenite, 26 

Hebron, 3, 55, 91 ; eight leagues 
from Jerusalem, 65 ; road to, 
leading from Gate of Merchants, 
80 ; visited by Burchard, in 

Helena, Queen of Adiabene, tomb 

of, 74, 84 , , . . 

Helena, St., place where she found 

the Cross, 77 
Herbs that grow in the Holy Land, 


Hermon, 28, 31, 35. 43-45, 47, 48 ; 

description of, 24-26 
Hermon, the little hill of [Jebel 

Nebi Dhahy), south of Tabor, 

43-45 . .. . 

Hermonmm (Hermoniim), 44, 45 

Hermon, brook, mistake for 
Arnon, 60 

Herod the Great, 38, 62, 89 ; his 
impregnable castle, 89, 90 ; re- 
built Caesarea, 94 

Herod Agrippa, 78 

Herod, tetrarch of Galilee, 40, 57 

Heshbon, 7 ; land of, 56 

Hezekiah, 70 

Holofernes, 39, 40 

Holy Land, 99 

Holy places, 2-4, 65 

Holy Sepulchre, church of the, 75 

Horites, 36 

El Hosn (Krach des Chevaliers), 

18, 105 
Hospital, St. John's, 71 
Hospitallers, Knights, 9, 18, 20, 

< House of Bread,' chapel so- 
called, 83 
„ of Caiaphas, 78 

House, King's, at Jerusalem, 68 
,, Matthew's, 32 
„ Patriarch's, at Jerusalem, 

„ of Simon the leper, at 
Bethany, 64 

„ of Zacharia, 93, 96 
Hugh, King of Cyprus, 9 
Hungary, wine made in, loi 
Hunting, royal, 24, 43 


lamnia, Jamnia ( Yebnah, south of 
Joppa), 86, 95 ; Burchard sailed 
past, III ; visible from Rama, 

larchas, i 

laselic, chief Prelate of the Nes- 

torians, 107 
Ibelin (lamnia), 95 
Idumaea, 29 
Idumaeans, 38. 90 
Illustrious Valley, 48, 49, 59 
India, i 

Invention of the Cross, chapel of 

the, 77 
lotapata, 41 
Isaiah's tomb, 75 
Iskanderimeh^ 10 
Issachar, lot of the tribe of, 98 
Ituraea, 7, 13, 14, 23, 28, 41 ; 

identical with Galilee of Gentiles 

according to Burchard, 31 ; 

Philip, tetrarch of, 22 


Jabbok, 36, 37, 60 
Jabin, King ot Hazor, 21, 24 
Jacob, 3 ; his dream, 51 ; his well, 
53, 54 

Jacobites, 3, 26, 104, 107 

James of Vitry, 8 

James, St. (Great), 78 

Jaulan district, 23 

Jeb'a (Gibeah), 55 

Jebel Korimtul (Mount Quaren- 

tina), 57 
Jebel Nebi Dhahy, 43 
Jediir^ district in Bashan, 7 
Jehoshaphat, tomb, 74 ; valley, 69 


Jehu, King of Israel, 45 

Jemn (Engannim), 49 

/(fr^j/e (Gerasa), 34 ^ \^ 



Jericho, 38, 56-59, 62 ; a road led 
to, through the Golden Gate, 82; 
was seven leagues from Jerusa- 
lem, 68 ; visible from Jerusalem, 

Jerome, St., i ; his study and 
tomb, 89 

Jerusalem, 65, 89; its size, 79, 80 ; 
its gates, 80-82 ; the mountains 
round about it, 83, 84 ; patriarch- 
ate of, 1 5 

Jews' pitch, 60 

Jezreel {Zcri?t), 43, 45-47 

Jibeil (Gebal), 15 

el Jib (Gibeon), 85 

Joachim, 41, 42 

Job s tomb, 23, 30 

„ well (^Am Eyiib)^ 75 

John the Baptist, St., churches at 
Samaria, 50 

de Joinville, 20 

Jonathan Maccabeus, 13 

Joppa, 52, 95 ; Burchard sailed 
past. III ; road from the Fish 
Gate to, 80 ; place where Jonah 
took ship, 86 ; thirteen leagues 
from Jerusalem, 65 ; visible from 
Rama, 91 

Jor and Dan, streams, 22, 23 

Joram, King of Israel, 45 

Jordan, Burchard only went a 
little way beyond, 97; source 
of, 17, 22 ; Bedouins dwell 
round about, 105 ; its two 
streams unite before the gates 
of Belinas, 28 ; enters Sea of 
Galilee, 29, 30 ; bounds plain 
of Galilee, 46 ; flows out of Sea 
of Galilee, 38 ; passes Bethshan, 
47 ; country of the two tribes 
and the half-tribe lies to the east 
of, 38 ; description of plains on 
banks of, 56 ; flows to the east 
of Mourns Hermon and Gilboa, 
49 ; Moab on the east of it, 38 ; 
according to some writers it 
does not enter the Dead Sea, 
60 ; Israelites crossed it, 57; its 
plains, 52, 56 ; plain visible 
from Jerusalem, 78 ; borders 
the half-tribe of Manasseh, 98 ; 
borders tribe of Issachar, 98 ; 
reaches down from the Illustri- 
ous Valley as far as the Dead 

I Sea, 49 ; the road leading to it 
' Jrom Jerusalem, 74 ; a road led 
1 to it through the Golden Gate, 
I 82 ; througn the Valley Gate, 
! 82 ; visible from Jerusalem, 68 ; 
I visible from Rama, 93 ; visible 
j even to Mount Abarim and 

Shittim, 50 
\ Jordan, the Little (Wady el 
Hamam), 34 
Joseph of Arimathea, 86 
Joseph, husband of Mary, 3 

„ pit into which he was put, 

32, 39 
Joshua, 13 

Josiah, King of Judah, 46 
Jotapata, 33 

Judah, lot of the tribe of, 38, 96, 


Judgment Gate, 68, 81 
Judm, castle, 26 
Judith, 39, 40 

Julia(s), Josephus's name for 

Capernaum, 41 
Jupiter Olympius, temple of, 53, 



Kabul, 26. See Cabul 
Kadesh Barnea, 7, 8, 25, 38, 68, 

Naphtali, 27, 30, 41 
KaMn (Chaco), 94 
Karioth, St., 93 
Kaiikab el Hawa (Belvoir), 43 
Kedar, 23, 30 
Kedes, 27-29 
Kefr ^Ana (Emon), 55 
Kerak, 38, 58 
Khan Jiibb Yihef, 32 
Khan Liibben (Libnah), 54 
Khersa (Gerasa), 34 
el Khudr (St. George), 31 
King's Castle, 26 

house at Jerusalem, 68 
Kirjath Arba, 91 
„ Jearim, 86 
„ Sepher, 92 
Kishon, brook, 43-45 
Knights HospitallerS; 9, 18-20,43, 

Knights Templars, 6, 9, 13, 14, 27, 



Knights of the Teutonic Order, 9, 
21, 26 

Krach des Chevaliers {El Nosn), 

18, 105 
Krach {Kerak)^ 7, 38, 58 
KuVat el Bahar^ 13 
K II Pat J al lid (tower), 68 
KuPaf Jeddin (Judin), 26 
Kulhit el K2irei7i (Montfort), 21 
KuVat esh Shakif^ 1 3 


Lachish {Tell el Hesy), 85 
Laish, 22 

Land of Arabia, the whole visible 

from Rama, 90 
„ of Gilead, 56 
„ of Heshbon, 56 
,, of Moab and Ammon, 58 
„ of the Philistines, visible 

from Rama, 91 
„ of Tappuah, 49, 52, 56 
„ of two tribes and half-tribe, 

56, 97 

Latins in the Holy Land, 102, 103 

Lazarus's tomb, 64 

Lebanon, Belinas at foot of, 21 ; 
end of, 17 ; fertile valleys in, 25 ; 
Forest of, 41 ; 'fountain of 
gardens and well of living 
waters' rises at foot of, 16, 17; 
Mount, 6, 10 ; description of, 
24-26 ; Holy Land begins at 
foot of, 97 ; mountains of, 46 ; 
is the northern border of the 
Bedouins, 105 ; plain of, 31, 41 ; 
snow on, 24, 60 ; Syria of, 6 ; 
visible from Mount of Sermon, 
28 ; wine of, 14 ; wine grown all 
along, lor 

Lebonah {Khcm Lubben)^ 54 

Legend at Beyrout, 15 

Legend of Serpent at Bethlehem, 

Leontes (Eleutherus) river, 13 
Leopards, Mount of, 17 
Leshem Dan, 22 
Libnah {Khan Lubben)^ 54, 95 
Little Jordan {Wady el Haindm), 

Lord's Leap, the, 42 

„ prison, 78 
Loi's wife, 59 
Lois of the tribes, 97, 98 

Luz, or Bethel {Beitin), 61 
Lydda, or Diospolis, 95 ; the road 
to, 85 


Maccabeus, Simon, 56 
Maccabees, Book of, 13 ; home of, 

Macherunta. 50-52 

Magdala (Magedan, Vulg.), 23 

Magdalum, the castle of Mary 

Magdalen {Mejdel), 34 
Mahalath, 36 
Mahanaim, 37 
Mahomet, 8 
Makkedah, 95 
Mamre, 91 

Manasseh, lot of, 52 ; of the half 

tribe of, 25, 34 
Manasseh, Sanballat's son-in-law, 


Manger at Bethlehem, 87 
Maon, wilderness of, 90 
Marble columns at Sebaste, 51 
Margat, 6 ; castle, 14, 20, 105 ; 

wine made at, loi 
Mark Antony, 62 
Mark, St., 23 
Maronites, 3, 16, 26, 104 
Martin, Sr., 49 
Mary of Egypt, St., 78 
Masada, 89 

Mass, the Armenian ritual of the, 

108, no, III 
Massagetae, i 
Matthew, St., 23, 27 
Maundeville, Sir John, 92 
Mecca, 8 

Medan (waters of Dan), 23 
Medes, 5, J04 
Media, 3 

Mediterranean Sea, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 
44, 45 ; bounds Caesarea on 
west, 94 ; forms the border of 
Asshur, 98 : of Dan, 98 ; of 
Judah, 97 ; of half tribe of 
Manasseh, 98 ; of the whole 
Promised Land, 99 ; the brook 
Kishon runs into, 45 ; visible 
from Kana, 90 

el Medyeh (Modin), 95 

Megiddo (Ezbuba), 45, 46 ; plain 
of", 33 

Mejdel (Magdalum), 34 



Mello, 67 

Memphis, i 

* Mensa,' 27, 29 

Merchants, Gate of the, 80 

el Mcrkeb (Margat), 20 

Merom, waters of, 22, 26, 30 

el Mesh-hed^ in the Buttauf plain, 

Jonah's tomb at, 39 
Mesopotamia, 30, 36 ; Syria of, 


Mesrha {el Mezra'h), 46 
Michmash {M2(kh?nds), 54, 55 
Micmethah (Manatat), 94 
Midianites, 18, 104, 105 
Milestone, Roman, 63 
Miiiyeh^ 27 

Misrephoth, waters of, 24 
Moab, 7, 25, 30, 38, 58 ; hill 

country of, 56 r pasture land of, 


Modin, 95 

Moloch, temple of, 83 
Monreal, 7, 38 
Montfort, castle, 21 
Montreal, 7, 58 

Moreh (Illustrious Valley), 48, 49, 

Moriah, Mount, 6, 67, 69 
Mosaic work at Bethlehem, 87 
Mosque at Sebaste, once the 

cathedral, 50 
Mount Abarim, 38, 56, 98 ; visible 
from Jerusalem, 78 
,, Aceldama, 84 
„ Antilibanus, 14; end of, 

„ Bethel, 52 

„ of the Assassins, 19, 20 

„ Bethulia, 32, 33, 40 

„ Cain, 45 ; border of Zabu- 

lon, 98 
„ Calvary, 76, 80 
„ Carmel, 6, 9, 46, 47, 93, 94 ; j 

Burchard sailed past, III I 
,, Carmel, where Nabal ! 

dwelt, 90 j 
„ Dan, above the city of I 

Sichem, 53 , 
„ Ebal, 53 
,, Engaddi, 59, 62, 89 
„ Ephraim, 17, 33, 45, 46, ^ 

49, 52, 95 ; road to, from 

Jerusalem, 81 
„ Gerizim, 53 

)unt Gihon, 66, 69, 84 
„ Gilead, 25, 36-38, 49 
„ Gilboa, 37, 38, 47-49 
„ Halak, 13 

„ Hermon, 13, 28, 31, 35, 
43-45, 47,48; description 
of, 24-26 

„ Lebanon, 6, 10, 28; descrip- 
tion of, 24-26 ; end of, 
17; the Holy Land be- 
gins at the foot of, 97 ; 
snow on, 60 

,, of Leopards, 17 

„ of Moab, 58 

„ Moriah, 61, 67, 69 

„ Nebo, 56; visible from 
Jerusalem, 78 

„ of Offence, 65, 75, 83 

„ of Olives, 64, 65, 71, 72, 
74, 83, 84 ; road to, leads 
through Valley Gate, 82 

„ Phegor (Peor), 56 

„ of Phoenicia, 46, 49 

„ Pisgah, 56 

„ of Precipitation, 42 

„ Quarantania, 56, 57, 60, 63 

,, Sanyr, 28, 35, 48 ; descrip- 
tion of, 24-26 

„ Seir, 8, 13, 34-38, 58; 
visible from Rama, 90 

„ Seir (Sirion, Hermon), 25 

„ of Sermon, 27 

„ Sharon, 9, 10, 26, 95 

„ Shiloh, 84 

„ Sion, 66, 67, 69, 74, 78-80; 
church on, 76 ; David's 
tomb on, 80 

„ Tabor, 33, 43-45, 49 ; bor- 
der of Issachar and 
Zabulon, 98 

„ a tall round, north of Cana 
of Galilee, 39 

„ of the Vannini, 18 

„ whereon Solomon built a 
temple to Chemosh, 84 


Naason, border of Asshur, 98 ; 

village, 32 
Nabatenia, 3 
Ndblus (Neapolis), 54 
Nachal Eshcol, 93 
Nahr Kadisha^ 1 6, 1 7 
Nain, 43 



Naphtali, ciiy of, 33 ; lot of tribe 
of, 98 

Nativity, place of the, 39, 42, 87 
Nazareth, 39, 42, 43, 65 
Neapolis (Sichem), 53, 54, 61 
Nebajoth, 36 

Nebo {Jebel Neba), south-west of 
Hesbon, 56; visible from Jeru- 
salem, 78 

Nebuchadnezzar, 1 1 

Nebulosa Tower, 68, 69 

Aeby Saimvil^ 55, 85 
,, Sebeldn. 26 

Neel Eshcol, 92, 93 

Nephin, castle, 16 

Nestorians, 3, 16, 26, 104, 107 

Nicopolis (Emmaus), 85, 96 

Nile, Burchard sailed to the 
mouth of, III 

Nob {Beit Nuba), 95 

Nubia, 3 

Nubians, 104 


Oak of Mamre, 91 

Obadiah's tomb, 50 

Oft'ence, Mount of, 75, 83 

Ou[, King of Bashan, 7 

Old Gate, 68, 81, 84 

Old Man of the Mountain, 105 

Old Sichem, 54 

Olives, Mount of, 64, 65, 74, 83, 

Origen's tomb, 12 

Palae Tyrus, 10 

Palestine, 6, 7 ; Burchard sailed 

along the coast of, 1 1 1 
Palm-tree, Deborah's, 62 
Paneas, 22 

Paradise, apple of, 100 
Paran, wilderness of, 35-38, 58, 
59, 105 

Parcel of ground which Jacob 

gave to Joseph, 54 
Parthians, 5 

Parvum Gerinum {Jeiiiii), 48 
Pass, the Dog's {Nahr el Kelb), 
I5» 41 

Patriarch of Jerusalem's house, 

Paula, St., church of, 89 
Pelagia, St., 83 

Pella, 34 
Peniel, 37 

Persia, 3; Persians, 104 
Peter, St., 20, 34, 43 
Petra in the wilderness, 7, 38 
Petra Incisa, 6, 7, 9, 12 
Peirus Comestor, 50 
Pharaoh, 46 
Phasaelus {Fiisail), 56 
Phaselu?, tower overhanging 

Valley Gate, 82 
Phegor (Peor), Mount, 56 
Phesech {Fiisail), 56 
Phiale, 23, 30 
Philip, St., 34, 93 
Philip, tetrarch of Galilee, 22-31, 


Philistia, 5 ; Philistines, land of 
the, visible from Rama, 91 ; 
Philistiim, 6 

Philostratus, i 

Phoenice, Agenor's daughter, 6 
Phoenicia, 9, 46, 49 ; Syria of, 6 
Pilate, 51 

Pil;jrim's Castle, 6, 7, 9, 12, 93-95 
Pillar of Flagellation, 77 ; of Salt 

(Lot's wile), 51 
Pisgah, 56, 78 

Pit into which Joseph was cast, 
32, 33 

Place where Ahab fought the 
Syrians, 48 ; where Ahaziah, 
King of Judah, died, 45 ; of the 
Annunciation, 39, 42 ; where 
the Apostles sat at Gethsemane, 
73 ; where the Ark stood, 85 ; 
where Barak fought agamst 
Sisera, 43, 45 ; of the Betrayal, 
73; of the Bloody Sweat, 73 ; 
where the Canaanitish woman 
besought Christ for her child, 
14; where Cain slew Abel, 92 ; 
where Christ preached the Ser- 
mon on the Mount, 27 ; where 
Chiist stood on the shore of 
the sea of Galilee, 28 ; where 
the Cross was dug up, 77 ; of 
the Crucifixion, 80 ; where Eli- 
jah slew the priests of Baal, 44, 
45 ; where Elisha raised the 
Shunamite woman's child from 
the dead, 47 ; where Gideon 
fought Midian, 48 ; where Jero- 
boam set up one of the calves, 



52 ; where John the Baptist was 
beheaded, 50; where St. James 
was beheaded, 78 ; where Jesus 
read in the synagogue at Naza- 
reth, 42 ; where Judas hanged 
himself, 80; of the Last Supper, 
78 ; where the Lord was bap- j 
tized, 57, 58; where the Lord \ 
called Matthew from the receipt | 
of custom, 32 ; where the Lord 
baid, ' Sit ye here,' etc., 73 ; 
where the Lord turned the wai err 
into wine, 38, 39; where Martha ; 
and Mary met the Lord, 64; i 
where the Blessed Virgin Mary ■ 
stood near the Cro-s ; where j 
she dwelt after the Ascension, j 
78 ; where St. Mary of Egypt 
prayed, 78 ; of the Nativity, 39, ! 
42, 87; of the Passion, 42; 1 
where Philip baptized the \ 
eunuch, 93 ; where the Philis- 
tines pitched their camp when I 
Saul came to Gilboa, 47, 48; ' 
where Rabshakeh stood, 74 ; of I 
the Resurrection, 42 ; where the j 
Syrians fought against Ahab, ! 
46 ; where the Lord when he ! 
came down from Tabor said, 
'Tell no man,' etc., 43 ; where 
Saul fought the Philistines, 48 ; ' 
of Tophet, 83 ; where the man ' 
fell among thieves, 63 ; without 1 
Tyre, where Christ preached, ■ 

12 ! 

Plain of Esdraelon, 43, 45 ; of 

Faba, 46; at foot of hill country I 

of Judaea, 91 ; of Galilee, 46, | 

98 ; of Jordan, 52, 56 ; plain of ' 

Jordan is visible from Jeru- ! 

ijHlem, 78; of Lebanon, 24, 31, ; 

41 ; of Megiddo, 33 ; near j 

Sueta, 30; nearTortosa, 18; of ; 

Zaanaim, 27 i 

Plato, I I 

Pool, the inner, in St. Anne's i 

church, 71 ; the Sheep Pool, 71 ; | 
tne bathing-pool of Siloam, 70, 
71, 74; the upperpool made by 
Hezekiah, 71 

Pools, land o', 41 i 

Pope Gregory X., 164 i 

Prison, the Lord's. 78 

Psephinus tower, 68 

Ptolemais, 8 

Ptolemy, son of Abobus, 56 
Pyramids built beside the slime 

pits, 60 
Pyrgos Stratonis, 94 
Pythagoras, i 


Ouarantania, Mount, 56, 57^ 60, 
63 ; wilderness of, 62 


Kabbah (Areopolis), 58 
Rabbath, 7 

Races or Rase (Edessa), 6 

Rachel's tomb, 86 

Rama of Benjamin, 62 ; near 
Bethel, 62 ; Cedron flows from, 
74; Xi^2iX JeUa {er Rd?n), 55; 
of Naphtali {Rdmeh, south-east 
of Tyre), 55; near Sephet 
(Rameh south-west of Safed), 
55 ; near Tekoa {Rdmet el 
Khali I), 55, 90, 91 

Ram ah. 13 

Ramathaim Zophim, 33, 44, 52, 55, 
85 ; visible from Rama, 91 

Rameh. Sec Rama 

Rdmet el Khalil.^ north of Hebron, 

Ramleh, 55, 86 
Ramoth (lilead, 49 
Ramula, 86 

Rds el ""Ain^ Ehsha's fountain. 57 ; 

the ' well of living water,' 10 
Rds esh Shakkah, 16 
Rase or Races (Edessa), 6 
Red Earth, 92 
Red Sea, 5. 8, 38, 56 
Rehob (Roob), 13 
Religions of the Holy Land, 


Rephaim, Valley, 89 ; wine made 

in, loi 
River of Egypt, 96 
Rogel, the well, 75 
Romans, 33 
Roob, land of, 13 
e}' Rudd, 1 8 
Ruins at Samaria, 51 
Ruma, where Jonah was buried, 


Rumeh in the Buttauf plain, 
possibly Ruma, 39 




Saint Andrew, city of, 34 
Anne's Church, 70 
„ Augustine's Day, 29 
„ Cyril of Alexandria, 1 10 
„ Gregory Nazianzen, no 
„ Helena, place where she 

found the Cross, 77 
„ James the Great, 78 
„ Jerome, i ; his study and 

tomb, 89 
„ John Baptist, his chapel on 

Jordan, 57, 58 ; his 

churches at Sebaste, 50; 

hospital at Jerusalem, 71 ; 

place where he was born, 


„ John Chrysostom, 1 10 
„ Karioth {Khareituti), 93 
„ Mark, 23 
„ Martin's Day, 49 
„ Mary of Egypt, 78 
„ Matthew, 23, 27 
,, Omer, Hugh of, 21 
„ Paula, Church of, 89 
„ Pelagia, 83 

„ Peier, church built by at 

Antaradus, 20; city of, 34; 

tabernacles, 43 
„ Philip, 34, 93 
„ Samuel's, 84 

Stephen's Gate, 69, 81 ; 

Dragon Well not outside, 


„ George's Valley, 31, 32 
Safed, 27, 28, 41 

Salim, where John baptized, 49, 

Salt, pillar of, 59 
Salt Sea, 56, 58, 60 
Saltiis D'?ti^ 42 

Samaria, 5 ; border of, 49; district 
of, 5 1 ; road to, from St. Stephen's 
Gate, 81 ; visited by Burchard, 
50, III 

Samuel's, St., 84 ; Samuel's tomb, 

Sanballat, 53 
Sangeor, 32 

Sanyr, Mount, 24-26, 28, 29, 35, 48 
Saracens, their religion, 103 
Sarepta, 13 
Saron, 95 

Saul, 47 ; birthplace of, 55 

Saxony, 5 
Scandalium, 10 

Scythopolis {Bcthsha7i), 7, 37,41, 

Sea, Dead, 4, 6, 8, 36, 38, 49, 58, 
59. 62 ; border of Judah, 97 ; a 
tongue of, 90 ; visible from 
Jerusalem, 68, 79 

Sea of Galilee, 23, 27-29, 32-34, 
36, 37, 40, 43, 45, 46 ; border of 
Naphtali, 98 ; land of the two 
tribes and the half tribe begins 
at, 97 

Sea of Gennesaret, 40 

Sea, Mediterranean, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 
44, 45 ; borders Asshur, Dan, 
Judah, the half tribe of Manas- 
seh, and the entire Holy Land, 

Sea, Red, 5, 8, 38, 56 
Sea, Salt, 56, 58, 60 
Seat, the Lord's, at Jacob's Well, 

Sebaste, 5, 50, 65 

Sebastieh (Samaria), 51 

Sebbeh (Masada), 89 

Seffilrieh, 39 

Segor (Zoar). 5g 

Seilun (Shiloh),' 85 

Seir, Mount, 8, 13, 34-38, 58; 

visible from Rama, 90; (Sirion, 

Hermon), 25 
Seleucia, visited by Burchard, in 
Sennacherib, 98 
Sephet, 27, 31, 32, 41, 55 
Sephora, 39, 41, 42 
Sephoris, 39 

Serpent, Itgend of, at Bethlehem, 


Sharon, Mount, 9, 10, 26, 95 

Sheikh S'ad, 23 

Sheikh Seiydd (Bethsaida), 34 

Sheep Gate, 67, 70, 73, 81 

Sheep Pool, 70 

Sheep with big tails, 105 

Shepherd's Field, the, 86 

Shiloh, 55, 79, 81, 84 

Shittim, 38 

Shobek (Monreal), 7, 38 
Shochoh of Judah, 96 
Shunem {Sulem), 47 
Shur, wilderness of, 91 
Sibleth [Jibeil), 15 
Sicliem, 17, 52, 65, 81 



Siddim, Vale of, 60 

Sidon, 6, 13-15, 22, 41 ; bishop of, 

12, 15 ; border ot Asshur, 98 ; 

wine made at, loi ; Sidonians, 


Sihon, King of Heshbon, 7 
Siioam fountain, 66. 70, 71, 74, 75 ; 
bathinor pool, 70; gate leading 
to the fount and pool, 82 
Simeon, lot of the tribe of, 97, 98 
Simon the leper's house at 

Bethany, 64 
Sin, 18 

Sinai, wilderness of, 38 

Sion, 66, 67, 69, 74, 78-82 ; church 

on, 76; David's tomb on, 80 
Sisera, 26. 43 
Soda (Belmont), 96 
Sobal, Syria, 7, 8 
Sodom, 49; Sodomites, 59 
Sorek valley, 96 

Stephen, St., gate at Jerusalem, 
69, 81 ; Dragon Well not out- 
side it, 73 

Stone bearing the print of the 
Lord's knees, 74 

Stone from which the Lord 
ascended into heaven, 83 

Stone that was rolled away from 
the sepulchre, 76 

Stone Zoheleth, 75 

Strato's tower, 94 

Suburbe (Megiddo), 45 

Sueta, 23, 30, 34 

Si//em, east of Ftileh (Shunem), 

Sugar mills at Jericho,. 57 
Sugar-canes, 99 
Synochim, 18 

Syria, 3, 30 ; Burchard sailed to, 

III ; Syrias, the, 5-8 
Syrians, their religion, 3, 103, 104 


Tabor, Mount, 33, 43-45, 49 ; 
border of Issachar and Zabulon, 


Tammun (Tappuah), 49 
Tantalus, i 

Tappuah, land of, 49, 52, 56 
Taurus, Mount, 5 
Tekoa, 55, 62, 65, 89, 90 
Tell Dothan, 32 
„ Jezar,()6 

Tell el Kady (Dan river), 23 

„ Main (Maon), 90 

„ esh Shaghur, 59 
Teman, 34 

Templars, Knights, 6, 9, 13, 14, 

I 27, 93 

i Temple, the, 65, 66, 69, 82 ; area, 
; 68 

Temple of Moloch, 83 
i Temple of Jupiter Olympius, 53, 

Ten Tribes, land of the, 97 
Terebinth, Valley of the, 96 

I Teutonic Order, Knights of the, 

j 9» 21, 26 
Thebez, 54 

Thiras, son of Japhet, 11 
Tiberias, 34, 39-41 ; the prince of, 

Tibnin, 21 
Timnath-heres, 17 
Tirzah, 52 
Tobler, Dr., 20 

Tomb of Adam and Eve, Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, 91 ; of 
! Amos, 89 ; of B.V. Mary, 72, 75, 
1 82 ; of Canaan, 17 ; of his sons, 
\ 19; of David, on Mount Sion, 
I 80 ; Elisha's, 50 ; Helena's, 
\ Queen of Adiabene, 74, 84 ; of 
Herod the Great, 90; of Isaiah, 
75 ; of Jehoshaphat, 74 ; St. 
Jerome's, 89 ; Job's, 23, 30 ; of 
St. John Baptist at Samaria, 
50 ; Jonah's, 39 ; Joseph's, 54 ; 
Joshua's, 17 ; Lazarus's, 64 ; 
Maccabeus's, 95 ; Obadiah's, 
50 ; Origen's, 12 ; of the Patri- 
archs', at Hebron, 91 ; St. Pela- 
gia's, 83 ; Rachel's, 86; Samuel's, 
44 ; of the sons of Canaan, 
I ^9 

Tombs at Cadesh Naphtali, 27 

Tophet, Valley of, 75 

Toron, 21 ; de los caballeros 

{Latnin), 95 
Tortosa, 18 

Tower, Akra, 84 ; Antony's, 80 ; 
David's, 66, 67, 70, 78, 80 ; 
of Hananeel, 70 ; of Phaselu?, 

Trachonitis, 7, 23, 28, 31, 41, 48 ; 
Philip, tetrarch of, 22 ; = Plain 
of Lebanon, 24 



Tracones^ 24 ; iraconcs et Pyra- 

mides, 1 1 
Tripoli, 6, 14. 16, 17, 105 ; county 

of, 15, 21 
Turcomans, 18. 104-106 
Tyre, 6, 9-12 ; x\rchbishop of, 15 ; 

Burchard sailed to, iii ; Toron 

built as a check to, 21 ; view of 

Lebanon from, 25 


Uannini, 18 
Upper Gihon, 69 
Uz, land of, 31 


Valania, 6, 20, 21 ; bishop's see, 

Valley of Achor ( Wady Kelt), 57 ; 
of Bakar, 41 ; of Berachah 
{IVady Breikut)^ south-west of 
Tekoa, 90 ; of Buka'ah, in Coele 
Syria. 41 ; of Carmelion, 39, 42, 
98 ; Gate, 69, 73, 82 ; of Gehen- 
non, 75 ; ^ate leading to, 82 ; 
St. George's, 31 ; the Illustrious, 
48, 49, 59 ; of Jehoshaphat, 69, 
71, 72, 74, 82 ; of Jezreel, 48, 49 ; 
where Judith washed herself, 
40 ; of Rephaim, 89, 96 ; wine 
made at, loi ; of Sangeor, 32 ; 
encircling Mount Sion, 67 ; of 
Siddim, 60 ; of Sorek, 96 ; of 
Tears, 92,93 ; of the Terebinth, 
95 ; of Tophet, 75 ; toward the 
setting sun, near the Mediterra- 
nean, the lot of the tribe of Dan, 
98 ; 'of vision,' burden of the, 
71 ; west of Jerusalem, 67, 68 ; 
of Zaanaim, 26, 27 

Vannini, 105 

i Vein of the Nile, 28 

j Verses on Jerusalem, 61 

I Vespasian, 80 

/ Vines, loi, 102 ; Naboth's vine- 
yard, 52 ; vineyards in Valley 
of Rephaim, 89 
Virgin's Tomb, church at the, 72, 

Jacques de Vitry, 8, 40, 79 

Wady Breikiit, 90 ; Kelt, 57 ; ^/ 
} Melek (Carmelion), 39 

Walls of Jerusalem, 79, 80 

Water Gate, 66, 67, 82 

Waters of Dan, 23 ; of Merom, 22, 
26, 30 ; of Mizrephoth, 24 ; of 
Strife, 8 ; the well of living, 10, 
16, 17 

' Way of the Sea,' 29 

WellJ David's, at Bethlehem, 87 ; 
the Dragon's, 73; Gate of the 
Dragon's, 82 ; Jacob's, 53, 54 ; 
Jesub's, at Nazareth, 42 ; of 
living waters, 10, 16; en Rogel, 

Wilderness, the Great, 96 ; of 

Paran. See Paran 
Wine of the Holy Land, loi 


Zaanaim, Valley of, 26, 27 
Zabul (Kabul), 26 
Zabulon, lot of, 98 
Zachariah, house of, 93, 96 
Zaracin, 48 
Zared, brook, 60 
Zibeon the Hivite, 37 
Ziph {Tell Zif), 90 
Zoheleth, the stone, 75 
Ziiweirah (Zoar), 59 



Palestine f tigcima' '^ext gocietg. 














PREFACE . . . . . . V 

NOTE ON THE MAPS . . . . . ix 


THE HOLY LAND . . . . .1 



PROMISED LAND . . . , '9 




OF JORDAN . . . . . .29 


LAND . . . . . -32 




JERUSALEM . . . . . -43 





INDEX . . . . . . .64 







Marino Sanuto, or Sanudo, surnamed Torsello, came of 
a noble and wealthy Venetian family. Blondus in his 
abridgment of Venetian history tells us that when, in 
A.D. 1204, the Republic bought Crete from Boniface, Mar- 
quis of Montferrat, Marco Sanuto was the ambassador sent 
to arrange the terms of the bargain. At this period the 
Republic allowed its citizens to keep any territory which 
they might capture from the infidels as their own private 
property ; and in 1207 the same Marco Sanuto at the 
head of a band of Venetian adventurers made himself 
master of the islands of Naxos, Paros, Melos, and, indeed, 
most of the Cyclades, which were governed by his family, 
with the title of Duke of Naxos, for more than a hundred 
and twenty years. Marino is said to have been the son of 
this Marco. The dates, however, make this rather doubt- 
ful. He himself had many of the qualities necessary for 
the task which he undertook, of setting forth the method 
in which a crusade ought to be undertaken. He seems to 
have been well read, though pedantic in the extreme : his 
references to and quotations from Vegetius and Frontinus 



show much industry, if not much discrimination. Deter- 
mined to do his work thoroughly, he wrote a history of the 
Holy Land and its inhabitants, beginning with Adam and 
Eve, giving a resume of Bible history, a brief account of 
the Roman conquest, and a somewhat detailed history of 
the Crusades, chiefly taken from Jacques de Vitry, while 
in his history of Tartary he closely follows Vincent of 

Besides these literary labours, Marino five times crossed 
the sea ; he sailed to Cyprus, Cilicia (then called Armenia), 
Rhodes, Alexandria, and Acre. He was a frequent visitor 
to the two latter places, and tells us how the Emperor 
Palaeologus built a tower at Acre in his time. He admits 
that he does not know the Egyptian coast well, but tells 
what he has heard about it from trustworthy men. Besides 
these voyages, he sailed from Venice to Bruges, that he 
might get books to serve in writing his history ; he also 
travelled to Holstein and * Sclavia.' The greater part of 
his life, he says, was spent in * Romania,' and consequently 
he affirms that he well understands its condition and re- 
sources, especially those of the province of ' Amorea,' or 
Morea. In a letter addressed to the Emperor of Constan- 
tinople he says that owing to his zeal for the cause of 
Christendom and his many journeys on its behalf, he has 
remained a widower for a long time, but that he is pre- 
pared to accept a wife from the Emperor, should he offer 
him a lady of suitable rank. Altogether Marino appears 
to have been a real enthusiast at a time when the crusading 
spirit was fast dying out in Europe ; possibly his zeal for 
the faith may have been quickened by the perilous position 
of his family principality of Naxos, which was certain to 



be one of the first provinces of Christendom to succumb to 
a forward movement of the Turk. He was learned with 
the learning of the Middle Ages, and had access to the 
best society of his time ; his letter (in French) to Philip IV. 
of France and his allusions to Edward I. of England are 
curious ; but the most notable feature of his great work is 
the collection of maps appended to it. Of these, that of 
the Mediterranean has unluckily perished ; but there 
remain a Mappa Mundi, a map of the Holy Land,^ and 
a map of the coast of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt ;^ 
besides plans of Jerusalem^ and of Acre. The map of the 
Holy Land is divided by lines into squares exactly as 
described by John Poloner in his account of his map ; 
probably Poloner's map was copied from Sanuto's, or else 
they both followed the custom of the time in covering their 
maps with a quadrangular network of lines. In the four- 
teenth century map-making was in its infancy. Ptolemy's^ 
great work was not translated into Latin until 1409, and 
was not published until 1475 ; and in the meantime the 
Italian mariners, who had grown to be the carriers of the 
world in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, used what 
are called compass-charts — that is, their navigators drew 
lines from numerous points, those lines representing all the 
points of the compass, and then determined the position 
of ports and capes by the intersection of these lines from 
different centres. This system is illustrated by the lines 
drawn from various points on the margin of Sanuto's 

^ Reproductions of these three maps will be found at the end of 
this extract. 

2 For an account of Ptolemy and his map, see a paper by 
J. Macdonald, LL.D., F..S.A. Scot., in the Jour7%al of the Archczological 
Institute^ vol. xlviii., p. 36 (No. 192, 1891). 



Mappa Mundi, where it is interesting to notice how, as is 
done in Italy to this day, the names of winds are used as 
names for points of the compass ; for instance, the ventus 
qui dicitur M agister, as he calls it in Book II., Part IV. 
(Maestrale, mistral, N.W.), comes opposite to the ventus 
Syrocaniis (Scirocco, S.E.) and so on. The lines on the 
Holy Land map are merely drawn for convenience of find- 
ing places therein, and have nothing to do with the com- 
pass, or with latitude and longitude. They did not, 
therefore, in any way assist in the construction of the map, 
which was drawn first and had the lines added afterwards. 

Marino Sanuto presented his four maps and two copies 
of his book, one bound in red and the other in yellow, to 
Pope John XXL on September 24, 1321. 


London, 1896. 

By Lieutenant-Colonel Conder, R.E. 

Marino Sanuto wrote a generation after the loss of 
Acre in 1291 A.D., and though his work as a whole is 
interesting, as representing the last lingering hopes of 
reconquest of Palestine, it shows that the country was no 
longer as familiarly known to Europeans as in the twelfth 
or thirteenth centuries. There is no indication of his 
having been in Palestine, and he depends for topography 
chiefly on Burchard of Mount Sion, and Jacques de Vitry. 
His map of Egypt and Western Asia is remarkable for 
confusing the Gulf of Akabah with the Persian Gulf. The 
Tigris and Euphrates are made to fall into the sea im- 
mediately east of St. Catherine (Mount Sinai) ; while on 
the other hand the names along the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean, in Asia Minor and Syria are numerous and fairly 

The map of Palestine is a rude sketch, quite out of scale, 
and very incorrect. The country is too wide on the north 
in proportion to the south. The division into squares is 
only intended for convenience in reference, and has no 
connection with degrees and meridians. The part east of 
Jordan is especially faulty, the topography having been 
shifted northwards, so that the Arnon occupies the place of 



the great Wddy Sdr'm Gilead, while Heshbon, Elealeh, and 
Bethjeshimoth, are shown half-way up the Jordan Valley. 
By an extraordinary error Damascus is shown close to 
Paneas, and west of Hermon : the waters of Merom are 
shown much too large, and the Dead Sea comparatively is 
too small. The topography of this map has been explained 
in the notes to the text. The map contains the names of 
the tribes, but Naphtali is shown east of Jordan, and Dan 
and Simeon are omitted. 

Various notes are written, to explain the geography, on 
this map. In the north-east corner is written, ' All beyond 
Uz, Cedar, and the Sea of Galilee is called Basan, beyond 
Uz and the Plain of Lebanon, and it was part of Decapolis.' 
A mountain south-east of Hermon, near Bozrah {Jebel 
ed Driiz), bears the title * Aman[a] beyond Ausitis' (Uz) ; 
and south of this is Sanyr or Seir, with the note * joins 
Damascus.' The pass near Banias bears the title ' Hamath 
begins.' Lake Phiale is shown south of Sueta (the Jaulan), 
with the words, 'Josephus calls this Phiale, the Saracens 
Medan, whence the true vein of Jordan, by an underground 
opening.' In Mount Gilead the legend reads, ' Menay and 
Machaerus, now Haylon, here David hid, and Job was 
tempted.' The site, though placed so far north, seems to 
refer to Machaerus [Mekhaur), and to Minyeh on the north 
side of the Zerka M'ain, and should be east of the Dead 
Sea The words ' Region of Sihon, King of Heshbon,' are, 
however, written south of this legend. By the * Torrent 
Arnon ' — also shown too far north — is Ar, with the legend, 
* Metropolis of Arabia Tertia at Corcae ' {i.e., Kerak) ; but 
Abarim Nebo and Pisgah are wrongly marked south of 
this, while further south is written, * Amon (Ammon), and 
Euphrates, and Petra Deserta of Egypt, and Crac, and 
Mons Regalis ' — all apparently at Kerak. South, again, 
is written, * Mount Seir beyond Edom,' and * The Valley 



of Salt, and Lake Asphaltidis, or dead, where the houses 
of the wicked were drowned.' 

West of Jordan there are fewer legends on the map. At 
Banias is written, * Laas (Laish), and Belinas, and Dan, and 
Lesedan (Laish-Dan), and Caesarea Philippi.' By Merom 
is written, ' Here Joshua fought twenty kings and followed 
them to Sidon and destroyed.' North of the Sea of Galilee 
is shown the Mensa, or 'Table' Mountain, with the words, 
* God fed the people with five loaves ' ; and further east 
near Corocaym (Chorazin), ' God and the seven loaves.' 
Near Belvoir, east of Tabor, is the legend, 'Here Barak 
fought Sisera'; and south of this, ^Metropolis of Betsan ' 
{Beisdn). By Mount Hermon and Hermoniim {Jebel Nebi 
Dhdhy) is written, * Gideon fought Midian, Ahab fought 
the Assyrians ' {i.e., Syrians), in the Valley of Jezreel. In 
the middle of the Plain of Esdraelon are the words, ' Here 
Necho killed Josiah.' South of Shechem is ' Timnath 
Serah and the Sepulchre of Joshua ' ( Kefr Hdris), and by 
Maginas and Bira is the ' Palm-tree of Deborah.' Doctu, 
Rooc, represents 'AinDiik, near Jericho, but is placed north 
of Fasel, or Fasael {Fusdil)^ south of which Quarantena 
is shown. Herodium is placed far east of Bethlehem in 
the ' Desert of Tekoa,' and west of this trjs ggis means 
'Tower of the Flock' (Eder), close to Bethlehem. The 
site of Philip's Fountain bears the legend, ' Baptism of the 
Eunuch, also the mountain called the Jaw' (Ramath Lehi); 
and West of Hebron is written, ' The Valley of Eshcol, 
whence the two men brought the cluster.' The ' Sepulchre 
of the Maccabees ' is marked {^XLatrort) west of Nicopolis, 
but Ramula {Ranileh) is placed south of Jaffa. On the 
south-west of the Dead Sea is the legend, ' Desert of 
Maon. To east and south Idumaea and Mount Seir, which 
was beyond the borders of the Children of Israel, and on 
the south was Amalek, and the land of Amalek reached 



from the tongue of the Dead Sea to Kadesh Barnea.' 
West of this is shown ' Carmel, and here Nabal lived.' 

The map of Jerusalem is remarkable as showing the 
wall on the south including the Coenaculum, but on the 
south-east it joins the Haram on the present line, which is 
also that represented in other parts of its course. The 
Piscina Inferior seems to answer to the pool recently dis- 
covered near Siloam. The word ' Jerusalem ' is written 
west of the Haram (see Notes on the * City of Jerusalem '). 
Mount Sion is placed on the south slopes of Olivet. The 
remaining legends are easily intelligible to the reader. 


Secrets for True Crusaders 




The Position of the Countries which border 
UPON the Holy Land. 

The holy Promised Land is in Syria, which includes all 
the land from the Tigris even to Egypt, and has on the 
east the Tigris ; on the south, the Arabian Gulf ; on the 
west, the Mediterranean Sea ; on the north, Armenia and 
Cappadocia. This country, whose general name is Syria, 
is divided into sundry parts. Syria the First, lying be- 
tween the Tigris and Euphrates, reaches a long way north 
and south — that is to say, from Mount Taurus to the 
Arabian Gulf — and is called Syria of Mesopotamia ; for an 
account of which see Part VI., chap. i. In it is Edissa,^ 
which in Tobit is called Rages, commonly called Roasse ; 
it lies fourteen leagues beyond the Euphrates, between the 

^ Edessa, now Orfa. It was also called Callirhot\ whence its 
Armenian name, Er-Roha^ from which comes the mediaeval Roasse. 




Taurus and Caucasus Mountains ; for an account of which 
see Part V., chap. ii. This northern part has taken to 
itself the name of the whole province, and is called, strictly 
speaking, Mesopotamia of Syria. In it also are Nineveh 
and Babylon. Furthermore, this Syria is divided into 
provinces — to wit, Media, Chaldaea, and Persia, as is 
shown in the map. Syria the Second is called Coele- 
Syria ; it reaches from the river Euphrates and Mount 
Taurus as far as the river Abana, which enters the sea in 
the city of Valania, below the castle of Margat.^ Antioch 
is the chief city of this Syria. Syria the Third is called 
Syria Phoenice : it begins at the aforesaid river of 
Valania, and extends to the south as far as Petra Incisa, 
which they call Districtum, under Mount Carmel, now 
called Pilgrims' Castle.^ To the east it reaches as far as 
the entrance to Hamath ; wherefore it contains Capernaum, 
Margat, Antaradus,^ and other cities : its chief city is Tyre. 
Syria the Fourth is called Syria of Damascus, because its 
chief city is Damascus ; it is also called Syria of Lebanon, 
because therein is the famous Mount Lebanon ; it is also 
often simply called Syria, as Isaiah says (vii. 8) * The head 
of Syria is Damascus.' Moreover, the three parts of 
Palestine are called Syrias ; wherefore Syria the Fifth is 
that Palestine which is properly called Philistim.^ Its chief 
city is Caesarea, and it begins at Pilgrims' Castle, and 
stretches toward the south, along the shore of the Medi- 

' Margat, now e/ Merkeb^ close to the shore, near Ras Hassan,, 
south of Latakia. Balanea, or Belinas, now Banids^ is close by. The 
river Abana was near Damascus, and did not flow into the sea as 
here supposed. 

2 Districtum, or Petra Incisa, now Khurbet Dustrey^ is close to 
Chateau Pelerin, which was built in 1192 by the Templars at 'Athlit. 

3 Capernaum is now Kefr Lihti^ near 'Athlit. Antaradus, or Tortosa. 
{Tariiis)^ on the mainland by the island of Aradus {er Rudd)^ is in. 
North Syria. Hamath {Hdinah) on the Orontes. 

4 Philistim is Philistia, and Caesarea {Kaisdrieh) south of 'Athlit. 



terranean Sea, as far as Gaza. Syria the Sixth is the 
second Palestine, whose chief city is Jerusalem, including 
all the hill country even to the Dead Sea, and to the 
wilderness of Kadesh-barnea. This country, strictly speak- 
ing, is called Judaea, the name of a part being given to the 
whole. Syria the Seventh is the other part of Palestine ; 
its chief city is Bethsan,^ at the foot of Mount Gilboa, near 
Jordan ; it contains Galilee and the great plain of Jezreel. 
The three parts of Arabia are likewise called Syrias ; 
wherefore there is an eighth Syria, whose chief city is 
Bozra, now called Bozereth, in ancient times Bersa. This 
is bounded by the country of Trachonitis, by Ituraea on 
the west, and on the north almost by Damascus. Being so 
near to Damascus, that part of Arabia is sometimes called 
Syria of Damascus ; wherefore Aretha- is called King of 
Arabia, when in truth he was King of Damascus. Syria 
the Ninth is that Arabia whose chief city is Petra,'^ called 
of old Nabath, Ar^ and Areopolis ; it stands on the brook 
Arnon, on the boundary of the Moabites and the Amorites. 
It also contained the kingdom of Sihon, King of Heshbon, 
and the kingdom of Og, King of Basan, and Mount Gilead ; 
on the south side it joins Arabia the First. Syria the Tenth 
is that Arabia whose chief city is Monreal, which is now 
called Crach. In olden times this was called Petra in the 
Wilderness ; it stands beyond the Dead Sea, and has 
dominion over the land of Moab, which properly is called 
Syria Sobal, and contains within itself the whole of 
Idumaea, which is Mount Seyr, and all the land round 
about the Dead Sea, even to Kadesh-barnea, and to Ezion 

^ Bethsan, Bethshean, is now Beisdn. 

2 Aretas I., 2 Mace. v. 8 ; Aretas 11. , 2 Cor. xi. 32. 

3 The sites of Petra and of Montreal had been lost, and transferred 
to Kerak as early as 1280 a.d. (Burchard). Montreal was at Shobek, 
north of Petra (Ludolph, p. 118, note). Ar, or Areopolis, was at 
Rabbah, further north, but south of Kerak. 


Geber, and the Waters of Strife, as one goes to the Red 
Sea, and across the broad wilderness, even to the Euphrates. 
This is Arabia the Great, and First ; it is also called Arabia 
Etidaevion — that is, Holy. Therein, in the city of Mecca, 
the abominable Mahomet is worshipped. 


The Coast Region of the Whole of Syria. 

On going out of Asia Minor, one finds a narrow road 
between the mountains and the sea, which is called Passus 
Portellae.i Half a day's journey to the south of this, one 
reaches Alexandretta ; beyond this, one crosses the Black 
Mountain, and in another half-day's journey arrives at the 
two castles of Bagaras and Trapasa, at the foot of the 
mountain. From hence it is half a day's journey to 
Antioch. Ten miles from Antioch is the sea, and a port 
named Soldyn, or St. Simeon's Harbour f for an account of 
which see Part V., chap, iv., and Part VH., chap. i. From 
St. Simeon's Harbour to Pulzyn is twenty miles. P>om 
Pulzyn to Gloriata is twenty miles. From Gloriata to 
Liza is ten miles. From Liza to Lena is ten miles. From 
Lena to Valania is five miles. Five miles beyond Valania, 
one league from the sea, is the exceeding strong castle of 
Margat, which once belonged to the Hospitallers. At 

• ^ Passus Portellae is apparently the Syrian Gate now called Jonah's 
Pillar, and Alexandretta {Iskanderiai) at the south side of the Gulf of 
Issus. The Black Mountain was the range east of this gulf and north 
of the Orontes, the Mons Amanus, or Giaour Dagh^ which was crossed 
by the Pylae Syriae, or Beilan Pass. 

2 Soldyn, or St. Simeon's Harbour, was the ancient Seleucia, now 
Suiveidiyeh^ the port of Antioch, at the mouth of the Orontes. 


the river which flows past Valania (see first chapter) the 
principality of Antioch ends, and that of Tripoli begins. 
From Margat to Tortosa is twenty miles ; Tortosa is 
called Antaradus, because it stands before the rays of the 
sun. Aradium^ is an island standing in the deep sea, 
half a league away from the mainland. On it there is 
a city which was built by Aradius, son of Canaan, and 
therein St. Peter found St. Clement's mother.- There 
St. Peter, on his way to Antioch, built a little church, and 
dedicated it to the Blessed Virgin. This is said to have 
been the first church built in her honour, wherefore the 
holy Mother of God hath wrought many miracles therein, 
so that the church is reverenced even by the infidels. 
Beside Antaradus, half a league to the east, are mountains 
whereon certain Saracens dwell ; this is called the Country 
of the Assassins, where the Old Man of the Mountains 
bore rule, about whom you will be told hereafter. Eight 
leagues from Tortosa is the castle of Arachus,^ built by 
Aracheus, son of Canaan"^ (Part V., chap. vii.). Here ends 
Lebanon and Antilebanon. Half a league from the castle 
of Arachus is the town of Sin,^ which was built by Syneus, 
son of Canaan ; some call this castle Sinochim. From 
this town and castle a great, beauteous and fertile 
plain reaches even to the castle of Crach, which once 
belonged to the Hospitallers. This plain extends for ten 
leagues, as far as Tortosa, and contains many villages, fair 
groves of fig-trees, olive-trees, and the like ; it abounds 
with streams and exceeding rich pastures. For this cause 

^ Aradium is the ancient Arvad, on the small island er Rimd, west 
of Tortosa. 

^ Poloner, p. 34. 

3 Arachus is the ancient Arkah, now 'Arkah^ near the shore north 
of Tripoli. 

4 Poloner, p. 35. 

5 Sin, the Sinna of Strabo, the town of the Sinite (Gen. x. 17 ; 
I Chron. i. 15 ; cf. Ges. Thes., p. 948). The site is not known. 



the Turcomans, and Midianites, and Bedouins dwell there 
in tents, with their wives and children and cattle. On the 
east side this plain is bordered by mountains of no great 
extent ; these begin opposite Arachus, and reach as far as 
Baracha. Therein dwell the Saracens called Vavini, a 
fierce and malignant race that hates Christians. Twenty- 
miles from Tortosa is Tripoli, whereof you may read in 
Part VI., chap, xviii. Five miles from Tripoli is Nephyn.^ 
Five miles from Nephyn is Botrum, commonly called 
Botron.- Eleven miles from Botrum is Biblium, commonly 
called Zibelet,^ the ancient Evea, founded by Evens, son 
of Canaan, for which see Part VI., chap, xviii. Five 
miles from Biblium is Berytus, for which see Part VI., 
chap, vi., and three leagues from thence, toward Botron, 
by the river (which is called the Dog's River), there is the 
place which is called the Dog's Pass.* This is the boun- 
dary between the patriarchates of Antioch and Jerusalem. 
No one can pass that way by land, save by favour of the 
Saracens, for a few of them could hold the pass against 
any number, seeing that the way, which leads between a 
perpendicular cliff and the sea, is not more than a fathom 
wide, and extends for about a quarter of a league. For 
an account of all these places, see Part VI., chap, xviii. 
Ten miles from Beyrout is Sidon, commonly called 
Sageta,"* for which see Part VI., chap, vi.*^ Two leagues 
from Sidon is Sarepta, described already. Two leagues 
from Sarepta is the river Elenterus, which rises in Ituraea, 

^ Nephyn was at I^ds Shakkah^ south of Tripoli. 

2 Botron, the ancient Batruna, classical Botrys, now Batrun. 

3 Zibelet, the ancient Gebal, classic Byblos, modern Jibeil. 

4 The Dog's Pass is the pass south of the Dog River {Nahr el Kelb) 
north of Beirut. 

5 Sageta, Sayette, for Saida (Sidon), is the usual mediaeval name of 
this city. 

^ Ludolph von Suchem, p. 52, in this series. 


at the foot of Hazor, and first runs eastward and then 
westward ; it runs past the castle of Belfort, near Hermon, 
as far as which Joshua pursued the twenty-four kings 
(Josh. xi.). It was as far as this place that Jonathan 
pursued King Demetrius (i Mace. xii.). It enters the sea 
between Sarepta and Tyre.^ Three leagues from the river 
Eleutherus is Tyre, where Origen was buried. In Tyre 
there are many relics of the saints, for in the time of 
Diocletian God alone knows how many received there the 
crown of martyrdom. Much is told about Tyre in 
Part VI., chap, xi., xii., and Part VII., chap. i. One 
league beyond Tyre is the famous ^ well of living waters,'- 
about a bow-shot from the road leading to the following 
places, whose water (Cant. iv. 15) comes down in a stream 
from Lebanon. Although it is called a well, in the sin- 
gular number, yet there are four of the same shape, but of 
different size ; for one of them, being square, has its sides 
forty cubits in length, while the other three measure about 
twenty-five. All of them are fenced about with walls of 
exceeding great stones, built in almost indestructible 
fashion, and raised to the height of a lance, and 
higher ; thus the water is collected in them, and runs 
down thither from every side without the walls. There are 
there likewise watercourses as deep and as wide as a man's 
step, whereby water is supplied to all the plain of Tyre. 
These fountains are little more than a bow-shot distant 
from the sea ; yet in this little space they turn the wheels 
of six mills. To this fount the saying of Ecclesiasticus 

^ This River Eleutherus (i Mace. xii. 30) is the modern Litany^ 
the Nahr Lanteh of Abu el Feda. Rising in the Lebanon (not in 
Ituraea) west of Hermon, it runs south, then west, passing Belfort 
{Ktd'at esh Shakif), to the sea between Sarepta {Surafend) and Tyre. 
It is not probably the Eleutherus which is the Nahr el Kebir north 
of Tripoli. 

2 Poloner, p. 31. 



well applies (Ecclus. xxiv. 31), * I will water my best 
garden, and will water abundantly my garden bed : and 
lo, my brook became a river, and my river became a sea.' 
This is described above, Part VI., chap, xviii.^ Little more 
than a league from the well is the castle of Scandalium, 
mentioned in Part VI., chap. viii. Three leagues from 
Scandalium, after you have crossed Mount Sharon, at its 
foot, Casale Lamberti stands by the sea-shore, and it is a 
place which abounds in gardens, vineyards, and running 
waters. Four leagues beyond Casale Lamberti^ is Acre, 
also called Ptolemais and Abiron. The children of Israel 
never possessed this city ; for an account thereof, see 
Part VI., chap. iv. Three miles from Acre is Haifu, which 
stands at the foot of Mount Carmel, on the north side. 
A league from Haifu is the way that leads to Pilgrims' 
Castle; upon Mount Carmel, about half a league further, is 
Elijah's cave, and Elisha's abode, and the well where the 
sons of the prophets dwelt. Afterwards Carmelite monks 
dwelt upon Mount Carmel.^ Three leagues from Haifu is 
Pilgrims' Castle, which once belonged to the Templars ; it 
is exceeding strong, and stands in the deep sea. Three 
leagues from Pilgrims' Castle is Caesarea of Palestine ; 
the compasses make this twenty miles ; for an account 
thereof, see Part VI., chap. iv. Two leagues from Caesarea 
is the fort of Assur, or Dora f the compasses make this 

^ These springs and tanks still exist at /\ds el ^Ain (Palae-Tyrus), 
south of Tyre, close to the shore (see ' Memoirs Western Palestine 
Survey,' vol. i., sheet i., and vol. iii., appendix) ; the aqueduct thence 
sti.l runs to Tyre. 

Scandalium (Champ de Lion), is now Iskanderuneh, on the shore 
north of Rds en NaMrah ('the head of the cutting,' or Ladder of 
Tyre), here called Mount Sharon. Casale Lamberti, or Casale 
Imberti, is now Hamshi^ south of the Ladder of Tyre. 

3 Elijah's cave was shown at the present site, on the west of Carmel, 
above Haifa. 

4 Assur is Arsnf south of Caesarea. Dora is placed usually at 
Tantilra, north of Caesarea. 



fifteen miles. It used to belong to the Templars, who even 
after its loss were wont to pay twenty-eight thousand 
bezants a year to the Lord of Assur; for an account 
thereof, see Part III, chap. iv. Eight leagues from Assur 
is Joppa, which stands by the sea-shore, and is commonly 
called Zapha (Jaffa) ; for an account thereof, see Part VI., 
chap. iii. Ten miles from Joppa {?) is Beroald^s Castle.^ 
Ten miles from Beroald's Castle is Ascalon ; for an account 
thereof, see Part VL, chap. viii. Fifteen miles from 
Ascalon is Gaza; for an account thereof, see Part VI., 
chap, xviii. From Gaza to Darum'^ is fifteen miles ; for an 
account of Darum, see Book II., Part IV., chap, xviii. 
Here endeth the Promised Land. Some mention of the 
aforesaid places will likewise be found in Book II., 
Part IV., chap. xxv. 


The Situation of Notable Places in the Holy 
Promised Land. 

The length of the Promised Land extends from Dan, 
which lies at the foot of Mount Lebanon, on the north, to 
Beersheba, which lies to the south near the wilderness of 
Egypt, a distance of eighty-three leagues. Its breadth 
extends from the Mediterranean Sea on the west, twenty- 
ei>4ht leagues toward the east. Let us now conceive the 
Holy Land to be divided by straight lines into twenty- 
eight spaces, which reach from Mount Lebanon to the 
wilderness, through which you go into Egypt ; and like- 

^ Chateau Beroald is the ruined castle on the shore south of 
Yehnah^ at the place called Mi7iet el KiiVaJi. 
~ Darum, now Deir el Beldh, south of Gaza. 


wise into eighty-three other spaces by straight lines drawn 

across the former from west to east, so as to produce many 

squares, each measuring one league, or two miles.^ In 

the first, or last space, which is to the eastward, beginning 

at the north and going down toward the south, is Ar, now 

Areopolis, or Petra. In square seventy-six is Petra^ of the 

Wilderness, or Monreal ; for an account thereof see Part VI., 

chaps, viii. and xviii. In the second space, and the twelfth 

square, is Bozra,^ now Idumaea. In the third space, square 

fifty, is Heshbon ; in the sixty-first is Othonaym. In the 

fourth space, square thirty-six, is Macheronta, or Mahanaim, 

now Haylon ; this is the place where David lay hidden, 

and where John the Baptist was imprisoned.* In the 

fourteenth is Ayr, or Anoth Seyr.^ In the sixth is Sethyn.^ 

In the fifth space, the eighth square_, is Baalgad.^ In the 

twenty-first is Kedar, a noble fenced city on Mount Sanyr.^ 

By it passes the road that leads from Achon along the 

north shore of the Sea of Galilee, past Kedar, to Aram ; 

wherefore in Isaiah ix. it is called ' the way of the sea,' 

^ The word 'space' means in modern language longitude, and 
' square ' latitude. Compare Poloner, passun. 

2 Ludolph, p. 82 ; Isa. xvi. i, in the Vulgate. 

3 Bozrah, or Bostra, is intended, in Bashan, not in Idumaea. 

4 Heshbon, now Hesbdn. Othonaym, possibly Kirjathaim {Kureiyat). 
Macheronta, or Machaerus [el Mekhaur)^\s confused with Mahanaim, 
further north in Gilead, and with Hachilah (Haylon), west of the Dead 

5 Ayr (on map layr) is perhaps a clerical error for Tayr or Sayr, 
with springs (Anoth). It seems to be Tyrus ('Ardk el Emtr)^ in 
South Gilead. 

^ Sethyn is not on the map. 

7 Jiaalgad is placed north-east of the tomb of Job {Sheikh S'ad), or 
near Damascus, at the east foot of Hermon. 

Mount Sanyr (Shenir), or Seir (for Sirion), is not Hermon on the 
map, but apparently the hill of Bashan {/ebel ed Driiz), or else the 
Jaulan range. The map is too confused to make certain, and Sirion 
is throughout confused with Seir. Kedar (see Burchard) is Gamala 
{el Hosn), on the east shore of the Sea of Galilee. 


because it passes all along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, 
crossing the valley in the land of Asher, which now is 
called St. George's Valley, having the city of Salet on the 
left hand.^ This part is called ' Galilee of the nations it is 
also called Beyond Jordan, because it leads beyond Jordan 
to the country called Aran:i. This country is also said to 
be in Galilee of the Gentiles,, because Galilee itself ends 
there at the Jordan. In the sixth space, the thirteenth 
square, is Sueta,^ from whence came Bildad the Shuhite.'^ 
Under the walls of this city, on the side toward Kedar, the 
Saracens from Aram, Mesopotamia, Haman, Syria, Moab, 
Ammon, and all parts of the East, are wont to meet 
together, round about the spring Phiale and there, because 
the place is pleasant, they hold a fair all through the 
summer, and set up tents of divers colours, which afford 
an exceeding beauteous sight from the city of Kedar.-^ 
These in Solomon's Song are called the tents of Kedar. In 
(square) thirty-nine is Bashan ; in fifty-three, Jazer.*^ In 
the seventh space, and the eleventh square, is Job's sepul- 
chre one league from thence begins the ascent of Mount 
Sanyr. In the twenty-fourth is Gadara. In the thirty- 
third is Ephraim. In the twenty-sixth, Phanuel. [In the 

^ St. George's Valley is that in which el E^aneh stands, east of Acre, 
with the shrine of el Khudr (St. George) close by. The Via Maris 
(Isa. ix. i) was supposed to lead from the Sea of Galilee to Acre, 
along the foot of the mountains of Upper Galilee. Salet is not on the 
map ; perhaps a mistake for Safed. 

2 Sueta, or Suethe (the ' black land^), was the mediaeval name of the 

3 Theoderich, chap. xlix. 

4 Lake Phiale is in the Jaulan, but the map shows it south of Sheikh 
S'ad in the Hauran, the whole topography being here out of position. 

5 Cant, i. 5. See John of Wiirzburg, chap. xxv. 

^ Jazer (on map Jacor) is placed close to Jordan, apparently at the 
ruin Sdr^ near Tyrus, in Gilead. 

7 Job's sepulchre is at the traditional site Sheikh S'ad^ in the 
Hauran, where Job's stone is still shown. 



thirty-eighth, labes.] In the forty-fifth, Eleale. In the 
fiftieth, Sartan.i In the fifty-eighth is the Church of St. 
John the Baptist, at the place where Christ was baptized. 
In the sixty-second is Engalym,^ above the Dead Sea. In 
the eighth space, thirtieth square, is Pella.^ In the forty- 
first, Ernon. In the forty-eighth, Betesmuth.* In the 
sixty-first, Bethhoglah,^ where the children of Israel 
mourned for Jacob, their father, when they brought him out 
of Egypt; it is one league distant from the Jordan. In 
the ninth space, twenty-second square, is Chorazim,^ at the 
beginning of the Sea of Galilee. In the twenty-seventh is 
Gerasa,*" from which the country of the Gerasenes takes its 
name. In the thirty-eighth is Sochor.^ In the fifty-eighth, 
Jericho, described already in Part L, chap. iii. In the eighty- 
third is Afasantomar.^ In space ten, square thirty-eight, 

^ Gadara {^Uniin Keis), Ephraim (for Ephron), Phanuel (Penuel), 
labes (Jabesh Gilead), Elealeh {el ^Al), and Sartan (Zaretan), seem 
only placed by guess along the east of Jordan. 

2 The Church of St. John {Kzisr el Yelmd), and Engalym {'Ain 
Hajlah'), but En Eglaim (Ezek. xlvii. lo) was probably east of the 
Dead Sea, 

3 Pella is apparently at Fahil, the true site. Fabri, ii. 185, 235. 

4 Betesmuth, for Beth Jeshimoth {SiiweiineK)^ at the north-east 
corner of the Dead Sea, is shown on the map too high up the Jordan 
Valley. Ernon seems to be for Arnon. 

5 Bethhoglah, at Kiisr Hajlah. 

6 Chorazim, Chorozain, or Corocaym (on the map), stand for 
Chorazin, wrongly placed east of the Jordan, and apparently con- 
founded with Khersa and the Gergesenes. 

7 Gerasa is placed close to the Sea of Galilee (perhaps at Khersa) 
on the map. The real site at Jerdsh^ in east of Gilead, is not 

8 Sochor is an error for Sochot, placed on the map v.'est of Jordan. 
Succoth [ Tell Derala) was east of the river. 

9 Afasantomar is shown on the map at the south-west corner of the 
Dead Sea. Probably Ephes-Dammim (in the Valley of Elah) is here 
confused with the ascent of Adummim {TaPal ed Dum7n)^ above 
Jericho, which has just been mentioned. 



is Salim.^ In forty-one was built the altar of wondrous 
size. In forty-nine is Docus, having behind it, on the north 
side, the land of Tampne.^ In Docus, Ptolemy, the son of 
Abubus, took Simon Maccabeus^ by treachery. From 
Docus there is a fine view to the east, toward Pisgah, and 
to the south, even to Jericho. In fifty-six is Gilgal,^ where 
the children of Israel were circumcised, and where they 
abode for a long time. Near to Gilgal comes the Valley of 
Achor, so called because Achan was stoned there.^ In the 
eleventh space Lebanon is divided from Mount Hermon, 
at the foot whereof, on the north side, stands Damascus. 
Damascus is described in Part VI., chap. xix. In this 
part of the mountain is the road leading to Hamath.^ In 
square twenty is the mount called the Table, where the 
Lord filled five thousand men ; it was here that He preached 
the Sermon on the Mount, and spent the night in prayer. 
From this mount one can see all the country round about 
for ten leagues and more ; the mount is two bow-shots 
long, and a stone's-throw wide.'^ At its foot springs a 
fountain, near the Sea of Galilee, thirty paces distant from 

^ Salym, or Salim, is apparently in the Jordan Valley, near Beisan. 
The name is not now known in this region. 

2 Docus is ^Am Dilk^ north of Jericho, at the foot of Ouarentania. 
The land of Tampne was the plateau east of the Samaritan mountains, 
from Taiiwiiin southwards. 

3 I Mace. xvi. 15, 16. 

4 Gilgal seems to have been placed between Jericho {er Rika) and 
Elisha's Fountain (^Ai?t es Sultan), or sometimes further north, and 
not at the true site {Tell JiljiVieh), north-east of er Riha. 

5 The Valley of Achor is at Wddy el Kelt. 

^ Damascus is wrongly shown on the map west of Hermon and 
north-east of Dan; the 'entrance to Hamath' is shown south of 

7 The scene of feeding the multitude with five loaves was shown on 
the north of the Sea of Galilee, on the slope rising from Khan Minieh, 
where, rather higher up, is now shown the M'aseret ^A/sa, or 'wine- 
press of Jesus.' The fountain is either that at Mlm'e/i, or 'Aln Tab- 



it, which tliey call the vein of the Nile, because it produces 
the fish corconus, which is found nowhere else save in the 
Nile. Twenty paces from that fountain, along the shore 
of the Sea of Galilee, is the place where, after His resur- 
rection, Christ appeared to the seven disciples when they 
were fishing ; and ten paces further is the place where the 
disciples, when they were come out of the ship, beheld live 
coals, and fish laid thereon.^ In twenty-one is Capernaum,^ 
near the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, two leagues 
distant. In it used to be shown the house and place to sit 
by the King's highway,^ from whence Matthew was called 
by Christ. In fifty-one is Fasael,^ three leagues distant from 
the Jordan, in the plain country, where the brook Cherith 
comes down from the mountain, in which place Elijah 
dwelt when the ravens brought him meat (i Kings xxii.). 
In fifty-seven is Quarentana,^ where Christ fasted ; but they 
declare that He was tempted on another mountain, two 
leagues away, toward Bethel and Ai in the south. Beneath 
Quarentana, two bow-shots away from it, is Elisha's foun- 
tain, which he sweetened ; it flows round about Gilgal, on 
the southern side thereof, and there turns great mills ; after 
this it is divided into watercourses, waters many gardens, 
and at last runs into Jordan. In the twelfth space, in the 
twenty-second square, is Bethsaida, the city of Peter, 
Andrew, and Philip ; it stands by the side of the way lead- 
ing from Syria into Egypt, where the sea begins to trend 
to the southward.^ In twenty-eight is Tiberias, from which 

I John xxi. 9. 2 Capernaum is here placed at 7>// I/ihn. 

3 This site was placed near Bethsaida of Galilee, at Sheikh Seiydd, 
near Minieh. 

4 Fasael is at ^Ain Fusail^ in the Jordan Valley (Phasaelis), but 
Cherith was probably east, not west, of Jordan. 

5 Quarentana is Jebel Koruntitl, with Elisha's Fountain {^Ain es 
Sultan) near its foot. 

^ Bethsaida of Galilee is placed at Sheikh Seiydd^ a small shrine 
near Minieh. 


the sea is called the Sea of Tiberias ; of old it was called 
Gennesaret. It extends far along the sea-shore, and on 
its south side there are medicinal baths. At Tiberias ends 
the region called Decapolis ; its boundaries are : on the east, 
the Sea of Galilee ; on the west, Sidon — and this is its 
width : in length it reaches from Tiberias all along the 
north side of the Sea of Galilee, even to Damascus. It is 
called Decapolis from its ten principal cities, which are 
Tiberias, Safet, Kedesh-Naphtali, Hazor, Caesarea, Caper- 
naum, Janapara, Bethsaida, Chorazim, and Bethsan, also 
called Scythopolis.^ This country is also called by divers 
names, for it is called Decapolis, Ituraea, Roob, Kabul, 
and Galilee of the Gentiles ; howbeit Ituraea reaches even 
to Beyrout, which is some twenty leagues to the north of 
Sodon.- In fifty-nine is the castle Adummim, which stands 
on the right hand, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho.^ 
In seventy-two is Herodium,^ where Herod was buried. In 
sixty-seven is Massada,^ an impregnable fortress built by 
Herod on the hill Achillas. In the thirteenth space, twenty- 
fourth square, is Magdalum,^ the castle of Mary Magdalen ; 
it has a great plain fit for pasture on its west and north 
sides. In forty-seven is Ammon,'' which stands in a fair 

^ The names given as those of cities of Decapolis are wrong in 
every case except Scythopolis (Beisan), Decapolis being east of 
Jordan, not west. Janapara is apparently an error for Jotapata. Roob 
(Rehob), Kabul (near Acre), and Galilee of the Gentiles, were not in 

2 Sodon for Sidon. 

3 Adummim is at TaVat ed Duuivi. Josh. xv. 7, xviii. 17 ; Fabri, 
ii. 65-73, 188. 

4 Herodium is probably at Jebel Fureidis, but shown further east on 
the map. 

5 Massada is at Sebbeh^ which is, however, wrongly identified with 
the hill Hachilah, near Maon and Carmel, further north-west. 

^ Magdalum is at Mejdel, in correct position, north of Tiberias. 

7 Ammon, for Rabbath Ammon i^Amindfi), is shown on the map 
north of Elealeh and south of Jabesh Gilead in correct relative posi- 


place, and abounds with all manner of good things. In 
fifty-six is Ai, mentioned already in Part I., chap. iii. In 
sixty-nine is the city of Ziph, near the wilderness ; also 
called Zif, where David hid himself. Immediately to the 
south of it is the wilderness of Maon, wherein is the Mount 
Carmel,^ where Nabal dwelt. In the fourteenth space, 
second square, is Suba, which in Solomon's Song is called 
the Tower of Lebanon.^ In fifteen is Kadesh-Naphtali,^ 
whence came Barak, the son of Abinoam, who fought 
against Sisera on Mount Tabor ; this was one of the cities 
of refuge, and was exceeding fertile. In forty-three is 
Bethulia in thirty-one, Belvoir.^ In thirty-four is Bethsan, 
also called Scythopolis, standing between Gilboa and the 
Jordan. On its walls they hung the heads of Saul and of 
his sons.^ In forty-three is Tirsah,^ where the kings of 
Israel first reigned. In fifty-four is Bahurim, and the 
stone of Bohan.^ In sixty-three is Tekoa, where Amos 
was born, and where he was buried after that King Ahaziah 
had struck him through the temples with a javelin ; this 
city is near the wilderness of Tekoa. Between Tekoa 
and Engaddi is the Valley of Blessing,^ where Jehoshaphat 
overthrew the Idumaeans and the children of Ammon. In 
the fifteenth space, thirtieth square (is the place where) 
Barak fought against Sisera. In the thirty-third is (the 

1 Ai is placed east of Bethel. Zif {Tell Zif), Maon {M^aiji), Carmel 
{Kurinul), were known, but are shown badly on the map. 

2 Suba (and Sobal) stands for Zobah, the south part of Syria near 

3 Kadesh-Naphtali at Kcdes is correct. 

4 Bethulia was shown close to Safed, following the twelfth-century 
view as to Dothan. 

5 Belvoir is Kaukab el Hawa, north of Beisan. 

6 Bethsan, for Bethshean, is now Beisdn. 

7 Tirsah is either Talluza or Teiasir^ north-east of Shechem. 

^ Bahurim was placed east of Bethany (Burchard and map), but 
the stone of Bohan was near Gilgal, much further east. 

9 The Valley of Blessing (Berachah) is now Wddy BrelMf,hetween 
Ttkoci{Teku'a) and Engedi {'Ai?i Jidy). 



place of) Saul's last battle. In fifty-four is Deborah's 
palm-tree, whereof we read in Judg. iv. 5.^ In fifty-five is 
Bethel, or Luz, where Jacob saw the ladder. In fifty-seven 
is Ephraim f in fifty-nine, Bethany. In sixty-two is the 
Tower of the Flock,^ or Ader.* In sixty-seven is Bosra,^ 
or Bethsur. In the sixteenth space, nineteenth square, is 
Safet.^ In twenty-two, Nephthali of Tobit.'' In twenty- 
five, Dothan, at the foot of Mount Bethulia, a place rich in 
trees and meadow-land. On this plain is shown the pit 
into which Joseph was cast ; it is near the road leading to 
Gilead, which at Bethsaida joins the road that leads from 
Syria into Egypt ; it goes up from Dothan, near Mount 
Bethulia,^ and thence proceeds across the plain of Esdraelon, 
along the foot of Mount Tabor on the left hand across the 
plain of Megiddo, ascends Mount Ephraim, and leads 
through Gaza into Egypt. The word * Dothan ' means both 
the town and the valley. It was in the Valley of Dothan 
that the S}Tians compassed about Elisha (2 Kings vi.), and 
he led them into the midst of Samaria. In thirty-seven is 
Beeroth f in forty-five is Dan,^^ where the golden calf was. 

1 Deborah's palm-tree is apparently placed at 'Attdrah^ north of 

2 Ephraim is in the traditional position at Taiyibeh. Ophrah, 
Josh, xviii. 23 ; i Sam. xiii. 17. 

3 Gen. XXXV. 21. 

4 The Tower Eder or Ader is at the traditional site— the Shepherd's 
Plain, east of Bethlehem. 

5 Bosra or Bethsur is at Beit Sur^ north of Hebron. 
° Safet, now Safed. 

1 Nephtali (Tob. i. 2), apparently at Kadesh-Naphtali [Kedes), 
following the Vulgate. 

* Mount Bethulia is the hill on which Safed stands. Dothan, as in 
the twelfth century a.d., is placed at Khan Jubb Vthef {he inn of 
Joseph's pit'), near Minieh, on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee, 
close to Bethsaida {^Sheikh Seiydd). 

9 Beeroth, at Bireh^ is shown on the map near Gaba {Jeb'a), Judg. 
ix. 46. 

^° Dan is shown on the map both at the source of Jordan, and also 



In fifty-six is Rama; they think that this is the place men- 
tioned by Jeremiah : * In Rama^ was a voice heard.' There 
is also another Rama near Tekoa, on the road that leads 
to Hebron ; another in the tribe of Naphtali, not far from 
the castle of Saphet ; another near Sepphoni, and Shiloh 
is another. All these stand upon high hills. There is yet 
another near Lydda, whereof mention is made in Part VI., 
chap, iv.^ In fifty-nine is Jerusalem, the Holy City, described 
above, Part VII., chap, ii., and hereafter in chap. vii. In 
sixt}'-one is Rachel's tomb. In seventy is Hebron, to the 
right of Mambre. Old Hebron,^ wherein David reigned 
for seven years, stands on a high hill, and is in ruins. 
Three bow-shots to the south thereof is New Hebron, where 
the double cave was. A long bow-shot to the west of the 
cave is the field of Damascus, mentioned above (Part VII., 
chap, ii.).* A bow-shot to the south of where they dug out 
the field is the place where Cain killed Abel. Two bow- 
shots from this same trench, to the west, on a hill on the 
south side of Old Hebron, there is a cave in the rock 
measuring thirty feet in width, and the same in length, 

at the foot of Gerizim. The sites of Bethel and Dan appear to have 
been placed both close to Shechem (following a Samaritan view as to 
Bethel or Luz on Gerizim — Khurbet Lozeh), and the two sanctuaries 
of Jeroboam were thus supposed to have been both at Gerizim. 

1 Jer. xxxi. 15 ; Matt. ii. 17, 18. Cf. Fabri, ii. 403. 

2 Ramah at er Ra?7t is first noticed. Rdinet el KhalU^ north of 
Hebron, is that near Tekoa. Rdmeh in Naphtali (south-west of 
Safed) is the third. Sepphoni stands for Rarnathaim Zophim. 
Shiloh is placed, as in the twelfth century, at Nebi Samwil. The 
Rama near Lydda is Rainleh^ wrongly supposed to be Rarnathaim 
Zophim in the twelfth century. 

3 Fabri, ii. 409. 

4 This is the field from whence the red earth was taken of which 
Adam was made. It is mentioned by almost every pilgrim. Cf. 
Fabri, ii. 411 ; Poloner, p. 22 ; John of Wiirzburg, chap. xxi. ; Theo- 
derich, vi. ; Anon, vi., init. ; Fetellus, p. 8. Abbot Daniel, chap, liii., 
describes Hebron at length, but was not shown the field. 



wherein Adam and Eve mourned for Abel. Their bed- 
places are shown there, and a fountain of water springs 
there. In seventy-three is Debir, or Kirjath-Sepher.^ In 
space seventeen, square six, is Lachish, which the children 
of Dan took and called it Lesedan, after the name of their 
father. It is also called simply Dan, and Caesarea Phi- 
lippi ; it is now called Belinas.- Before the gate of this 
city the (rivers) Jor and Dan meet, and form the Jordan. 
In thirteen is the tent of Heber the Kenite. In seventeen 
is Kabul.^ The Saracens call this place Castle Zebulon, 
which names do not agree with i Kings ix. In twenty- 
four is Abelina.^ In thirty-one is the place where Gideon 
fought against Amalek. In forty-three is Sebaste, or 
Samaria ; the site of the city was exceeding beauteous, 
and commanded a wide prospect over the sea, from Mount 
Carmel to Joppa.^ In forty-five is Shechem, now Neapolis; 
two bow-shots from it is Jacob's Well, whereof we read in 
Josh. iv. (?). On the right hand is Gerizim, which is 
thought to have been the place pointed to by the woman 
of Samaria, when she said, ' Our fathers worshipped in this 
mountain on the left is the town which is thought to be 
the ancient Shechem. The second Shechem is thought to 
be the village of Thebes.^ They are two bow-shots apart 
from one another. Moreover, the estate which Jacob gave 
to Joseph adjoins this well, and is a long, fertile, and ex- 

1 Debir is shown south of Hebron, perhaps at the true site, ed/t 
Dhaheriyeh^ where a mediaeval tower exists. 

2 Dan at the source of Jordan {Tell el Kddy) is confused with 
Belinas (Paneas or Caesarea Philippi) at Banids. Lachish is an error 
for Laish or Dan. 

3 Kabul is here placed at Nebi Sebeldn^ in Upper Galilee, the true 
site KabUl being further south-west. 

4 Abelina is not Abilene, but apparently Arbela {Irbid)^ shown on 
the map between Nazareth and the Sea of Galilee. 

5 Neither Carmel nor Joppa is visible from Samaria. 

^ Thebes is Thebez, now Tubas, north-east of Shechem. 


ceeding beauteous valley. Joseph's bones are buried in 
Shechem. In fifty-four is Magina, now Bira/ the boundary 
of the tribe of Ephraim. In fifty-five is Gibeah of Saul, 
where the wife of the Levite was killed (Judg. xix. 14), and 
where Saul was born^ (i Sam. x. 29). In fifty-seven is 
Astaroth (? Anathoth).^ In sixty-one is Bethsara. In 
sixty-three is Bezet.^ In sixty-six, Beth-haccerem,^ a city 
standing on a high hill. In sixty-seven is Rama, on a high 
hill, from whence all Arabia can be seen, even to Mount 
Seyr, and David's hiding-places, and all round about the 
Dead Sea, even to Mount Abarim ; and to the west, all 
the sea-shore from Ramatha even to Beersheba and the 
wilderness of Sur.^ In sixty-nine is Mambre, where Abraham 
dwelt, and there is the oak which Jerome tells us remained 
alive until the time of the Emperor Theodosius, and con- 
tinually grew greater. From it grew that which at this 
present is to be seen there, and is held in reverence. This 
tree, albeit dry, yet is proved to be medicinal ; for if a 
horseman carries a piece of it with him, his beast will not 
founder.'^ In space eighteen, square eleven, is Hazor,^ a 
very strong city (Josh. xi. i). In twenty-one is Naason,^ in 

^ Magina, or Maginas, is shown on the map at Bireh; perhaps 
corrupt for Mahumeria, which was a twelfth-century name for this 

2 Gibeah of Saul is at Jcb\i^ near Michmash. 

3 Anathoth and Astaroth are shown near each other on the map, 
not at 'Andta, but at 'Aitdra, near Gibeah. 

4 Bethsara is apparently Beit Sah^ir el ^Atikah, but shown east of 
Jerusalem on the map. Bezet is placed west of Bethlehem. 

5 Beth-haccerem is apparently Jebel Fureidis. Neh. iii. 14 ; Jer. 
vi. I. 

6 Rama is Rdmet el Khalil^ but the view is not so extensive as 
described. Sur stands for Shur. 

7 A common mediaeval pilgrim legend. 

2 Hazor or Asor on the map stands at the source of the Leontes 

9 Niason is shown on the map near the north side of the plain 



the valley. In thirty is Endor.^ In thirty-five, Jezreel, on 
the western side of Mount Gilboa, on a somewhat high 
place ; it is now called Carethi.- Before its gates is shown 
Naboth's vineyard. Near the city rises a fountain. A 
bow-shot away from Jezreel there is an exceeding fine view 
of the whole of Galilee, even to the mountains of Phoenicia, 
and Mount Tabor, and Carmel, and Mount Ephraim. In 
thirty-eight is Zamin, or Zilim,^ where Christ cleansed the 
ten lepers^ In forty-six is the temple on IMount Gerizim, 
mentioned above (Part I., chap, x.), and there over against 
it is Ebal, where Joshua built an altar and offered burnt 
sacrifices to the Lord. He also wrote Deuteronomy, that 
is, according to some authorities, the commandment from 
one of the two.^ He set one part of the people with priest 
and Levites on Ebal, and another party with priests and 
Levites on Gerizim, and they invoked blessings and curses 
in turn, even as Moses had commanded them. In forty- 
nine is Lepna, a fine village ; there is another Lempna in 
the tribe of Juda.^ In fifty-eight is Bethhoron the lower.'*' 
In sixty-one is Zachariah's house, where Mary greeted 
Elizabeth.^ In space nineteen, square twenty-six, is Kuma, 
where Jonah was buried, and whence he was translated to 

Asochis. It probably stands for Nasor (Hazor) at Hazziir^ south- 
west of Safed, following the corrupt reading (in i Mace. xi. 67), Plain 
of Xasor, for Plain of Hazor. 
» Endor is at Andur. 

^ Jezreel is at Zerin. For Carethi the map has Gerayn, a common 
mediaeval spelling for Zerayn. 

3 Zilim might be SUeli, north of Samaria, but the map shows Zilim 
at Gerayn. 

^ Luke xvii. 12. 

5 Deuteronomium, id est, mandata tantum de utro, secundum 

^ Lepna is Lebonah, at Khan Liibben. Lempna star.ns for Libnah 
in Judah. 

7 Bethhoron is at Beit ' Ur et Tahta. 
^ Zachariah's house is at 'Ain Kdrim. 


Ravenna.^ In twenty-eight is Tabor ; in thirty, Naim,^ 
where Christ raised the widow's son from the dead. In 
thirty-three Ahab fought against the Syrians. In thirty- 
five, Pharaoh Necho slew Josiah. In fifty-six is Shiloh, on 
a hill : this place is called St. Samuel's ;^ it is more than a 
league distant from Gibeah of Saul, and the like distance 
from Ramatha. Here the ark abode for a long time, and 
the tabernacle of the covenant, which Moses made. In 
fifty-seven is Gibeon,^ from whence the Gibeonites came 
and made a deceitful treaty with Joshua (Josh, xxii.), at 
the foot of a hill. In fifty-eighth is Nob (i Sam. xxii. 19), 
where Saul ordered the priests to be slain.^ In sixty-eight 
is Neel Eshcol,^ whence two men bore the bunch of grapes. 
In the twentieth space, thirty-fourth square, is Shunem, on 
the side of Hermon,^ on the left-hand side of the way that 
leads to Jezreel. Elisha was often at this place on his way 
from Carmel to Gilgal (2 Kings iv. 8). From thence he 
passed by Bethshan into the plain country of Jordan, 
because the road is less hilly. From Shunem came Abishag 
the Shunamite, David's handmaid (i Kings i.). In forty- 
six is Timnath-serah,^ where Joshua was buried. In fift)^- 

^ Kuma is for Ruma, as on the map, the present el Mesh-hed, with 
a tomb of Jonah ; the ancient Gath Hepher. A ruin Rumeh exists 
further north-east. 

2 Nairn is for Nain, at Nein. 

3 Shiloh, as in the twelfth century, is at Nebi Sainwil^ west of 
Gibeah {Jeb'd) and Ramatha {er Ram). 

4 Gibeon is at el Jib. 

5 Nob is at Beit Nnba^ which is too far west to be the true site, but 
was accepted in the twelfth century. 

*^ Neel Eshcol is for Nachal Eshcol^ 'the brook Eshcol,' shown 
north-west of Hebron on the map, and near Philip's Fountain, south- 
west of Jerusalem. Fabri ii. 424 ; Num. xiii. 23. 

7 Shunem, on Mount Hermon, is Stilem, the correct site, on the 
south slope of Jebel Nebi Dhdhy^Vwo-^w in the twelfth century as Little 

3 Timnath-serah is apparently at Kefr Hdris^ 'the true site, south of 


eight is Succoth, and in fifty-nine Emmaus, now Sycopolis 
(Nicopolis).i . Hard by is Bethshemesh, called ' of Judah/ 
to distinguish it from the other, which is in Ephraim.^ In 
sixty-six is Ziklag.^ In space twenty-one, square nineteen, 
is St. George's,^ where that saint is believed to have been 
born. It is a village lying in the hill country, in a rich and 
fair valley that reaches even to the Sea of Galilee in the 
tribe of Asher, whereof it is said in Genesis, * Out of Asher 
his bread shall be fat' (Gen. xlix. 20). In twenty-seven is 
Nazareth ; in thirty is Mezraa. In thirty-one is Castrum 
Fabae and Rumae Afet,^ beyond the way that leads to 
Jezreel, in the great plain of Jezreel or plain of Migiddo, 
otherwise called the Plain of Faba, or of Lower Galilee, or 
the plain country of Galilee. This plain reaches from 
Tiberias past Bethshan to Megiddo and Mount Ephraim, 
and comes back by Mount Tabor and Bethulia to Tiberias. 
In fifty-three is Aretha.^ In fifty-seven is Kirjath-jearim.^ 
In sixty-one is the place where the eunuch was baptized.^ 
In space twenty-two, square fourteen, is Toron,^ a very 
strong castle, built by the Lord of Tiberias for a defence 
against Tyre ; it is seven leagues distant from Tyre. For 
Tyre see Part VI., chap. v. In twenty-two is Cana of 
Galilee. In twenty-five is Sephorum, for which places see 

^ Succoth is shown on the map near Nicopolis. It stands for 
Shochoh (see Burchard), but where shown is not clear. 

2 Bethshemesh is at ^Ain Shems. There was no Bethshemesh in 
Ephraim, but one in Naphtali and one in Issachar. 

3 Ziklag is shown in the Hebron hills. 4 St. George is at Lydda. 
5 Castrum Fabae is Fuleh ('the bean'). Aphet is an error for 

Aphel (^AfiileJi). Mezraa, shown to the north, is the ruin el Mezraak 
— all lying west of Shunem and south of Nazareth. 

^ Aretha (on the map Arecha) might be ^Ain 'Arik, being placed 
north-west of Nebi Samwil. 

7 Kirjath-jearim is shown west of Nob. 

^ The fountain of the eunuch is at the traditional Philip's Fountain 
(J Am Haninah)^ south-west of Jerusalem. 
9 Toron is at Tib7im^ in Upper Galilee. 


hereafter, chap, vii.^ In fifty-five is Maceda.^ In seventy- 
seven, Blanche Garde,^ for which see Part VL, chap, xviii. 
In space twenty-three, square twenty-eight, is Castle Royal,* 
belonging to the Teutonic Order ; it abounds with fruits 
and all good things, and few fruits are found round about 
it. In thirty-five is Megiddo or Sububa.^ In fifty-seven is 
Lachish.^ In sixty-two, the tomb of the Maccabees.'^ This 
may be seen from the sea, because the place stands high. 
In seventy-two is Timnatha.^ In space twenty-four, square 
eighteen, is Montfort. In square nineteen is ludyn,^ a 
castle belonging to the Teutonic Orde'r, on the mountains of 
Sharon. In twenty-nine is Kaymont,^^ where Lamech slew 
Cain with an arrow. In thirty-six is Kaco, or Anathoth.^^ 
In fifty is Sharon, on Mount Sharon. In fifty-nine is Beth- 
shemesh. In sixty-six is Saraa. In sixty-nine, Staol.^^ 
In seventy-one, Beersheba, or Ziblin, described in Part VI. 
chap. XV. and xviii. In space twenty-five, square fifty-one, 

^ Cana is shown due north of Sephorum (Sepphoris), at Khurbet 
Kdnah^ as in the twelfth century. 

2 Maceda, or Makkedah, is placed east of Lydda, probably as being 
near the Valley of Ajalon. 

3 Blanche Garde is now Tell es Sdji, near Beit Jibrin. 

4 Castle Royal is now M''alia^ in the hills east of Acre. 

5 Megiddo is placed in the Plain of Esdraelon, near Sububa, now 
Ezbuba^ near Taanach. 

^ Lachish is placed somewhere east of Ramleh. 

" The tombs of the Maccabees were shown at Latron, as in the 
twelfth century. 

2 Timnatha is at Tibneh^ in the Valley of Sorek. 

9 Montfort {Kufat el Kurein) and ludyn {Jeddin)yNex^ thirteenth- 
century castles east of Acre. 

^° Kaymont is at Tell Kemiun^ the ancient Jokneam, east of Carmel. 

" Kaco is at KdMn^ in the Plain of Sharon. It has no connection 
with Anathoth or Manahat. 

'2 Saraa and Staol, near Bethshemesh, are for Zoreah and Eshtaol, 
now Sur^ah and Eshu^a^ near ^Ain Shems. 

'3 Beersheba is placed at Ziblin or Gibelin, now Beit Jibrin^ as in 
other mediaeval accounts. 



is Lydda, or Diospolis.^ In space twenty-six, square fifty- 
five, is Rainathaim Zophim,- now Ramula f it is described 
in Part VL, chap. iv. In space twenty-seven, square seven, 
is Sarepta of the Sidonians f before the southern gate is 
shown a chapel in the place where Elijah the prophet came 
to the woman of Sarepta, and abode there, and raised her 
son from the dead ; moreover, the little chamber is shown 
wherein he lodged. In fifteen is Scandalium, described 
above. Part VL, chap. viii. In twenty-six is the place where 
Elijah slew the prophets of Baal (i Kings xviii.). In sixty- 
one is Ekron. In sixty-five is Ashdod,^ for which see 
Part VI., chap, xviii. In space twenty-seven, square three, 
is Sidon, a great city ; it used to stand in a plain, length- 
ways, stretching from south to north, at the foot of Mount 
Anti-Lebanon. Out of its ruins another small but strong 
city has been built, which on one side stands in the sea, and 
has on either side two well-fenced castles, one on the north, 
standing on a rock in the sea, built there by German pil- 
grims, the other on the south side, standing on a hill. 
These castles, together with the town, used to be held by 
the Knights Templars. The land there is exceeding rich, 
and the air very wholesome. In thirteen. Tyre. In eighteen. 
Acre. In twenty-seven, Haifa, for which see Part VL, 
chap. iii. In thirty is Pilgrims' Castle. In forty is Caesarea. 
In forty-seven is Assur, or Dora, or Antipatris. In fifty- 
three, Joppa. In fifty-five, Jews' Harbour,^ near Jamnia. 
In fifty-seven, Beroald's Castle. In seventy, Ascalon. In 
seventy-seven, Gaza. For all these see the preceding 

^ Lydda is distinguished from St. George in error. ^ i 5am. i. i. 
3 Ramathaim Zophim is wrongly placed at Ra7nleh. 
^ Sarepta is at Sura/end, north of Tyre. 

5 Ekron is at ^Akir, and Ashdod at Esdud. 

6 The Jews' Harbour is apparently at Minet Rubin ^ north of Vebnah ; 
the remaining, places in this passage have already been noticed. 



The Position of the Mountains in the Country 
BEYOND Jordan, to the Eastward. 

Beyond the way leading to Hamath, described in the 
previous chapter, Mount Hermon stretches toward the 
east. And take notice that Lebanon and Hermon, and 
Seir, or Sanir,^ and Gilead, and the hill country about 
the brook Arnon, and the hills between Ammon and 
Moab and the Amorites, are all one continuous moun-^ 
tain, though different parts of it are differently named 
after its highest peaks. The highest of these is Mount 
Gilead, so that we may take Jeremiah's saying, * Thou art 
Gilead unto me, and the head of Lebanon,'^ as literally 
true. The aforesaid Mount Hermon extends for about ten 
leagues, after which the range of mountains bends round 
toward the south. The first of these mountains is called 
Mount Seir, or Sanir. It ends at the foot of Mount 
Gilead at a place over against the city of Bethshan and 
Mount Gilboa ; the last of them, which is also called Seir, 
ends near the wilderness at the southern end of the 
Promised Land. This is that whereof we are told in 
Genesis that Chedorlaomer^ and other kings with him 
smote the Horites in their Mount Seir ; but it was not 
then called Seir, because Esau, by whom the mount was 
named Seir, was not then born ; wherefore it is be- 
lieved to have been so called by anticipation, and in 
Deut. iii. (st'c) we read, 'Ye are to pass through the coast 
of your brethren, the children of Esau, which dwell in 

' Seir is throughout confused with Sirion, which, like Sanir (S/iem'r), 
was an old name of Hermon. 

2 Jer. xxii. 6. 3 Gen. xiv. 6. 


Seir.'^ This was said at Kadesh-barnea, when they were 
about to come to this Mount Seir ; for we do not read 
that the children of Israel at that time came to the Mount 
Seir which is near Damascus. Esau dwelt in this mount 
when Jacob came back from Mesopotamia, as we read in 
Gen. xxxi. how Laban caught Jacob when he stole 
away on Mount Gilead ; and when, in the following chapter, 
Jacob went on his way, the angels of God met him, and 
he said, * This is God's camp,'^ and called the name of that 
place Mahanaim — that is, camp. The place is on that 
same mountain. From thence he sent messengers to Esau, 
and the messengers returned and told him that Esau was 
coming to meet him, and with him four hundred men. 
So Jacob lodged in the camp — that is, in Mahanaim — that 
night, and sent presents to his brother. And he rose up 
early and took his wives, and his children, and passed over 
the ford Jabbok, which is about three leagues from 
Mahanaim. And in chap, xxxii. he saw Esau coming, 
etc. After this comes, ' So Esau returned that day on his 
way unto Seir.'^ This cannot be understood as alluding to 
Seir which is near the wilderness, to the south, because it 
is more than a hundred miles away ; hovvbeit the children 
of Esau may have dwelt in different mountains named 
Seir, because of the divers wives whom he married, for he 
had one wife Aholibamah,^ the daughter of Anah, the 
daughter of Zibeon the Hivite, who dwelt in Scythopolis, 
or Bethshan, near the Sea of Galilee, hard by Mount Seir; 
and another wife Bashemath, Ishmael's daughter, sister of 
Nebajoth ; and the children of Huz dwelt in another 
Mount Seir hard by the wilderness of Paran, near the 
dwelling of Ishmael, their maternal grandfather, of whom 

^ Deut. ii. 4. 

2 Gen. xxxii. i, 2. The Vulgate reads castra^ the A.V. hosts. 

3 Gen. xxiii. 16. 4 Gen. xxxvi. 2. 



we are told, in Gen. xxi. 20, that he dwelt in the wilderness, 
and became an archer. There is yet a third Mount Seir, 
on the borders of Ashdod and Ascalon, in the lot of the 
inheritance of the tribe of Judah they who dwell thereon 
are called Idumaeans ; wherefore Antipas, and his son 
Herod, who belonged to Ascalon, were called Idumaeans. 
We can also divide the whole land beyond Jordan thus : 
The first country to the north is Trachonitis, so called 
because it lacks rain-water ; but they collect rain-water in 
cisterns, and bring them from one place to another by 
tracoiies f- in Josh. xi. it is called the plain of Lebanon, 
and it reaches even to Kedar^ and the Sea of Galilee. In 
the first part thereof is the land of Uz f in the next part, 
to the south, is the half-tribe of Manasseh ; then follows 
the tribe of Gad at the foot of Mount Gilead ; then the 
tribe of Reuben, including the kingdom of Sihon, King of 
Heshbon. After this comes the plain country of Moab, 
beneath Mount Abarim, in Shittim, where the children of 
Israel lay for a long time before Jericho. The land of 
Moab reaches even to Petra in the Wilderness, some twenty 
leagues. Lastly comes part of the land of Ammon, which 
reaches all the length of the Dead Sea ; its south side 
reaches round as far as Mount Seir, which joins the 
wilderness of Paran, near Kadesh-barnea, having on its 
side the wilderness of Sinai and the Dead Sea. But the 
country of Moab and the country of Ammon were not 
parts of the Proniised Land. 

' Mount Seir is near Kirjath Jearim (Josh. xv. 10). 

2 This is explained by Fabri, i. 464: tracones = dracones, 'pipes 
like snakes.' 

3 Kedar is at Gamala {el Hosn), east of the Sea of Galilee. 

4 The land of Uz is placed, as in the fourth century, in Bashan, at 
Sheikh S^ad. Job i. i ; Lam. iv. 21. 




The Position of the Chief Mountains on this 
Side of Jordan. 

After Hermon begins Lebanon (see chap, iii.) and 
Anti-Lebanon, where is Hazor on the river Eleutherus^ 
(Part VI., chap. vi.). These mountains extend for a 
distance of five days' journey, five leagues beyond Tripoh'. 
Beyond these, to the south, comes Mount Sharon (see 
above, chap. ii.). One long league from Abilene is Mount 
Hethulia, where Judith slew Holofernes. This mount may 
be seen from almost all parts of Galilee ; it is a fair mount 
and fortified. Toward the west it reaches as far as Cana 
of Galilee, and near it on the south side is the valley in the 
plain of Dothan, where Judith washed herself, and which 
she compassed when she returned to Bethulia. Beneath 
this same mount, on the south, a plain reaches from Cana 
of Galilee even to Sephorus,- and it is fertile and pleasant. 
After this comes another mountain to the south, which 
reaches from Nazareth on the west some eight leagues to 
the east, where is Dothan.^ Two leagues from Nazareth 
is Mount Tabor, described hereafter in chap, vii., and 
beyond Mount Tabor, to the east, is the Valley of Shaveh, 
which is the King's dale.* One league from Mount Tabor 
is Mount Hermon,^ a small hill, joining which is Hermo- 
niim, a rising ground rather than a mount. It adjoins 
Mount Tabor, and on it is Endor, where dwelt the woman 

^ See chaps, ii., iii. Asor is at the source of the Litany River. 

2 Sephorus is for Sepphoris {Seffurieh). See chap. iii. 

3 Dothan is at Khan Jubb Yusef. See chap. iii. 

4 Moslem traditions still point to a meeting of Abraham and 
Alexander the Great at the foot of Tabor. Gen. xiv. 15. 

5 Little Hermon is now Jebel Nebi Dhdhy^ south of Tabor. 



that had a familiar spirit (i Sam. xviii.). Hermon, on 
whose north side is Nairn, extends some four leagues 
toward the end of the Sea of Galilee. At the foot of the 
mountains of Nazareth, Tabor, and Hermon, by the sea, 
is Mount Carmel, at the very end of which, to the south- 
east, Lamech slew Cain with an arrovv.^ For a description 
of Carmel, see above. To the south, beyond Hermon, are 
the mountains of Gilboa ; they reach from Bethshan to 
Jezreel to the east for three leagues. Hard by this place, 
a bow-shot away, rises the fountain of Jezreel, where the 
Philistines pitched their camp when Saul was on Gilboa. 
Another brook runs down from Hermon between this 
fountain and Bethshan, joins the fountain, and they flow 
together across the midst of the valley to the Jordan. 
This valley measures some two leagues in width, and in it 
Gideon fought against Midian (Judg. xii.), and Ahab 
fought against the Syrians (i Kings ix.). In this plain 
also, on the side toward Jordan, begins the illustrious 
valley,- which extends as far as the Dead Sea. After 
Gilboa, to the south, comes Beeroth, where the mountains 
of Samaria begin. Between them and Jordan is about 
three leagues, in which lies the land of Timnath,^ which 
contains very lofty mountains and reaches down to the 
plain country of Jordan. The mount whereon Beeroth 
stands, two leagues off, splits into two mountains towards 
the south. On that to the west, which is a high mount, 
Jeroboam set up one of the golden calves, and he set up 
the other half a league away on the still higher mount 

' Jokneam (7>// Keiimhi)^ close to Carmel, was called in the twelfth 
century Caymont, or Cain Mons, from this legend. 

2 The Vulgate reads (Gen. xii.), ' Pertransivit Abram terram usque 
ad locum Sichem, usque ad convallem illustrem,' etc., where the A.V. 
has, 'And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, 
unto the plain of Moreh.' 

3 The land of Timnath or Tampne {Tamimhz). See chap. iii. 



toward the east ; albeit some think that it was in Dan, 
which is called Lachish.^ In the valley between these two 
mountains is Shechem, now Neapolis, an exceeding pleasant 
place ; but it cannot be fortified, because stones can be 
cast into the town from the mountains on either side 
thereof. For an account of these mountains, see chap. iii. 
After this, to the south, comes the hill country of Judaea 
and Jerusalem. For an account of Jerusalem, Sion, and 
the neighbourhood, see chaps, vi. and vii., and for Quaran- 
tena see chap. iii. Beyond Quarantena, to the south, 
stands Engaddi_, an exceeding lofty mountain, on the west 
shore of the Dead Sea : it is of a strange shape, having 
precipitous rocks and valleys. It was in Engaddi that the 
plants of balsam used to grow ; but in the days of Herod 
of Ascalon, Queen Cleopatra, by the favour of Mark Antony, 
took them away to Egypt, where Christians alone can tend 
them. At the end of Engaddi is Mount Carmel,- where 
Nabal dwelt ; beyond that is Amalek ; and yet further, 
toward the Red Sea, is Kadesh-barnea, whence Moses sent 
out the spies. Here the children of Israel abode for a long 
time, and thence were bidden to journey round about 
Mount Seir, which is in Idumaea, near the wilderness of 
Maon, to the south-east ; from thence they came back by 
the way of the Red Sea. The wilderness of Maon^ is 
described in chap. iii. ; Mount Bethlehem, chap. x. ; Mount 
Ramah, chap. iii. Let this suffice as regards mountains. 

^ The golden calves are supposed by the author to have been made 
near Shechem, where he shows Dan on his map, Lachish is an error 
for Laish. 

2 Engaddi (Engedi, 'Am Jidy) is below the ridge on which Carmel 
of Judah {Kurmul) stands, to the west. 

3 Maon is Tell M'ain^ near Kurniul. 



The Course of the Waters and Rivers of the 
Holy Land. 

Jordan rises at the foot of Lebanon (chap. iii.). They 
say that the brook Dan has its source in the fountain called 
Phiale/ which is always full and never overflows. It lies in 
the sixth space and the eighteenth square. This they say 
because straws put into that spring are found again in Dan ; 
wherefore they say that it is the true source of the Jordan. 
The Saracens, therefore, call this fount Madan, that is, 
being interpreted, the water of Dan. St. Mark calls it 
Dalmanutha ; St. Matthew, Magdala."^ Beginning in this 
fashion, the stream of Jordan divides Ituraea from the 
country of Trachonitis. It flows at first toward the east, 
but afterwards toward the south. About half-way between 
its source and the Sea of Galilee it enters a valley, where 
it spreads into a swamp when the snow melts on Mount 
Lebanon. This is called the Lake of Merom, and is the 
place where Joshua fought with Jabin, King of Hazor, and 
twenty-four other kings. This water nearly all dries up in 
summer, and bushes grow up, wherein lions, bears, and 
such-like creatures have their dens, and royal sport may be 
had there.^ Flowing onward from thence, the Jordan enters 
the Sea of Galilee between Capernaum and Chorazin.* 
The sea is so named after the adjacent province of Galilee ; 

' Lake Phiale {Birket er Rdiii)^ in Golan, is shown too far south on 
the map, near the Sea of Galilee. 

2 Madan v/as probably el Meiddn, 'the open plain.' It is confused 
with Magdala {Mejdel)^ west of the Sea of Galilee. Mark viii. lo ; 
Matt. XV. 39. 

3 Et sunt ibi venationes regiae. Compare Poloner 27, who says, 
'Et sunt ibi delectabiles venationes.' Abbot Daniel, 59. 

*• Chorazin (see chap, iii.) is wrongly placed east of Jordan. 



it is also called the Sea of Tiberias, after the nearest city ; 
and the Sea of Gennesaret, because, according to Bede,^ 
its curling waves continually breed wind, or else from the 
little tract named Gennesaret, past which it flows. Ac- 
cording to Bede, it measures one hundred and forty stadia 
in length, and forty in breadth. After this Jordan flows 
to the southward, and enters the Dead Sea, which divides 
Arabia from Judaea ; it extends toward the south thirty-five 
leagues, more or less, that is, even to Kadesh-barnea, and 
the wilderness of Paran ; and some think that it is a con- 
tinuation of the Red Sea. The space between these two 
seas is reckoned to be five days' journey, and men think that 
the waters on the way, which in Exod. xv. are called the 
waters of Marah, come from these seas. Some declare that 
the waters of Jordan do not enter the Dead Sea, but when 
they come thither are drunk up by the earth ; but those who 
know say that they both enter it and leave it, and that at last 
the water of Jordan is drunk up by the earth a little way 
further on ; wherefore the sea rises when Jordan rises, as 
the snow melts on Lebanon and the other mountains, and 
after much rain. This sea always smokes, and is as dark 
as the chimney of hell. The brook Jabbok flows into 
Jordan on the east side ; it rises in space two, square forty- 
five, and flows sometimes to the west and sometimes to the 
north ; it enters the Jordan three leagues from the Sea of 
Galilee. In like manner the brook Arnon rises on Mount 
Pisgah, and enters Jordan below Jaazer.^ Similarly, two 
other streams enter the Dead Sea, one at the beginning 
thereof, and the other beyond it, nine leagues to the south. 
On the west, the stream which Josephus calls the Little 

^ The reference is to Bede, ' Concerning the Holy Places.^ See 
Arculfus, p. 80, in this series. 

2 Arnon (see map) is confused with the stream at Tyrus in Gilead, 
where Jazer (on map lacer) was shown in the fourth century (Onom- 
asticon) at Khurbet Sdr. 



Jordan enters the Dead Sea ; it rises near Castle Royal, 
and is joined by another stream that comes from nearCabul;^ 
it enters the Sea of GaHlee near Bethsaida.^ Near the same 
place, but more to the south, another stream enters it, 
which stream comes from the springs on the sides of 
Dothan ; and near Magdala another stream, coming from 
Mount Bethulia, enters the sea. The brook Kishon also 
rises at the foot of Mount Tabor, on the east side, where 
Barak fought with Sisera. This brook Kishon is formed 
by the rain that falls upon Mount Tabor, Mount Hermon, 
and the little hill of Hermon ; one part thereof runs down 
to the end of the Sea of Galilee, while the other part runs 
into the Mediterranean one mile from Haifa, and three 
from Ptolemais ; it enters the sea near the place where 
Elijah slew the priests of Baal (i Kings xviii.). This brook 
receives much water from Mount Ephraim, from the parts 
about Samaria, and from all the great plain of Jezreel, 
Cain's Mount, and Megiddo. A stream which runs from 
the north side of Hermon joiAs that which runs from the 
fountain of Jezreel, and enters the Jordan below Bethshan. 
The brook Jabbok also, mentioned above, chap, iii., enters 
Jordan over against Eleale. The brook Cherith runs down 
from the mount where Elijah was fed by the ravens, and 
passes to the east near Phasael.^ Elisha's well has been 
described in chap. iii. Moreover, the waters about Jeru- 
salenri join the waters which run down from Mount En- 
gaddi, and enter the Dead Sea at its beginning, just below 
where Jordan runs into it. 

^ I Kings ix. 13. 

2 Little Jordan is here (but not in Josephus) Wddy Hamdm^ west 
of the Sea of Galilee, supposed to rise at M'alia (Chateau du Roy), 
east of Acre. For Cabul, see chap. iii. It was not shown at the true 
site {KabiU). 

3 The brook Cherith was east of Jordan. It is here placed at 
Wddy Fiisdil^ west of the river. 


Into the Mediterranean flow first of all, on the north, the 
river Elenterus,^ for which see above, chap. ii. Next, going 
southward, comes the ' well of living waters,' described 
above in Part VI., chap, xviii. Next comes the stream from 
near Castle Royal, which runs between Montfort and 
ludyn, and enters the sea near Casale Lamberti. Next, 
near Ptolemais, there flows into the sea a river which rises 
some five miles off. Next is the brook Kishon, described 
just above. Next comes the stream from near Sycelec/^ 
which enters the sea between Caesarea and Ashur.^ Next 
a stream runs from a place between the house of Zachariah 
and Emmaus, through the Vale of Rephaim, passes near 
Ramatha, and enters the sea near Joppa.^ Further on, a 
stream runs down from near Bethsura, flowing first to the 
west ; it then turns south, is joined by the stream from 
En-hakkore in Lehi,^ which runs from the north ; near this 
place the eunuch was baptized.^ Thence it runs down past 
Eshtaol, near Ascalon, to the west, and so into the sea. 
Last of all, the brook Besor runs down from Mount Carmel 
beyond Beersheba, turns towards Gaza, and so into the 

I Eleutherus. 2 Siceleg, Vulgate ; Ziklag, A.V. 

3 For the places in this paragraph, see chap. iii. 

4 The great valley north of 'Am Kari7n (Zachariah's house) is in- 
tended, Rarrtatha being Ramleh. The Valley of Rephaim is shown 
on the map east of Ramleh. Emmaus is shown east of Nicopolis. 

Judg. XV. 16. 

^ There is great confusion here. The valley is shown on the map 
reaching to Ascalon, yet passing between Staol (Eshtaol) and Tapna 
(Timnah). Its head is at the Fountain of the Eunuch (now Philip's 
Fountain, ^Ai7i Ha?7i7ia). It is thus evidently the Valley of Sorek, 
which is the same as the preceding valley {Wddy Serdr). 




The Pilgrimage from Ptolemais through 
Nazareth even to Jerusalem. 

He that would visit the holy places of the chosen Pro- 
mised Land, let him begin with Nazareth, where our salva- 
tion was begun. This place is seven leagues distant from 
Ptolemais. On the road to Saphar one finds a castle, 
where it is said that James and John, the sons of Zebedee, 
were born.^ At Nazareth one is shown the place where the 
angel Gabriel, God^s messenger, announced to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary that the design ordained from the beginning 
for the redemption of the world was about to be fulfilled. 
See more about this in Part VH., chap. ii. In the chapel 
built there, there were three altars ; this chapel was hewn 
out of the rock, even as the chapels of the Nativity and 
of the Resurrection ; indeed, of old a great part of the city 
was hewn out of the rock, as may be seen at this day. 
There also is shown the synagogue, now made into a 
church, where Christ^ received the Book of Isaiah and read, 
' The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me.'^ Four bow-shots to 
the south of the city is the place called the Lord^s Leap,^ 
where the Jews wished to cast Him down a steep place, 
but He passed out of their hands, and was seen of a sudden 
on the side of the opposite mountain, a bow-shot away, 
where the print of His body may be seen on the rock. 
From that mountain one can see Mount Tabor, the lesser 
Hermon, and Hermoniim, the village of Endor, Naim, 
Jezreel, and all the width of the great plain of Esdraelon. 

' Saphar is Sepphoris. The castle is Shefa 'Ajnr. 
2 Luke iv, 17. 3 Isa. Ixi. i. 

4 The traditional site, south of Nazareth, still shown, is the same as 
in the twelfth century. See ' City of Jerusalem. 


Two leagues from Nazareth is Sephoris, the birthplace of 
St. Anne ; there is an exceeding fine castle above the town. 
Joachim is said to have been born there ; the place is in 
the tribe of Ashur, near the Valley of Carmeleon.^ Two 
leagues and a half from Sephoris is Cana of Galilee, whence 
came Simeon the Canaanite, and Nathaniel. In it is shown 
the place where stood the six waterpots wherein Christ 
turned the water into wine, and the dining-room wherein 
the table stood. These places, like all the others wherein 
Christ worked miracles, are underground, and people go 
down many steps to them, into a crypt, even as they do 
into the place of the Annunciation, the Nativity, and many 
others. The reason of this seems to be that, owing to the 
frequent destruction of churches, their ruins have risen 
above the ground, and when they were levelled other 
buildings were set up ; wherefore the faithful made stairs 
to the original places and visit them in crypts. ^ Near this 
city, on the south, is a tall, round hill, on whose sloping 
side the city stands. Beneath it, to the south, is a fair 
plain, fertile and pleasant, which reaches as far as Se- 
phoris. The order in which pilgrims visit these places is 
to go from Ptolemais, five leagues to the east, to Cana of 
Galilee, and thence to the south by Sephoris to Nazareth. 
Two leagues from Nazareth is Mount Tabor, where the 
Lord was transfigured. Here are shown the ruins of the 
three tabernacles which were built according to Peter's 
desire. There are also the ruins of many other buildings, 
which now are the dens of lions and other wild beasts ; so 
that here also is hunting fit for a king.^ The mount is hard 
to climb, and is very lofty, and suitable for fortification. 

^ Carmelion is apparently for Carmel ; the valley seems to be Wddy 
el Melek^ leading from Sepphoris towards Carmel. 

2 Cana (see chap, iii.) is at Khurbet Kanah^ where there is a ruined 
vault still visible. 

3 Poloner, 27 ; Abbot Daniel, 59, etc. 


At its foot, on the south side, on the way leading from 
Syria to Egypt, is the place where Melchisedec met 
Abraham, as he was returning from the slaughter of the 
four kings in the neighbourhood of Damascus. At its foot, 
on the west, over against Nazareth, stands the chapel on 
the place where Christ said to His disciples, ' Tell no oi.e 
what ye have seen,' etc., while from its foot, on the east 
side, runs the brook Kishon. Two leagues from Tabor, to 
the south-east, is Naim, where Christ raised the widow's 
son from the dead. Fifteen leaj^ues from thence is Samaria, 
and from thence to Jerusalem the road measures one 
hundred and three.^ 


The Pilgrimage through the Holy City of Jeru- 
salem, AND THE Mount Sion. 

When you visit these most holy places, for which an 
entire day is scarce sufficient, you should enter through 
the gate of Benjamin, that is, St. Stephen's Gate. Then, 
first of all, you should visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
which is the chief of all the sanctuaries in the world. This 
church is round, and measures in diameter seventy-three 
feet between the columns, not reckoning the apses, which 
measure thirty feet, and stand round about the circle of 
columns.- Above the Lord's sepulchre, which is in the 
midst of this same church, there is a round opening, so 
that the whole interior of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 

^ Deinde usque Jerusalem via ponitur, c. iii. The word understood 
cannot be ' leagues.' Probably ' furlongs ' is understood. 

2 This passage is carelessly transcribed from Anon. Pil. p. 31, 
where see note. 


is open to the sky. The Church of Golgotha adjoins this 
church, and is oblong in shape. It serves as a choir to the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and has a somewhat lower 
ceiling ; but they are both under one roof. Before the 
Christians bore rule in those parts, a church of the size of 
a chapel was built on the place where Christ was crucified, 
and where the cross was found ; hut when the faithful 
gained possession of those parts, they thought this place 
small and cramped ; wherefore they built a new, costly, 
beautiful, and solid work, which includes all the holy places 
within itself. The door of the sepulchre is very low and 
small. The form of the sepulchre is described in Part VII., 
chap. ii. It is a cave without any opening, so that 
there is no way by which light can enter it ; but nine 
lamps afford a constant light. There is also another cave 
in front of this cave of the holy sepulchre of the same 
length, width, and shape ; and these two appear to be one 
as one enters from without. It was into this outer cave 
that the women entered when they said, 'Who shall roll 
us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre ?' This 
stone had been rolled up to the door of the inner cave, and 
at this day a great part thereof lies before the aforesaid 
door ; but the rest of it has been translated to Mount 
Sion, where it supports an altar. Near the cell of the 
holy sepulchre there is a pillar bearing the effigy of St. 
Pantaleon. When a Saracen put out this figure's eyes, his 
own eyes straightway fell out upon the ground. Mount 
Calvary whereon the Lord was crucified, stands one hundred 
and eight feet away from the sepulchre. One mounts 
nineteen feet above the pavement of the church to the 
place where the cross was set up. The rent in the rock 
wherein the cross was fixed is of such a size that it can 
take in a man's head, and it runs down lengthwise from 
the place where the cross was placed, even to the pavement 


of the church, nineteen feet. The colour of the blood of 
our Lord Jesus Christ still appears to this day in the rent 
in the rock ; this rent was beneath His left hand. Near 
this place where His left hand was, an exceeding beauteous 
altar has been built, and adorned with marble. The pave- 
ment of this chapel also is made of marble, and the walls 
are cased with marble and adorned with mosaic work. 
The place wherein the cross stood is a hole two palms 
deep, and big enough to take in a man's head. Ten feet 
away from Calvary, on the north side, there is an altar 
beneath which is the pillar at which the Lord was scourged. 
It was brought to this place from Pilate's house, and is 
covered by the stone of the altar in such sort that it can 
be touched, seen, and kissed by the faithful. It is a stone 
of dark porphyry, with some natural red spots, which the 
vulgar call spots of Christ's blood. Another part of this 
pillar has been translated to Constantinople. There is 
likewise another place on the left-hand side of the church, 
where there is a small slender pillar to which they say 
Jesus was bound and scourged. Twelve feet east of the 
altar before this column one goes down forty-eight stairs 
to the place where Helena found the cross ; there is a 
chapel there, and two altars, underground. This place 
where the cross was found is thought to have been one of 
the ditches of the old city, into which the crosses were 
flung after the bodies had been taken down from them. 
The place where the Blessed Virgin stood near the cross 
with the other women was not beneath the northern arm 
of the cross, as many think, but before her Son's face, 
almost due west ; the place is shown at the foot of the 
aforesaid rock. Near it is shown the place where Joseph 
of Arimathaea and Nicodemus washed Jesus after they 
had taken Him down from the cross. They say that the 
Lord Jesus pointed to this place, and declared that it was 


the middle of the world ; it is in the midst of the choir : 
on the left-hand side of the choir is Christ's prison. Near 
this is the place where our Lord, when He was risen from 
the dead, met Mary Magdalen, and she, supposing Him to 
be the gardener, said, ' Sir, if thou have borne Him hence, 
tell mc where thou hast laid Him, and I will take Him 
away.' In this place an altar has been set up, in memory 
of this apparition, over against the cell of the sepulchre. 
From hence one goes to the west gate, where St. Mary of 
Egypt^ was converted, because she could not enter it 
together with the other Christians. There are also in this 
church many well-built and well-decorated altars. 

After this, the pilgrim should go to Mount Sion. On 
the way hither, over against David's Tower, one finds the 
place where Herod Agrippa slew James the brother of 
John with the sword. They do err who say that his head 
was brought thither by the hands of angels from Joppa, 
and. buried there. Upon Mount Sion one finds first St. 
Saviour's Church, which once was the house of Caiaphas, 
wherein, after He was taken, Christ abode until morning ; 
it was there that the chief priests and all the council sought 
false witness against Jesus, to put Him to death ; it was 
there that the High-priest rose and said unto Him, ' I 
adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether 
thou be the Christ, the Son of the living God,'^ and Jesus 
answered, ' Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting 
on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of 
heaven.' Then the High-priest rent his clothes ; but 
Christ's seamless tunic was not rent, which things are a 
type of the ruin of the synagogue and the strength of the 
Church. Then they declared Him guilty of death, and 

^ Anon,, pp. 12,' 19, 23 ; Willis's 'Church of the Holy Sepulchre,' 
p. 102. 

2 Matt. xxvi. 53. 



spat in His face, and smote Him with buffets; others 
mocked Him as they struck Him ; and they bHndfolded 
Him and smote Him on the face, saying, ' Prophesy unto 
us, thou Christ ; who is he that smote thee ?' and many 
other blasphemies they said against Him. There is usually 
shown part of the pillar to which He was bound until the 
morning, and scourged. At this place also is shown the 
prison, wherein, after the rising of the sacrilegious council, 
Christ was imprisoned until morning, where He heard 
countless taunts and endured insults from worthless slaves. 
There also is the great stone on the altar, which is said to 
have been the stone laid over the tomb of the Lord Jesus. 
A stone's-throw to the south of this place is the place 
where the glorious Virgin Mary dwelt, after her Son's 
ascension into heaven, and here is the chamber wherein 
she departed this life. There also is a church of St. John 
the Evangelist, which is said to have been the first church 
built in the world. In it that Apostle was wont to 
administer the sacrament to that most blessed queen, as 
long as he lived. A red stone^ used to be shown in this 
place, which served as an altar, and which they declare 
was brought from Mount Sinai by the hands of angels, in 
answer to the prayer of St. Thomas as he was returning 
from India. Near the aforesaid place is the Chamber of 
the Last Supper, a great paved building, wherein Christ 
supped with His disciples, washed their feet, gave them 
His Body and Blood, and appeared to them sundry times 
after His resurrection. A chapel has been built beneath 
it. Here also Matthias was chosen an Apostle ; the Holy 
Spirit was sent down upon the Apostles ; the seven deacons 
were chosen, and St. James the Less was ordained Bishop 
of Jerusalem. All these places are shown separately. Here 
also is shown the basin into which Christ poured the water 
' Fabri, i. 509. 



to wash His disciples' feet. Hard by are the tombs of 
Solomon, David, and the other kings of Judah, partly 
within the Church of Mount Sion, and partly without, on 
the north side. Not far away is the sepulchre of St. Stephen 
the first martyr, in which he was laid after the finding of 
his body. 


The Pilgrimage to the Holy Places round 
ABOUT Jerusalem. 

Coming down from Mount Sion, one finds the place where, 
when the Apostles were carrying the glorious Virgin to her 
sepulchre in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, the Jewish High- 
priest would have snatched away her body ; but his hand 
straightway withered. There is also a church, commonly 
called the Cock-crowing, wherein is a deep pit in which 
Peter wept bitterly. Thence one goes to the south to the 
field that, was bought for the thirty pieces of silver for 
which Christ was sold by Judas. Then one goes to the 
fountain of Siloam, at the foot of Mount Sion, near Solo- 
mon's palace : from it water flows into the lower pool, and 
the bathing-pool of Siloam. It does not flow constantly, 
but at intervals. Both pools also receive the water from 
the lower source of Gihon, which rises beneath the fuller's 
field, where Rabshakeh railed against the Lord in the 
hearing of the people on the wall. To the east, near these 
pools, runs the brook Cedron, fed by all the collected 
waters from the high ground, to wit, from Rama, from 
Anathoth, and from the sepulchre of the Queen of Adiabene, 
and one can hear the rushing of the waters as they flow 
far beneath the Virgin's sepulchre. Thus, all these waters 


flow together down into the Valley of Gehinnon, which is 
also called the Place of Tophet. In this valley also is the 
stone of Zoheleth, and the well Rogel, where Adonijah 
feasted when he tried to make himself King. There, 
beneath the oak-tree of Rogel, is shown the sepulchre of 
the prophet Isaiah. These are lovely and pleasant places ; 
the gardens and orchards are watered by the brook Cedron. 
As one goes along the Valley of Jehoshaphat from the 
fountain of Siloam, over against the temple, at the foot of 
the Mount of Olives, is shown the sepulchre^ of Jehoshaphat, 
King of Judah, which has above it a pyramid^ of great 
beauty. More than a stone's-throw to the north of this 
sepulchre is the place where Christ prayed. Further on, a 
stone's-throw to the north, is the Church of Gethsemane, 
where is the garden into which Jesus entered with His 
disciples, on the side of the Mount of Olives, clinging to a 
hollow rock which hangs from the mount. Beneath this 
rock the disciples sat, when Jesus said to them, * Sit here 
and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.' The place 
where they sat is shown at this day. There also is shown 
the place where He was taken by the multitude, and where 
Judas betrayed Him with a kiss. The mark of His bare 
head is still to be seen on the steep rock, and the traces of 
His hair. On the other side of the rock the marks of His 
fingers may be seen, as though they had been pressed upon 
dough. He is said to have made these marks by clinging 
to the rock when He was taken by the multitude. It is a 
wondrous tale, which men who have experienced it tell, 
that even with iron tools not only they cannot break off 
any part of this rock, but cannot even scrape any dust off 
it. Likewise, in the place where He prayed, and being in 
an agony prayed for a long while, and His sweat was as 

' Apparently the present ' Tomb of Zechariah.' 
2 Anon., vi., p. 68, note ; Fabri, i. 513. 



drops of blood falling to the ground, the marks of His 
knees and hands are innprinted in the stone ; and from this 
stone, as from the other, no piece can be broken off. The 
way up the Mount of Olives passes between this place and 
Gethsemane, in front of the Church of the Blessed Virgin. 
From the door of the aforesaid Church of Gethsemane, even 
to the door of the chapel leading into the church wherein 
is the glorious Virgin's sepulchre, is fifty paces, toward the 
west, not down in the valley, but along the foot of the 
Mount of Olives. Before the destruction of Jerusalem 
this church was above ground, but now it is far under 
ground ; for the Romans, Josephus tells us, besieged the 
city on that side, cut down the olive-trees and other trees, 
and filled it^ up with mounds made therewith. Afterwards, 
when the city was taken, Mount Moriah itself was levelled, 
lest so strong a place should be left standing, and Adrian 
ordered the ruins of the temple and its courts to be cast 
down into the brook Cedron, and caused the city to be 
sown with salt. Owing to these fillings up, the church, 
albeit a tall and vaulted one, has been completely covered 
over, and above it is flat ground, with a public road 
thereon. Yet there remains above ground a building 
like a chapel, which you enter, and then go down some 
sixty stairs underground to the church itself, and to the 
sepulchre of the glorious Virgin. The sepulchre stands in 
the midst of the choir, over against the altar ; it is of 
marble, and splendidly decorated. But the church is very 
damp ; for the brook Cedron runs beneath it, full of the 
waters from the places aforesaid, and holds its ancient 
course; but when there is much rain the aforesaid brook 
overflows and fills the church, insomuch that often the 
water covers all the stairs and runs out of the door of the 

^ It is not clear whether 'it' refers to the valley or'the church. 


chapel that stands at the top of them. The church is 
h'ghted by windows at the east end, which, from the shape 
of the ground, are well placed for receiving light from the 
direction of the Mount of Olives. Near the Virgin's 
sepulchre is the sepulchre of St. James the Less ; for the 
Christians buried him here after the Jews had cast him 
down from the temple. The sepulchre of Queen Helena 
is described above ; this Helena was not Constantine's 
mother, but the Queen of Adiabene, who fed her brethren 
in Jerusalem when there was a famine in Jerusalem in the 
fourth and the eleventh years of the reign of Claudius 
Caesar. After the pilgrim has visited these places, let him 
go along the road which we have said passes near the 
Virgin's sepulchre, and follow Christ as He came to Jeru- 
salem riding upon an ass, on Palm Sunday, and let him 
cry aloud, with the multitude of the faithful, ' Hosanna to 
the Son of David ; blessed is He that cometh in the name 
of the Lord ; peace in heaven {sic), and glory in the highest.' 
Christ entered Jerusalem through the Golden Gate. About 
a crossbow-shot from this stands the Lord's Temple, on 
Mount Moriah. It was in this temple that Jesus was pre- 
sented, when He was a child forty days old, and Simeon 
sang to Him, ' Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart 
in peace, according to Thy word,^^ etc., and Anna^ the pro- 
phetess came and spake of Him to all them that looked 
for redemption in Israel. There, as a boy of twelve, He 
stood in the midst of the doctors, rather teaching them by 
His wise questions than learning from them. There, when 
grown to man's estate, He cast those who bought and sold 
out of the temple, and overturned the tables of the money- 
changers, and the seats of them that sold doves, saying, 
* Make not My house a den of thieves.'^ There He forgave 
the woman taken in adultery both her punishment and her 
^ Luke ii. 26. ^ Luj^g 26. 3 Matt. xxi. 12. 



sin. There the Jews would have stoned Him, when He 
said, * I and My Father are One.' There He preferred the 
widow's two mites to the great offerings of others, He 
justified the humble publican, condemned the proud 
Pharisee, and wrought many other works helpful for our 
salvation. The enclosure of the temple is square, and 
walled in ; it measures more than a bow-shot in length and 
breadth ; on the west side it has two gates, one of which is 
called the Beautiful Gate ; for an account of which see 
above, Part I., chap. viii. This was the gate at which 
Peter healed the lame man (Acts iii.) ; the other gate has 
no name. On the north side there is a gate, and on the 
east is what is called the Golden Gate. Above every one 
of these gates there stands a lofty tower, which the Saracen 
priests are wont to ascend, and proclaim the law of 
Mahomet. No one dares to enter this enclosure save with 
clean feet, and to this end gatekeepers or porters are ap- 
pointed. In the midst of this enclosure there is another 
enclosure, square, and higher than the outer one, up to 
which one ascends on the west and south side by flights of 
steps. In the midst of this is built the temple, on the 
place where David bought the threshing-floor of Araunah 
the Jebusite, that he might build an altar to the Lord, and 
where the plague which assailed the people was stayed ; 
see the end of the Second Book of Samuel. The temple 
has eight angles and eight sides ; its walls are cased with 
marble and adorned with mosaic work. Its roofing is of 
lead, admirably worked, and each of the enclosures is 
paved with white marble. They say that near the Lord's 
Temple is Solomon's Temple, in which are two temples. 
No Christian is suffered to enter it, lest his prayer be heard, 
according to Solomon's word. If the pilgrim may not 
enter by the gate through which Christ entered into the 
temple, let him enter by the valley gate, about a stone's- 



throw distant from the great temple enclosure, on the 
south side. Before he enters the gate, he will see on his 
right hand the place where St. Stephen was bound when 
he was stoned, in which place also he prayed on his bended 
knees for his murderers, saying, ' Lord, lay not this sin to 
their charge.'^ 


The Pilgrimage to such Places as were omitted 
IN the City of Jerusalem. 

When you have entered the aforesaid valley gate, first on 
the right hand comes St. Anne's Church,^ wherein is shown 
the crypt wherein the glorious Virgin Mary was born, in 
the place where stood the house of Joachim and St. Anna. 
Hard by is a great pool, which was called the Inner Pool,^ 
and was made by Hezekiah in the following manner he 
stopped up the upper watercourse of Gihon, and brought it 
straight down the west side of the city of David, digging 
the hard rock with iron, as we read in Ecclesiasticus 
xlviii. 17, and led the waters through the midst of the city 
into that pool, that in times of siege the people might have 
water to drink, and the Assyrians should not be able to 
hinder them. But he led the spring of the waters of Gihon 
into the upper pool, which is above the bathing-pool of 
Siloam. This work was begun by Ahaz, but not finished 

" The topography of chaps, viii., ix., is best understood by comparing 
the more accurate account in the ' City of Jerusalem.' See transla- 
tion in this series. 

Ludolph von Suchem, p. 100. 

3 For the Piscina Interior, see appendix to ' City of Jerusalem' in 
this series. 

4 2 Chron. xxxii. 30. 



by him. Isaiah (vii. 3) mentions this pool and spring, when 
he says, ' Go forth now ... to the end of the conduit of 
the upper pool in the highway of the fuller's field.' This 
is called the Upper Pool, in respect of Siloam, for which see 
chap. viii. There is a fourth pool in the city on the left 
hand of the aforesaid Valley Gate, even as St. Anne is on 
the right. This is called the Sheep Pool/ near the altar of 
the temple. In it the Nethinims used to wash the victims 
and then bring them to the priests, to be offered in the 
temple. This is shown to this day with its five arches, in 
which the sick used to lie waiting for the troubling of the 
water, for whosoever first after the troubling of the water 
stepped in was made whole (John v. 4). Here Christ 
healed the man which had an infirmity thirty-and-eight 
years. Some say that the first pool, near St. Anne's, is 
the sheep pool ; but this I do not believe. We read of no 
more pools in Jerusalem or round about the same. After 
you have seen these things on the right hand and on the 
left, go straight forward along the road to the gate before 
you, which is called the Gate of Judgment,^ and you will 
find Pilate's house, wherein the innocent Lamb of God was 
scourged and mocked by the soldiers, spat upon, buffeted, 
crowned with thorns, and at last condemned to death. 
Here is the way leading to the temple, down which the 

^ The Sheep Pool is here either at the Twin Pools, or at the Birket 
Israil. The author places the Upper Gihon at Birket Ma7nilla^ west 
of Jerusalem. The Upper Pool seems to be Birket el Batrak^ which 
is fed by aqueduct from Birket Mamilla. He seems to suppose two 
aqueducts, from the Piscina Interior (at St. Anne's), and from the 
Upper Pool, to join in the Tyropoeon Valley, and run to Siloam. 
This makes four pools besides Siloam. 

2 The old Byzantine archway east of the Holy Sepulchre Cathedral 
was the traditional Porta Jtidiciaria. The ancient wall of the city was 
supposed to pass east and west, south of the cathedral, and then turn 
north and again east to the Twin Pools. No remains have, however, 
been found on this line as yet. 



Jews, coming from the temple, cried, ' Crucify him, crucify 
him !' Near Pilate's house is Annas's house, to which 
Christ was first led after He had been taken by the multi- 
tude in Gethsemane. Here He was questioned about His 
doctrine, as though He were a teacher of heresy, and was 
struck by a wicked slave with the palm of his hand ;^ thence 
He was sent in bonds to Caiaphas on Mount Sion. For a 
description of his house, see chap. viii. Near the house of 
Annas is the Church of St. Mary of the Swoon, at the 
place where the Blessed Virgin fainted with grief when she 
beheld her innocent Son bearing His cross and distressed 
by its weight; and to this day two great white stones^ are 
built into the arch aloft, upon which stones the Lord rested 
when He was bearing the cross. ^ Proceeding further along 
the aforesaid street, one finds on the right hand the way 
leading to St. Stephen's Gate, along which the Jews, who 
were leading Jesus, , found one Simon of Cyrene coming 
from the country, and compelled him to bear the cross ; 
and he bore it even to Mount Calvary, where they crucified 
him (szc). For an account of this place, see chap. viii. 
King Herod's palace is said to have stood near the Church 
of St. Mary of the Swoon. Not far from Herod's palace 
is shown the house of the traitor Judas, where he dwelt 
with his wife and children. 


The Pilgrimage to Bethlehem and Hebron. 

Aftkr the pilgrimages to Jerusalem, Mount Sion, and the 
places round about them, you must go out of David's Gate 

^ John xviii. 22. ^ Fabri, i. 448. 

3 The site of the Spasina Virginis was shown beside the Ecce 
Homo arch. See notes to the ' City of Jerusalem.' 


toward Bethlehem, which is some two leagues distant, to 
the southward, on the left-hand side of the road to Hebron ; 
but it stands a bow-shot away from the road. Halfway there 
is a church on the place where Elijah did some act of 
penance. One mile from Bethlehem is Rachel's sepulchre ; 
it is on the right-hand side, near the road, and is covered 
with a fair dome, which was built by Jacob, who put 
beneath it upon her tomb twelve great stones, according 
to the number of the children of Israel, which stones are 
there to this day. Near Rachel's sepulchre^ is the field of 
stony peas. They say that the Lord Jesus, when passing 
that way, asked a man, who was sowing peas, what he was 
sowing. He answered, ' Stones,' whereupon the Lord said, 
* Let them be stones.' Thus the peas were turned into stones, 
and to this day stony peas are found there, which pilgrims 
are wont to gather. At last one reaches Bethlehem, which 
stands on a fairly high though narrow mount, which 
stretches east and west. The entrance is on the west, and 
beside the gate is the well of which David longed to drink 
when he was beleaguered here. On the east side there 
is a cave in the rock near the city wall, which seems, after 
the fashion of that country, to have been a stable, with a 
manger hewn in the rock, as is usual in those parts. How 
shall I praise this stable, the place where Christ was born 
of the Virgin, a sun from a star; where truth arose from 
the earth, and our earth gave its increase ? With what 
words shall I set forth the glory of that manger, wherein 
the babe that wept, wrapped in swaddling clothes, was He 
who had made the heavens, and at so stupendous a miracle 
the angels cried out, the shepherds ran to see, the star 
glittered above, Herod was affrighted, Jerusalem disturbed ? 

^ This site, with its legend, is still shown south of Mar Elias^ on 
the road to Bethlehem, north of Rachel's tomb. Fabri, i. 545 ; 
Ricoldus, iv. 1 10. 


O Bethlehem, city of David ! glorified by the birth of the 
true David, of a mighty hand and a comely countenance. 
The city was a little one, but hath been magnified by the 
Lord. He who before was great, but became a little one, 
therein hath magnified her. What city is there that would 
not be envious of her, when it heard of her precious stable 
and the glory of her manger? Everywhere glorious things 
are said of thee, thou city of God ; everywhere people sing, 
* It shall be reported that He was born in her, and the 
Most High shall stablish her.''^ Take notice that near the 
aforesaid rock, wherein Christ was born, there is another 
roomier^ one, only four feet distant from the first, beneath 
which stood the manger wherein that sweetest babe, when 
newly born and wrapped in swaddling clothes, lay beside 
the ox and the ass. It seems to have been all one cave, 
only divided into two by a door made in it, and the stairs 
whereby one goes up from the chapel to the choir. The 
hay from the manger was taken to Rome by the Empress 
Helena, and meetly enshrined in Great St. Mary's Church.^ 
St. Jerome is buried hard by the manger. One goes down 
from the church to the place of the most sweet Nativity by 
ten steps, which lead into the chapel. The inside of this 
chapel is all of mosaic work ; it is paved with marble, and 
is built in exceedingly costly fashion. Mass can be cele- 
brated over the place where the Blessed Virgin was 
delivered, upon a marble slab which is placed there ; but 
some of the bare stone whereon Christ was born may be 
seen, and also some part of the manger wherein He lay 
is left uncovered. These places are visited with the greatest 
devotion and respect. One could hardly find a fairer 
church in the world, or one of equal sanctity ; for there 
are therein most noble pillars of marble, set in four rows, 
and remarkable not only for their number, but also for 
^ Ps. Ixxxvii. 5. ^ Capacior. 3 Sta. Maria Maggiore. 


their size. Moreover, the nave of the church above the 
pillars is of most beauteous and noble mosaic work, wherein 
is depicted all history, from the creation of the world even 
to the coming of Christ to judge the same. Moreover, all 
the pavement of the church is of marble of divers colours, 
adorned with a wondrous variety of patterns. In this 
Church of St. Mary of Bethlehem, on the left-hand side 
in the wall, is the place where the Lord's navel-string and 
foreskin used to be kept ; on the right-hand side of the 
choir, that is, the south side, is the place where the Holy 
Inr.ocents were buried, and an altar has been set up there ; 
but the greater part of them were buried in a place three 
miles to the south of the church. One of the Soldans^ 
ordered the precious marble slabs and columns of this 
venerable church to be taken to Babylon (Cairo) to build 
him a palace ; but when workmen came in the Soldan's 
presence with their tools to carry out his commands, out 
of the sound unbroken wall, from which not so much as a 
needle could be drawn, there came forth a serpent of 
wondrous size, who gave a bite to the first slab to which 
it came, and the slab straightway split across. It did like- 
wise to the next, and so on to the rest in order, to the 
number of forty. All stood amazed, and the Soldan gave 
up his intention ; whereupon the serpent disappeared. 
From thenceforth the church has remained, and remains 
to this day even as it was at the first. The Saracens , 
respect all churches which are dedicated to the glorious 
Virgin, but this one above all others. Even to this day 
the track of the serpent may be seen on each of the siabs, 
as though they had been burned with fire. Besides all the 
rest, it is a miracle how the serpent could pass along them, 
seeing that the wall is as smooth and polished as glass. 
At the north door of this church stands a monks' cloister, 
^ Fabri, i. 598, repeats this story. 



to which one goes up some steps. In a crypt they show 
the cell wherein St. Jerome did penance, and worked much, 
translating and commenting on Holy Scripture ; his bed 
also is shown, and the workrooms of the monastery of 
which he was the head. About a stone's-throw to the 
east of the aforesaid church is the Church of St. Paula and 
her daughter Eustochium, built on the place where they 
did penance. In it their sepulchres are shown. Beneath 
the aforesaid church there is a great crypt, wherein is a 
chapel where we are told the Virgin once sat with her 
child, that she might in solitude have more leisure to gaze 
upon Him whom the angels desire to behold, God of God, 
sitting upon the cherubim in His majesty, sitting upon a 
high and lofty throne, in appearance equal to the Father, 
amid the glories of the saints, born before the morning 
star. In this place she is said to have squeezed her full 
breasts over the ground, wherefore the earth there is white, 
and looks like curdled milk. It is said that a woman who 
has lost her milk will straightway get it back again if she 
puts a little of this earth into a cup of water and drinks it. 
A mile from Bethlehem the shepherds, we are told by the 
Gospel, were abiding in the field, keeping watch over their 
flocks by night.^ Would that other shepherds had kept 
watch over the flocks committed to their charge in that 
same country ! then perchance a lion out of the forest,^ 
that is to say, the power of Saladin, had not slain them, nor 
had Bendocdar, a wolf of the evenings, laid waste what the 
lion had spared ; nor had Melecmessor,^ a leopard, swift 
and eager to do evil, even as a leopard is to shed blood, 

^ The shepherds' field is here shown in the present traditional site 
east of Bethlehem. Luke ii. 8. 

2 Jer. V, 6 : ' Wherefore a Hon out of the forest shall slay them, and 
a wolf of the evenings shall spoil them, a leopard shall watch over 
their cities.' 

3 Melecmessor is only for Melek Musr, 'the King of Egypt.' 



watched over their cities which were left alone. Eight 
leagues to the south of Bethlehem, one comes to Hebron, 
which is described above in chap, iii., and its position in 
Part VII., chap. ii. The position and state of the other 
places in the Holy Land may be found above, chap. iii. 
and iv. 


The State of the Kingdom of Egypt. 

Since enough has been said about Syria and the Promised 
Land, it is time to turn my pen toward Egypt. We marked 
the boundary of the Promised Land at Darum in chap. ii. 
Passing along the coast of Egypt, although in Book I., 
Part L, chap, xv., and more at large in Book II., Part IV., 
chap. XXV., mention has already been made of this same 
country, yet we may say that from Darum to Caput 
Beroaldi is thirty miles, and from thence to the bottom of 
the marsh, known as the Gulf of Rixa,^ is thirty miles, 
thence to the other end of the gulf is thirty miles, thence 
to Ra'sacasarom^ is fifty, and thence even to Pharamia^ 
is thirty miles. This city was once well fenced with 
walls, but afterwards was altogether taken possession of 
by serpents. From Pharamia to the river Tanis is 
twenty-five miles ; but the city of Tanis is beyond the 
river some five -and -twenty miles above the lake. It 
is mentioned in Ps. Ixxviii. 12, 'Marvellous things did 
He ... in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan.'^^ This 

^ Possibly from Ostracine, at the west end of the Sabkhat BardawU. 
■2 Ras el Kasrun ; Mount Casius. 

3 Tell Fararna, the ancient Pelusium. Fuller (' Holy Warre,' 
Bo 'k II., ch. xiii.) says that Pharamia was anciently called Rameses. 

4 Tanis in the Vulgate, now Tell San el Hajr. 


was where Moses and Aaron and the children of Israel 
dwelt, and is in the land of Goshen, whereof Joseph told 
his brethren and his father, saying, ' Ye shall say unto 
Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we and also 
our fathers. Say this, that ye may dwell in the land 
Goshen ;' for which see Part VI., chap, xviii. Tanis was 
of old a strongly fenced city, built on strong ground ; but 
at this day it is utterly destroyed, and only a few Bedouins 
dwell in its ruins, because of its pastures and the richness 
of the country. Moreover, it abounds greatly in birds and 
fishes. For an account of it, see Part VI., chap, xviii. 
From the river of Tanis to Damietta is forty miles, by sea. 
This city was of old called Memphis ; for it see above. 
Part VL, chap. xxii. But two leagues from the sea the 
Saracens have built a long village, with no fortifications, 
for ships to ride at and for the storage of merchandise ; 
this place abounds with fruits, corn, and other good things, 
even as Tanis. One of the branches of the Nile flows 
between this city and Damietta, proceeding toward Tanis ; 
thence it runs through the channel called Bayera^ to 
Pharamia, and enters the sea there. This is the first port 
of Egypt in the direction of the Promised Land. From 
Damietta to Brullium^ is seventy miles, and from thence to 
the mouth of the river Sturio,*^ which is five miles wide, 
measures thirty miles, and it is thirty miles round about. 
From the mouth of the Sturio to the mouth of the Rosseta 
(Rosetta) branch of the Nile is forty miles. From the 
Rosetta Mouth to the Tower of Bolcherius* is twenty-five 
miles, and thence to Alexandria is eighteen miles. 

P>om what has been said above, it is plain that from 
Pharamia to Alexandria is two hundred and sixty-eight 

' From Ba/ir, the name by which the canals are known. 
2 Apparently on Lake Burlus. 

^ Possibly the Sebennytic mouth of the Nile. + Abukir. 



miles. This is the width of the sea-coast of Egypt ; but the 
kingdom of Egypt reaches even to the Soldan^s Harbour, 
which harbour lies beyond Alexandria, two hundred and 
seventy miles to the west, as is told in Book II., Part IV., 
chap. XXV. From Alexandria to Babylon {Fostat, near 
Cairo) is reckoned two hundred and thirty miles up the 
Nile. From Pharamia through Tanis and Damietta to 
Babylon is reckoned two hundred miles only, going up the 
river as before. From Babylon to the city of Syene,^ which 
is the furthermost part of Egypt toward the south and 
Ethiopia, is one hundred and forty miles. From the 
aforesaid city of Syene it is reckoned about two hundred 
and sixty miles up the Nile to the place called Chus,^ 
where ships are laden with merchandise brought from 
Aden. The aforesaid Ethiopia is properly called Nubia ; 
it is entirely inhabited by Christians, who were converted 
by St. Matthew. Going up the Nile from Damietta one 
comes first to Abdela, and next Mansora,^ where the Nile 
divides, and the lesser branch runs to Pharamia. But the 
place where the Nile makes its chief division, and makes 
the greater part of Egypt an island, is called Delta ; for 
the island is a triangular one, shaped like the letter Delta. 
The greater branch runs toward Alexandria, but the lesser 
to Damietta. From Delta to Heliopolis is three miles. 
Hence a branch of the Nile runs northward to the city 
of Belbeis,^ which once was called Pelusium (Part VI., 
chap, xviii.) ; thence it flows through the wilderness toward 

^ Aswan. 

2 Apparently Kus^ near Kuft^ Coptos, but this is down the Nile 
from Syene. 

3 Bedalah and Mansurah. 

1 Belbes, on the line of the old canal, which passed near Heliopolis, 
or On, now Tell Hisn, and ran on to Lake Timsah. Pelusium, or' 
Sin, now Tell Fara?na, was near the mouth of the Pelusiac arm of 
the Nile. 



the Holy Land, and enters the sea near the city of Laris,^ 
one day's journey from Gaza and Beersheba. This is 
properly called in Scripture the river^ of Egypt, and 
therein was the boundary of the tribe of Judah (Numbers 
. . . ), but it cannot be navigated. Heliopolis is a very fine 
town, but is not fortified, neither is any other town in all 
Egypt save Alexandria and Cairo. In Heliopolis and 
Babylon the places are shown wherein the glorious Virgin 
abode with her Son when she fled into Egypt from the face of 
Herod. As she had no other place wherein to take her rest, 
she entered a temple wherein were 365 idols, in whose honour 
Divine service was celebrated on every day in the year ; but 
at the entrance of Christ and the Virgin Mary all the idols 
fell down. Then was fulfilled the word of Isaiah (chap, xix.), 
* Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and shall 
come into Egypt ; and the idols of Egypt shall be moved 
at His presence.' When news of this was brought to 
Afrodosius, he came to the temple with all his host, drew 
near to the babe and worshipped it, and said to his host, 
' Had not this been the God of our gods, they had not 
bowed themselves before Him ; wherefore we, unless we 
be careful to do that which we see our gods do, shall come 
into peril even as Pharaoh did.' Thus the holy Lord, 
who in His wrath thinketh of mercy, by sending His Son 
into Egypt, gave a great proof of His forgiveness, and with 
that one medicine healed all its ten plagues. Seven leagues 
from Heliopolis is Babylon, a very great and well-fortified 
city, standing on the northern bank of the river Nile ; but 
a pretty large branch of that river runs through the midst 
of the city, through the city of Cairo (Part VI., chap, xxii.), 
which adjoins Babylon, and at Cairo returns to the main 
river again. Near Cairo is an exceeding ancient palm- 

' E/ Arish. 2 I Kings viii. 65 ; 2 Kings xxiv. 7. 


tree,^ which bowed itself to the Blessed Virgin Mary that 
she might gather dates from it, and then raised itself up 
again. When the heathens saw this they cut it down, but 
it joined itself together again in the following night, and 
stood upright again. The marks of the cutting may be 
seen to this day. Round about this city there are many 
excellent orchards ; one mile away from it is the Garden 
of Balsam, of the size of half a mansus? The bushes therein 
are of the size of a three-year-old vine-stock ; the leaf is 
like that of small trefoil, or rue, but of a whiter colour. 
When it is ripe, which is about the month of May, the 
bark of the wood bursts, and the liquor is collected in glass 
vessels. It is then laid in doves' dung and dried, and thus 
right balsam is made. They say that there is yet another 
way of gathering it, which is to pluck a leaf on the side 
toward the sun ; for the leaf joins the stem, and, albeit 
many stand on one plot of ground, they have only one 
stem. When the leaf is torn away, there straightway flows 
forth an exceeding transparent and sweet-scented drop. 
This garden can only be watered from one single fount, 
wherein the Blessed Virgin is said to have washed the boy 
Jesus's swaddling clothes. At the season of Epiphany 
both Christians and Saracens assemble at this fount, and 
wash themselves therein out of devotion. Another miracle 
there is that the oxen that draw the aforesaid water would 
not draw any between mid-day on Saturday until the same 
hour on Sunday, not though you were to skin them alive. 
In Babylon also there is a wonder worthy of record. In a 
monastery, built there in honour of St. John the Baptist 
there is a chest" containing his relics. Every year they 

^ See Poloner, p. 42 ; Tobler, ' Descriptiones,' p. 409 ; Ernoul, p. 49. 

2 Manse, terme de feodalite. Mesure de terre jugde necessaire pour 
faire vivre un homme et sa famille. Etym., has. lat., jnanstis. Littre's 

3 Scrinimn. 


carry the aforesaid chest some five leagues down the Nile 
to another church of monks, which is also built in his 
honour. After Mass they place the chest in the river, to 
try in which place the saint wishes his relics to rest — that is, 
whether in this place or the former ; and presently, before 
the eyes of all, the chest moves up against the stream of 
the river exceeding fast, so that men riding at full speed 
on horseback cannot outrun it. Five leagues from Babylon 
there are some triangular pyramids, exceeding lofty, which 
are said to have been Joseph's granaries. Two leagues 
from them are the ruins of the city of Thebes, from whence 
came the Theban legion. Adjoining this is the wilderness 
of the Thebaid, where in the days of old there was a 
multitude of monks. 

Above Babylon the Nile runs down all in one stream 
from the aforesaid place, Syene, a distance of two hundred 
and forty miles. From Syene to the city of Meroe is two 
hundred and sixty miles. Syene stands beneath the sum- 
mer tropic ; wherefore no shadows are cast there when the 
sun is in the first stage of Cancer, at which time Meroe 
casts a shadow toward the south. And you must note 
that, albeit from Babylon to Syene, and from Syene to 
Meroe, is a long distance, yet the country has scarce any 
width, because the whole of this way it follows the Nile, 
which has high mountains on either side, and the land is 
a.11 burned up, save by the riverside. The source of the 
Nile cannot be found out, save as far as the mountains on 
the left hand of Nubia, through which it flows ; beyond 
this is an impassable country. The land of Egypt can 
scarce be come at save by sea. To the westward it is 
bounded by a province of Barbary, called Barca ;^ there is 
a wilderness of fifteen days' journey between them. To 
the southward is the wilderness of Ethiopia, twelve days' 

^ Cyrenaica. 



journey and more, even to Nubia. On the east side there 
is the wilderness of the Thebaid, which reaches to the Red 
Sea, three days' journey, to the place called Beronice^ (sic) ; 
this is the port of Egypt on the Red Sea. For those who- 
wish to sail towards India, to the south-west and the north 
there is the great wilderness reaching even to the Holy 
Land, wherein the children of Israel wandered for forty 
years. One cannot cross this wilderness into Syria in less 
than eight days. Thus, on every side, save the sea-coast, 
the kingdom of Egypt is surrounded by sand and by the 
wilderness. The climate of Egypt is healthy, the food is 
good, and the land more temperate than Palestine or Syria, 
albeit from its position it seems as though one ought to 
find the opposite. The land of Egypt is watered by the 
Nile alone. The Nile begins to wax on the Feast of the 
Nativity^of St. John, and rises until the Feast of the Exal- 
tation^ of the Holy Cross ; from that time forth it keeps on 
falling until the Epiphany. When the dry land appears,, 
the sower casts his seed, and harvests it in March. In 
the middle of the river there stands a marble pillar on a 
small island* off the ancient city of Meser, which is near 
Cairo ; on that pillar they have made marks, by which 
they know whether the following harvest will be a good or 
a bad one. . Fresh fruit and vegetables are gathered from 
Martinmas to March. Ewes and she-goats bear young 
twice in the year. 

The description of the road from the Promised Land to 
Cairo by land, across the wilderness, is as follows : 

From Gaza it is three leagues^ to Darum ; it is a good 

^ Berenice, behind the headland of Rds Benas. ^ June 24. 

3 September 14. Compare Ludolph, chap, xxxiv., p. 78. 

4 The island of Roda. 

5 Yet, when describing the sea voyage along the coast, from Joppa 
to Damietta, he says : ' A Gazara usque Darum milia sunt xv.' Bk. 11.^ 
Part iv., chap. 25. 



road, with water and plent)^ of grass. Thence to Raphat,^ 
two leagues ; good road, plenty of water and all things. 
Thence to Zasque, four leagues ; not much sand, good 
grassy road, plenty of good water. Thence to Heus, four 
leagues ; road leads over sand, fairly good water. Thence 
to Laris,- four leagues; road all over sand, good enough 
water, and a place for buying and selling. [Thence to 
Burelaui, four leagues ; road all over sand, good water and 
plenty of it.] Thence to Bouser, four leagues ; here the 
road divides into the upper and lower road ; the lower is 
the most commonly used, and passes by the place called 
Sabaquet Baridoil,^ where King Baldwin died. From 
Bouser to Tarade is two leagues ; plenty of grass, and 
good water ; there is a market there. Thence to Asbede, 
four leagues ; there likewise is much sand, plenty of grass 
land, good water, and a market. Thence to Viteleb, five 
leagues ; much sand, poor grass, and very bad water, 
but plenty of it. Thence to Naherlersibia, four leagues ; 
much sand, but good water. Thence to Catie* (szc) . . . 
leagues ; this is a good village, and fairly good water ; 
here the road divides into upper and lower ; both roads 
lead to Habesse,^ an excellent village ; the lower road is 
the more commonly used of the two. 

The upper road is as follows : From Chatie (sic) to Hahras,^ 
five leagues ; plenty of sand and water, but bad water. 
Thence to Bonuruch,^ four leagues ; much sand, and the 
water is exceeding bad, bitter, and salt. Thence to Hucar, 
four short leagues ; much sand and bad water. Thence 
to Asebbi, four leagues ; [much sand, grass, and good 
water ; there is a market there. Thence to Hesiuone, four 
leagues ;] much sand and good water from a river. 
Thence to Masinach, three leagues ; much sand, and good 

' Raphia, 7?<2/^^/z. ^ El Arish. 3 Sabkhat BardawiL 

^ Katieh. 5 Abes si. ^ El Aras. Bir Abu Ruk. 



water from a river. After Sbesbie tilled land begins, 
and from thence to Vacaria, a good village, is two long 
leagues. There is plenty of water from a river. Thence 
to Habesse, three leagues. The road is good, the land 
fertile, and the village is full of all good things. Thence to 
Belbeis, three leagues ; the land is arable, and the village 
large and fertile. Thence to Abirelcara, three leagues ; 
fruitful land, good water, and plenty of it. Thence to 
Hus, four leagues ; fruitful land, good water, and plenty of 
it. Thence to Quiriaci, three leagues ; fruitful land, and 
fertile. Thence to Cairo, three leagues ; good road. 

The lower road : From Chatie to Aguorabi, four leagues ; 
much sand, very little water, and that salt. Thence to 
Chauseyr, five leagues ; much sand, and plenty of 
water, but very bad water. Thence to Birchisce, four 
leagues ; not much sand, plenty of water, but salt water. 
Thence to Salchie,^ a good village, four leagues ; abundance 
of good water. Thence, to Habesse, six leagues ; good 
road, plenty of good water from a river. Thence to Cairo, 
as before. Thus the wilderness reaches for about seventy 
leagues, and the tilled land for twenty and more, between 
Gaza and Cairo. 



Abana river, 2 
Abarim, Mount, 20, 28 
Abdela, 57 
Abelina, 19 
Abilene, 29 
Abirelcara, 63 
Abishag, 22 
Abukir, 56 
Achan, 13 

Achillas, the hill, 15 
Acre, 8, 25 
Aden, 57 
Adtrr, 17 

Adiabene, Queen of, 43, 46 
Aduniminn, 15 
Afasantomar, 12 
Afrodosius, 58 
Aguorabi, 63 
Ahab, 30 
Aholibamah, 27 
Ai, 14 

Alexandretta, 4 
Alexandria, 56-58 
Amalek, 31 

Ammon, 11, 15, 26, 28 

„ children of, 16 
Amorites, 3, 26 
Anah, 27 

Anathoth, 20, 24, 43 
Annas's house, 50 
Anoth Se\r, 10 
Antaradus, 2, 5 
Antilebanon, Mount, 4, 29 
Antioch, 2, 4 
Aniipas, 28 
Antipatris, 25 
Ar, 3, 10 
Arabian Gulf, i 
Arachus, son of Canaan, 5 
Aradius, Aradium, 5 
Aram, 10, 11 

Areopolis, 3, 10 
Aretha, 3, 23 
Arimathea, Joseph of, 40 
Armenia, i 
Arnon, brook, 33 
Arsiif, 8 
Asbede, 62 
Ascalon, 9, 28, 35 
Asebbi, 62 
Ashdod, 25, 28 
Asher, 23 

„ land of, 1 1 
Ashur, 35 

Assassins, country of the, 5 
Assur, 9, 25 
Ayr, 10 

Baa LOAD, 10 
Babylon, 2 

Babylon (Cairo), 53, 57-63 
Bagaras, 4 
Bahurim, 16 
Balsam, 31 

„ garden of, 59 
el B'anet, 11 
Baracha, 6 

Barak, the son of Abinoam, 16, 34 

Barca, 60 

Basan, 3 

Bashan, 11 

Bathshemath, 27 

Bay era, 56 

Bede, 33 

Bedouins, 656 

Beeroth, 17, 30 

Beersheba, 24, 35 

Beilan Pass, 4 

Belbeis, 57, 63 

Belfort, castle, 7 

Belinas, 19 

Belvoir, 16 



Bendocdar, 54 

Beroald's Castle, 9, 25, 55 
Bersa, 3 
Berytus, 6 

Besor, the brook, 35 
Betesmuth, 12 
Bethel, 14, 17 
Beth-haccerem, 20 
Beth-hoglah, 12 
Beth-horon, 21 
Bethlehem, 51-55 

„ Mount, 31 
Bethsaida, 14, 15, 17 
Bethsan, 3, 15 
Bethsara, 20 
Bethshan, 22, 23, 26, 30 
Bethshemesh, 24 

ot Judah, 23 

Bethsur, 17 
Bethsura, 35 
Bethulia, 17, 29 

„ Mount, 17, 34 
Beyrout, 6 
Bezet, 20 
Biblium, 6 
Bira, 20 
Birchisce, 63 
Blanchegarde, 24 
Bohan, the stone, 16 
Bolcherius, tower of, 56 
Bonuruch, 62 
Bosra, 17 

Botron, or Botrum, 6 
Bouser, 62 
Bozereth, 3 
Bozrah, 10 
Brullium, 56 
Burelaui, 62 

Cabul, 15, 19, 34 
Caesarea, 2, 15, 25, 35 
„ of Palestine, 8 
,, Philippi, 19 
Caiaphas, 41, 50 

„ house of, 41 
Cain, 30, 34 
Cairo, 58-63 
Calf, golden, 17, 30 
Calvary, Mount, 39, 40 
Cana of Galilee, 23, 29, 37 
Canaan, 5 

Capernaum, 2, 14, 15, 32 
Cappadocia, i 
Caput Beroaldi, 55 

Carethi, 21 

Carmel, where Nabal dwelt, 16 
Mount, 8, 19, 21, 22, 30, 35 

Carmeleon, Valley of, 37 

Casale Lamberti, 8, 35 

Castle, Beroald's, 9, 25, 55 
,, Pilgrims', 2, 8, 25 

Castle Royal, 24, 35 

Castrum Fabae, 23 

Catie, 62 

Caucasus, 2 

Cedron, brook, 43, 45 

Champ de Lion, 8 

Chatie, 62, 63 

Chauseyr, 63 

Chedorlaomer, 26 

Ctierith, the brook, 14, 34 

Chorazim, 12, 15, 32 

Church built by St. Peter at 
Antioch, 5 

Church of Gethsemane, 44, 45 
„ of Golgotha, 39 
„ of Holy Sepulchre, 38-41 
„ of Mount Sion, 41, 42 
„ of St. Anne, 48 
„ of St. John Baptist, 12 
„ of St. John Evangelist, 

„ of St. Mary of Bethle- 
hem, 51-54 

„ of St. Mary of the Swoon, 

„ of St. Paula, 54 

„ of St. Saviour on Mount 

Sion, 41 
„ of Virgin's Sepulchre, 45, 


Chus, 57 
Clement, St., 5 
Cleopatra, 31 
Corconus, tish, 14 
Crach, 3 

Crach des Chevaliers, 5 
Cyrene, Simon of, 50 

Dalmanutha, 32 
Damascus, 2, 3, 13, 27 

„ the field of, 18 
Damietta, 56, 57 
Dan, 9, 17 

„ children of. 19 

„ river, 15, 32 
Dar, or Darum, 9, 55, 6r 
David, 10, 18, 47, 48, 5 1 



David's Gate, 50 

„ Tower, 41 
Dead Sea, 12, 28, 33 
Debir, 19 

Deborah's palm-tree, 17 
Decapolis, 15 
Deir el Belah, 9 
Delta, 52 

Demetrius, King, 7 
Deuteronomy, 21 
Diospolis, 25 
Districtum, 2 
Docus, 13 

Dog's River and Pass, 6 
Dora, 8, 25 
Dothaim, 29, 34 
Dothan, 17 

Ebal, 21 
Edissa, i 
Egypt, 55-63 
Ekron, 25 
Eleale, 12, 34 
Eleutherus, river, 6, 29, 35 
Elisha's well, 14, 34 
Emmaus, 35 

„ (Nicopolis), 23 
Endor, 29, 36 
Eneglaim, 12 
Engaddi, 13, 16, 31, 34 
Mount, 31, 34 
Engalym, 12 
En-hakkore, 35 
En-Rogel, 44 
Ephraim, 11,17 

Mount, 34 

Ernon, 12 
Er-Roha, i 
Esau, 27 

Esdraelon, plain of, 17, 37 
Eshtaol, 35 
Eudaemon, Arabia, 4 
Euphrates, i 
Evea, Evens, 6 
Ezion Geber, 3 

Faba, plain of, 23 
Fasael, 14 

Gadara, I I 

Galilee of the Gentiles, 11, 15 
„ Sea of, 10-15, 23, 32-34 
Garden of balsam, 59 
Gate, David's, 50 

Gate, Golden, 47 

„ of Judgment, 49 

„ St. Stephen's, 38 

„ Valley, 47, 49 
Gaza, 9, 25, 35, 61, 63 
Gehinnon, 44 
Gennesaret, 15, 33 
George's Valley, St., 11, 23 
Gerasa, 12 
Gerizim, 19, 21 
i Gethsemane, 44, 45, 50 
Giaour Dagh, 4 
Gibeah of Saul, 20, 22 
Gibeon, 22 
Gideon, 30 

Gihon, upper water-course of, 48 
„ lower water-course of, 43 

Gilboa, Mount, 3, 16, 26, 30 

Gilead, 3, 17, 26. 27 

Gilgal, 13, 14, 22 

Gloriata, 4 

Golden calf, 17 
„ calves, 30 
„ Gate, 47 

Golgotha, church of, 39 

Goshen, Land of, 56 

Habesse, 62, 63 
Hahras, 62 
Haifa, 8, 25, 34 
Haman, 1 1 
Hamath, 2, 13, 26 
Hamsin, 8 
Haylon, 10 
Razor, 7, 15, 20, 29 
Heber the Kenite, 19 
Hebron, 18 
Heliopolis, 58 

Hermon, 7, 13, 22, 26, 29, 30, 34 
! Hermon, the little hill of, 34, 36 
I Hermoniim, 29, 36 

Herod, 15, 28, 50 

Herodium, 15 

Heshbon, 3, 10, 28 

Hesiuone, 62 
i Heus, 62 
I Holofernes, 29 

Holy Sepulchre, church of the, 

Horites, 26 

el Hosn (Gamala), 10 

Hospitallers, Knights, 4, 5 

House, Annas's, 50 

„ Caiaphas's, 41, 50 



House, Judas's, 50 
„ Pilate's, 49, 50 
„ whence M^tihew 

called, 14 
„ of Zacharia, 35 

Hucar, 62 

Hunting, royal, 32, 37 
Hus, 63 

I ABES, 12 

Idumaea, 3, 10, 31 
Idumaeans, 16, 28 
Illustrious Valley, 30 
India, 42 

Isaiah, sepulchre of, 44 
Ishmael, 27 
I«>kanderuneh, 8 
Ituraea, 3, 6, 15, 32 


Jabbok, tne brook, 33, 34 

„ the ford, 27 
Jabiii, King of Hazor, 32 
Jacob's well, 19 
Jamnia, 25 

Janapara (Jotapata), 15 
Jazer, 1 1 
Jehoshaphat, 16 
Jericho, 12, 13, 15, 28 
Jeroboam, 30 
Jerome, St., 54 

Jerusalem, pilgrimage through- 
out, 38, se^. 

Jews' Harbour, 25 

Jezreel, 21, 22, 30, 37 
„ fount of, 30, 34 
,, plain of, 34 

Job's sepulchre, 1 1 

John the Baptist, St., prison of, 10 ; 
church of, 12 ; monastery of, m 
Egypt, 59 

Jokneam (Tell Keimun), 30 

Jonah, 21 

Jonah's pillar, 4 

Joppa, 9, 19, 35 

Jor, 19 

Jordan, 11, 32-34 

„ Valley of, 30 
Judaea, 31, 33 
Judas's house, 50 
Judith, 29 
Judyn, 24, 35 

I Kaco, 24 
Kabul, 15 
.-as Kadesh-barnea, 3, 27, 31, 33 
, Kadesh Naphtali, 15, 16 
I Kaymont, 24, 30 
I Kedar, 10, 11, 28 
I el Khudr, 1 1 
j Kmg Demetrius, 7 
! King's Dale, 29 
Kirjath Jearim, 23 
„ Sepher, 19 
Kishon, the brook, 34, 35, 38 
Kul'at esh Shakif (iieitort), 7 
Kuma, 21 

Laban, 27 
Lachish, 19, 24, 31 
Lamech, 30 
Laris (El Arish), 62 
Lebanon, 7, 9, 13, 26, 29, 32 
„ the head of, 26 
„ Mount, 2, 13, 26, 29, 32 
„ plain of, 28 
„ tower of, 16 
Lehi, 35 
I Lena, 4 
! Lepna, 21 
I Lesedan, 19 

\ Litany, river. See Eleutherus 
Liza, 4 
Luz, 17 
Lydda, 18, 25 

Maccabees, tomb of the, 24 
I Maceda, 24 
Maceronta, 10 
Madan, 32 
Magdala, 26, 27 
' Magdalum, 13 
Magina, 20 
Mahanaim, 10, 27 
Mahomet, 4 

„ law of, 47 
Mambre, 18, 20 
i Mansora, 57 
Mansus, a, 59 
Maon, 13, 25 
Marah, waters of, 33 
Margat, 2, 5 
Mark Antony, 25 
Mary Magdalen, St., 13 
Mary of Egvpt. St., 41 
" Masinach, 62 
,Massada, 15 



Matthew, St., 14 
Mecca, 4 
Megiddo, 23, 34 

„ plain of, 17, 23 
el Mekhaur, 10 
Memphis, 56 
el Merkeb, 2 
Meroe, 60 
Meser, city of, 61 
Mesopotamia, 2, 11, 27 
Mezraa, 23 
Midianites, 6 

Moab, Moabites, 3, 11, 26, 28 

Monreal, 3, 10 

Montfort, 24, 35 

Moreh, Vale of, 30 

Mount Abarim, 20, 28 
Bethlehem, 31 
„ Bethulia, 17, 34 
„ Calvary, 39, 40, 50 
„ Carmel, 8, 19, 21, 22, 30, 35 
„ Engi^ddi, 3I' 34 
„ Ephraim, 34 
„ Gilboa, 3, 16, 26, 30 
„ Gilead, 3, 17, 26, 27 
„ Hermon, 7, 13, 22, 26, 29, 
30, 34 

Lebanon, 2, 13, 26, 29, 32 
„ Moriah, 45 
„ of Olives, 44, 45 
„ Pisgah, 33 
„ Rama, 25 
„ Sanyr, 10, 1 1, 26 
„ Seyr, or Seir, 3, 20, 26-28, 

„ Sharon, 8, 24, 29 
., Sinai, 42 
„ Sion, 42, 43 
„ called the Table, 13 
„ Tabor, 17,23,29,34,37,38 
„ Taurus, i, 2 
Mountain, Black, 4 
Mountains of Samaria, 30 

Naasox, 20 
Nabal, 16 
Nabath, 3 

Naboth's vineyard, 21 
Naherlersibia, 62 
Nahr el Kebir, 7 
Nahr el Kelb, 6 
Naim, 22, 36, 38 
Naphtali, tribe of, 18 
Nazareth, 18, 23, 24, 29-31 

1 Neapolis, 19, 31 
j Nebajoth, 27 
i Neel Eshcol, 22 

Nephtali of Tobit, 17 

Nephym, 6 

Nicodemus, 40 

Nile, 56, 57, 60, 61 
„ vein of the, 14 
I Nilometer, 61 
I Nineveh, 2 

Nob, 22 

Nubia, 60 

Oak of Mambre, 20 
Oak of Rogel, 44 
Og, King of Basan, 3 
' Old man of the mountains,' 5 
Olives, Mount of, 45 
Ophrah, 17 
j Origen's tomb, 7 
Oronte?, 4 
Othonaym, 10 

Palestine, divisions of, 2 

Palm-tree, Deborah's, 17 

,, that bowed to the 
I Virgin Mary, 58, 59 

I Paran, wilderness of, 33 
I Passus Portellae, 4 

Paula's sepulchre, 54 

Pea?, legend of, 5 1 

Pella, 12 

Pelusium, 57 
i Peter, St., 5 
I Petra, 3, 10 
\ „ incisa, 2 
j „ in the wilderness, 28 
I Phanuel, 11 

Pharamia, 56, 57 
I Pharaoh Necho, 22 
I Phasael, 34 

Phiale, 1 1, 32 
I Philistim, 2 
I Phoenicia, 21 
I Pilate's house, 49, 50 
j Pilgrims' Castle, 2, 8, 25 
: Pillar, Jonah's, 4 
I Pisgah, 13, 33 

Pit into which Joseph was cast, 17 

Ptolemais, 8, 34-36 

Ptolemy the son of Abubus, 13 

Pulzyn, 4 

Pyramids, 60 




Ouiriaci, 63 

Rabbah, 3 
Rachel's tomb, 18, 51 
Rages, I 
Rama, 18, 20 

„ Mount, 31 
Ramatha, 20, 22 
Ramathaim Zophim, 25 
Ramula, 25 
Raphat, 62 
Rasacasarom, 55 
Ravenna, 22 
Red Sea, 31, 33, 61 
Rephaim, Vale of, 35 
Rixa, Gulf of, 55 
Roasse, i 
Rogel, the well, 44 
Roob, 15 

Rosetta mouth of the Nile, 

Rumae Afet, 23 

Sabaquet Baridoil, 62 
Safet, 15, 17 
Sageta, 6 
Saida (Sidon), 6 
St. Anne's church, 48 
St. Clement, 5 
St. George's Valley, 11, 23 
St. James the Less, 42, 46 
St. John Baptist, prison of, 10 ; 
church of, 12 ; monastery of, in 

Egypt, 59 

St. Peter, 5 
St. Samuel's, 22 
St. Simeon's Harbour, 4 
Salchie. 63 
Salet, II 
Salim, 13 
Saltus Domini, 36 
Samaria, 17, 38 

,, mountains of, 30 
Sanir, 10, 11, 26 
Saphar, 36 
Saphet, 18 
Saraa, 24 
Sarepta, 6, 25 
Sartan, 12 
Sbesbie, 63 
Scandalium, 8, 25 
Scythopolis, 15, 16 
Sea, Dead, 12, 28, 31, 33, 34 

Sea of Galilee, 10, 12-15, 23, 28, 
32, 33 

,, of Gennesaret, 15, 33 
„ Red, 31, 33, 61 
„ of Tiberias, 15, 33 
Sebaste, 19 

Seir, or Seyr, 3, 20, 26-28, 31 

Seleucia, 4 

Sephoris, 37 

Sephorum, 23 

Sephorus, 29 

Sepphoni, 18 

Sepulchre, Helena's, Queen of 

Adiabene, 43, 46 
Sepulchre, Holy, 38-41 
„ Isaiah's, 44 
„ Jehoshaphat's, 44 
„ St. James the Less's, 6 
„ Origen's, 7 
„ Paula and Eusto- 

chium's, 54 
„ Rachel's, 18, 51 
„ the Virgin's, 45 
Serpent, legend of, at Bethlehem, 

Sethyn, 10 
Sharon, 24 

„ Mount, 8, 24, 29 
Shaveh, Valley of, 29 
Shechem, 19, 20, 31 
Sheep Pool, 49 
Shiloh, 18, 22 
Shittim, 28 
Shobek, 3 
Shunem, 22 
Sidon, 6, 1 5 
Sihon, King, 3, 28 
Siloam, 43, 48 
Sin, 5 
Sinai, 42 
Sinochim, 5 
Sion, Mount, 41-43 
Sisera, 16, 34 
Sobal, 3 
Sochor, 12 
Sodon, 15 
Soldyn, 4 

Solomon's Temple, 47 
Sorek, 35 

Spasma Virginis, church of, 50 

Staol, 24 

Stone Bohan, 16 

„ Zoheleth, 44 
Sturio, river, 56 



Suba, i6 
Sububa, 24 
Sueta, II 

Sur, Wilderness of, 20 
Surafend, 7 
Suweidiyeh, 4 
Suweimeh, 12 
Syceleg, 35 
Syene, 57, 60 
Syria, coast of, 4-9 

„ divisions of, 1-3 
Syneus, son of Canaan, 5 

Table, Mount called, 13 

Tabor, Mount, 17, 21, 23, 29, 34, 

37, 38 
Tammum, 13 
Tampne, 13 
Tanis, 55, 56 
Tantiira (Dora), 8 
Tarade, 62 
Taurus, Mount, i, 2 
Tekoa, 16 

Templars, Knights, 9, 25 
Temple, the Lord's, 46, 47 

„ Solomon's, 47 
Teutonic Order, 24 
Thebaid, 60 
Thebes, 60 
Thebez, village of, 19 
Tiberias, 15, 23, 33 
'i'ibnin, 23 
Tigris, I 
Timnatha, 24 
Timnath-serah, 22 
Tirsah, 16 
Tophet, 44 
Toron, 23 
Tortosa, 5 

Tower of Bolcherius, 56 

„ of David, 41 

„ of the flock, 17 

„ of Lebanon, 16 
Trachonitis, 3, 15, 28, 32 
Tracones, 28 

Trapasa, 4 
Tripoli, 5, 6, 29 
Turcomans, 6 
Tyre, 2, 7, 23, 25 

Umm Keis, 12 
Uz, Land of, 28 

Vacaria, 63 
Valania, 2, 4 
Valley of Blessing, 16 

„ of Dothan, 17 

„ Gate, 47, 49 

„ of Gehmnon, 44 

„ Illustrious, 30 

„ of Jehoshaphat, 44 

„ of Jordan, 30 

„ of Moreh, 30 

„ of Rephaim, 35 

„ St. George's, 11 

„ of Shaveh, 29 

„ of Sorek, 35 

„ vi'hich Jacob gave to 
Joseph, 19, 20 
Vavini, Saracens so-called, 6 
Vein of the Nile, 14 
Viteleb, 62 

Well, Jacob's, 19 

' Well of living waters,' 7 

Yebnah, 25 

Zacharia, house of, 35 

Zamin, 21 

Zapha, 9 

Zasque, 62 

Zebulon, 19 

Zibelet, 6 

Zibeon the Hivite, 27 
Ziblin, 24 
Ziklag, 23, 35 
Zilim, 21 
Ziph, 16 

Zoan, field of, 48 
Zoheleth, 44 


Abessi, 62 

XjllKCL IVldllllllci, ^{.9 

Afuleh, see Fuleh 

CI iXd.111, JfS 

'Ain Ar^]^■ -yi 
n Ir T '2 

1^*11 CC) 1 1 1 A 

„ ridnina, 23, 35 

TlH V T A O T 

Deir el Belah, 9 

„ Karim, 35 

Shpms 9 "3 "7/1 

„ es Suhan, 13, 14 


Tahchflh T 

'Alrir ^T<^lrrr>n^ 

pV A1 t-? 

A m m an /'T?aV\l^a1"V» A m rv» rvn i T r* 
r\.lllll\<xii iXct U UdLll rVllHllUlJ 1^ 

Anata 9n 

Fahtt Pplla T9 

A r» rl ^^ r ^ "P* Ti rl r ^ O T 

rt.iiu.u.r ^^iL.uuuryj zi 

Fuleh, Castrum Fabae, 23 

Arak el Emir, lo 

el Aras, 62 

Golan, 32 

Arbela, 19 

el Arish, 58, 62 

Hachilah, 15 

Aswan, 57 
Attarah, 17, 20 

Haifa, 8 

Hamah, 2 

Hamsin, 8 

Bahr, name of canals in Egvpt, 

Hauran, 11 


Hazzur, 21 

Banias, 19 

Heliopolis, 57 

Batrun, 6 

Bedala, 57 

IRBID, 19 

Beisan, 16 
Beit Jibrin, 24 


Jaulan, The, 1 1 
Jeb'a, 17 

„ Nuba, 22 

„ Sahur el Atikah, 20 

„ Sur, 17 

Tebel ed Douz, 10 

„ Ur et Tahta, 21 

„ Fureidis, 15, 20 

Bir Abu Kuk, 62 

„ Koruntil, 14 

„ Neby Dhahy, 20, 22 

Bireh, 20 

Birket el Batrak, 49 

Jeddin, 24 

„ Israil, 49 

Jerash, 12 



el Jib, 22 
Jokneam, 24, 30 
Jotapata, 15 

Kabul, 34 
Kairarieh, 2 
Kakun, 24 
Katieh, 62 

Kaukab el Hawa, 16 

Kedes, 17 

Kefr Haris, 22 

Kefr Lam, 2 

Khan Jubb Yusef, 17, 29 

„ Lubben, 21 

„ Minieh, 13 
Khersa, 12 
Khurbet Dustrey, 2 
„ Kana, 24, 37 
,, Lozeh, 18 
Sar, 33 
Kuft, Coptos, 57 
Kul'at el Kurein, 24 
Kureiyat, lo 
Kurmul (Carmel), 31 
Kus, 57 

Kusr Hajlah (Bethhoglah), 12 
Kusr el Yehiid, 12 

Latron, tombs of the Maccabees, 

Leontes River, 20 

M'ALIA (Castle Royal), 24 

Mahumeria, 20 

IMansune, 67 

Mar Elias, 51 

M'aseret Aisa, 13 

el Meidan, 32 

Mejdel, 15, 32 

Melek Musr, the King of Egypt, 

el Merkeb (Margat), 2 

el Meshed, Jonah's tomb at ; the 

ancient Gath Hepher, 22 
el Mezra'ah, 23 
Minieh, 17 

Nachal Eshcol, 22 
Nazor (Hazor), 21 
Neby Samwil, 18, 23 
Neby Sebelan, 19 
Nein (Nain), 22 

On, 57 
Oifa, I 
Ostracme, 55 

Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, 57 
Philip's Fountain, 35 
Porta Judiciaria, 49 

Rabbah, 3 
er Ram, 18 
Rameh, 18 

Ramet el Khalil, 18, 20 
Ramleh, 18, 25 
Ras Benas, 61 

„ el Kasrun, 55 

„ en Nakurah, 8 
Red Earth, 18 
Roda, island, 61 
er-Roha, i 
er Ruad, 2, 5 
Rumeh, 22 

Sabkhat Bardawil, 55, 62 
Safed, 17 
Salahieh, 63 

Sebennytic mouth of the Nile, 56 
Seffurieh, 29 
Shefa' Amr. 36 
Sheikh S'ad, 28 

Seiyad, 4 
Sherir, 26 
Shochoh, 23 
Shur, 20 
Sileh (Zilim), 21 
Sorek, Valley of, 24 
Sulem, 22 
Surafend, 25 
Sur'ah, 24 
Suweimeh, 12 

Taiyibeh (Ophruh), 17 
Takht ed Dumm, 15 
Talluza, 16 
Tammun, 30 
Teiasir, 16 
Teku'a, 16 
Tell Der'ala, 12 

„ Farama, 55, 57 

„ Hisn, 57 

,, Hum (Capernaum), 14 
„ Jiljilieh, 13 
,, el Kady, 19 



Tell Kaimun (Jokneam), 30 

„ Kermun, 24 

„ M'ain, 31 

,, es Safi, 24 

„ San el Hajer, 55 

„ Zif, 16 
Tibnin, 23 
Timsah, lake, 57 
Tubas (Thebez), 19 

Valley of Ajalon, 24 
„ Sorek, 24 

Wady BreikCtl, 16 
Fusail, 34 
Hammam, 34 
el Kelt, 13 
el Melek, 37 
Serrar, 35 

Yebnah, 25 

Zif, 16 
Zobah, 16 




Parn.1 ^xUnJii ult Cyj^i 
vrum-ulrflia c'rniaru clai 

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cua. S CAWiatiruz, , 

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tfJa. puTtia. attbc ciuitau^cct aua. ccOirO 
a^mirisfUt' edfcendt huu aaiflcet ^ 
mafitna/ollau,c& in^tm olitn^ufahat 
■moruuhoy. m^titudo. 

J/lasy- tunes jtut ^harao 
nt cofiit Johtudtnit . 


Description of the Holy Land, 


A.D. 1350. 





Nothing seems to be known about Ludolph beyond what 
can be gathered from his book. In the dedication he tells 
us that he was the rector of the parish church of Suchem, 
in the diocese of Paderborn. Where Suchem was, and 
whether it should be spelled Sudheim, is what Dr. F. 
Deycks declares to be a Rdthsel. Dr. Deycks, professor 
at the Royal Academy at Munster, edited Ludolph in 
1 85 1 for the Stuttgart Litterarische Verein^ and it is his 
edition that I have followed in my translation. Further- 
more, Ludolph speaks of Baldwin von Steinfurt, Bishop of 
Paderborn, who held the see from 1340 to 1361, as his 
gracious lord. In the colophon he says that he wrote his 
book out of the devotion and respect which he owed to 
him. Perhaps Bishop Baldwin helped him to write it, and 
perhaps he was one of the noble lords with whom he asso- 
ciated during his five years' sojourn in the Holy Land. 
He was there from 1336 to 1341 ; he did not, as some have 
imagined, return thither in 1350. Ludolph returned home 
in 1 341, and twice was in great danger at sea. Near the 
end of his book he alludes to the ' Jew-baiting ' in Germany, 
T 348-49, as a new event, which agrees well with his book 
having been written in the year 1350. 



As we know so little of Ludolph from his own writings, 
the next step obviously is to consult those of Wilhelm von 
Boldinsel,! to whom he alludes as a fellow-traveller in the 
Holy Land. Wilhelm von Boldinsel (a name, by the way, 
to which he was only entitled through his mother) seems 
to have begun as a Dominican monk, but afterwards to 
have led a wandering life under the protection of that 
Cardinal Talleyrand Perigord who strove so ineffectually 
to avert bloodshed before the battle of Poictiers. Wilhelm 
was sent to the Holy Land on some sort of diplomatic 
mission, accompanied by an armed escort. He wrote an 
account of his pilgrimage — for he visited the holy places — 
in the year 1336.- Ludolph has copied many entire sen- 
tences from Boldinsel, and in many passages their descrip- 
tions tally, but one does not learn much that is new about 
the Holy Land from Boldinsel, and one learns nothing 
about Ludolph. 

Another contemporary writer is John of Hildesheim. 
All that is known of this favourite mediaeval author may 
be found in Trithemius's Lzder de scriptoribus ecclesias- 
ticis, torn, cxvii. ; in Oudinus's Commentarium de scrip- 
toribus eccl. antiquis, iii., p. 1275 ; in Fabricius's Biblio- 
theca ined. et inf. Latin ^ iv. 8 ; and especially in Biblio- 
tJieca Cannelitana^ Aurelianis, 1752, ii. p. 4. He is called 
a Saxon, or a Westphalian, and probably was born at 

^ vSee ' Die Edelherren von Boldensele oder Boldensen. i. Zur 
Genealogie der Geschlechts ; 2. Des Edelherrn Wilhelm von Boden- 
sele Reise nach den Gelobten Land. Von Archiv. Secretair Dr. C. L. 
Grotefend. Hannover, 1855, Hof buchdruckerei der Gebr. Janecke.' 

- T. Wright, in his 'Introduction' to 'Early Travels in Palestine' 
(Bohn, 1848), has a mistake about Boldinsel's date. He landed at 
Tyre in 1332, and was at Jerusalem in 1333. 



Hildesheim. He became a Carmelite Friar, studied at 
Avignon, whither he went with Petrus Thomas, general of 
his order, under Clement VI. (Peter Roger, Archbishop of 
Rouen, Pope 1342-52), and became Doctor of Divinity 
and professor. In 1358 he was appointed biblims at Paris 
by the chapter held at Bordeaux. Afterwards he returned 
to Germany and became Prior of Cassel ; as such, he was 
sent on a mission to Rome in 1360. On his return he 
was made prior of the convent of Marienau, mediated 
the peace between the Bishop of Hildesheim and the Duke 
of Brunswick, and died in his convent in 1375, where he 
lies buried in the choir, beside the founder of the convent. 
Count Gleichen. He wrote many works : Chronica His- 
toriarum^ De monstris in ecclesia, De Antichristo, In 
turpia pingentem^ Defensorium sui ordinis, De fonte Vitae, 
Contra Judaeos sermones^ Epistolae, et quaedam alia. 
His Historia trium Regum had an immense and imme- 
diate success. It is dedicated to Florence de Weuel- 
koven, Bishop of Munster, in Westphalia, who held that 
see from 1364 to 1379, and died 1393 as Bishop of Utrecht. 
As the author died in 1375, his book must have been 
written between 1364 and 1375. Some dates mentioned 
in his Historia point to this period ; he alludes to events 
which took place in the years 1340, 1341, and 1361. 

I have extracted these details concerning John of Hilde- 
sheim from C. Horstmann's edition of the Historia trium 
Regum, because I wished to make it clear that Ludolph 
could not have copied John's work. On page 52 of 
Ludolph's book, at the end of a list of the nobles who had 
independent jurisdictions in the city of Acre, occurs the 
name of ' Vaus.' Nowhere else in Ludolph's book is Vaus 



or its lords alluded to; and even here it seems as though 
it were apologetically slipped in at the end of the list, 
where it might easily escape notice. On turning to John 
of Hildesheim, however, I find a great deal about Vaus. 
First of all he declares, in chap, i., that he compiled his 
Historia trhim Reginn from divers books, known only in 
the East, and from hearing, sight, and relations of others ; 
in chap. iv. he mentions as his authorities ' books written 
in Hebrew and Chaldee of the life and deeds and all 
matters of the three kings, which had been brought from 
India to Acre by the princes of Vaus, and had been 
translated there into French, and were kept there in this 
translation by certain nobles.' Mr. C. Horstman, the editor 
of ' The Three Kings of Cologne ' for the Early English 
Text Society, treats these Hebrew and Chaldaic books 
as a mere fiction, and says nothing about the Lords of 

Vaus, according to John of Hildesheim's ' History of the 
Three Kings,' was the highest and grandest mountain in 
the East. After the successful conquest of the Promised 
Land by the Israelites the people of India always kept 
watchmen on Mount Vaus, and it was from them that the 
three kings first received tidings of the rising of the star 
in the East. After the return of the three kings from 
Bethlehem, when the Apostles separated at the crossways 
on Mount Sion, St. Thomas went to India, where he 
baptized the three kings, and built a chapel on Mount 
Vaus. At the foot of this mount Melchior, King of Nubia 
and Arabia, built a great city, named Sewilla, Sezile, 
Seuwa or Seulla, for the spelling varies. This undoubtedly 
means Saveh in Persia, between Hamadan and Tehran, 


where Marco Polo *saw the tombs of the three kings. 
The story goes on to tell us that the three kings became 
priests, and had therefore no direct progeny, but endowed 
some of their relatives, who called themselves Princes of 
Vaus, with lands and islands. One branch of the family 
of these Princes of Vaus came to Acre shortly before its 
fall, and built itself a castle there. These Princes of Vaus 
bore a star and a cross in their arms, and John of Hilde- 
sheim declares that some of them were present at the court 
of Rome as ambassadors in the year 135 1. 

I have been unable to find any mention of the Princes 
of Vaus in any writer anterior to Ludolph. The name is 
not uncommon in England ; for example, a Sir John de 
Vaus sat in Parliament as knight of the shire for Notts 
in the time of Edward I. There was an Edward Vausse 
at Cuckfield, in Sussex, in 1595 ('Miscellanea Genealogica 
et Heraldica,' 1890-91, vol. ii., p. 12). G. Vaus witnessed 
a marriage in Chester Cathedral, October, 1682. Ursula 
Vaus, of Odiham, married one of the Coles of Enniskillen. 
But none of these bore the cross and star in their arms, 
and none of them seem to have known of the wondrous 
pedigree which their name entitled them to claim ; they 
mostly trace to De Vallibus, who came over with the 
Conqueror, a descent which is commonplace by comparison. 

I cannot believe that John of Hildesheim invented the 
legend of the Lords of Vaus ; but, on the other hand, 1 
cannot find any ground for it. In M. Rey's excellent and 

1 Chap. XXX. In the Middle Ages this city was identified with the 
Saba of Ps. Ixxii. 10 : ' The kings of Tharsis and of the isles shall give 
presents ; the kings of Arabia and Saba shall bring gifts,' which 
verse was considered to be a prophetical allusion to the ihree kings. 


painstaking reprint of Du Cange's ' Families d'Outre Mer,' 
I can find no ' Seigneurs de Vaus,' and though I have spent 
some time in trying to trace the story, I have not succeeded 
in so doing. 

Feh'x Fabri was familiar both with John of Hildesheim 
and with Ludolph. He mentions the latter by name (i. 535), 
and alludes to the former (i. 637). Moreover, he has repro- 
duced all the gossip about the sea and sea-monsters, 
islands, etc., which we find in Ludolph's early chapters. 

I may add that Robinson (' Palestine,' I. xxiii.), says of 
Ludolph's work that it is * decidedly the best Itinerarium 
of the fourteenth century.' 


London, 1895. 


I. THE HOLY LAND ...... 3 









X. PERILS BY FISH . . ". . . -15 

XI. DIVERS FISHES . . . . . . 18 



ISLANDS . . . . . .19 

XV. THE MOUNT VULCAN . . . . .26 


XVII. ACHAIA ....... 28 



ALL, RHODES. . . . . -32 

XX. CYPRUS ....... 38 










XXVIII. MOUNT CARMEL . . . . . .63 

XXIX. EGYPT ....... 66 










XL. THE MOUNT OF OLIVES. . . . .112 




GALILEE . . . . . .121 



INDEX . . . . . . .137 


Here beginneth Ludolph's book of the pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land. 

Dedicated with all due respect and honour to the Right 
Reverend Father and Lord in Christ, his gracious Lord 
Baldwin of Steinfurt, Bishop of Paderborn, by Ludolph, 
rector of the parish church at Suchem,^ in the diocese of 

Many men write at exceeding great length about the 
countries beyond the sea, and about the state and condi- 
tion of the Holy Land and the provinces thereof, after 
having only passed through them once. Now, I have dwelt 
in those parts for an unbroken space of five years, being 
both by day and by night in the company of kings and 
princes, chiefs, nobles and lords. Having, moreover, many 
times visited and journeyed through the parts beyond the 
sea, I have, out of respect and honour for your fatherly 
goodness, and because you were not forgotten by me — I 

^ Some authorities spell this place Sudheim. In the Friburg MS., 
partially edited by Sir T. Phillipps in 1825, the place is spelled 
Suchen, and the writer's name appears as Peter instead of Ludolph. 
The position of Suchem or Sudheim is not known. 



have, I say, long desired to write an account of the position 
of those countries, their condition, their villages, strong 
places, cities, castles, men, manners, places of prayer and 
wonders ; and not only to write about the lands beyond the 
seas, but also of the wonders which are beheld in the sea 
by those who cross over the same. Although heretofore 
unable to accomplish this my desire, being hindered by 
divers and sundry labours, yet I have ever kept the thought 
of this writing in my mind, and being now more at leisure, 
I have determined to describe throughout the condition in 
which 1 found the parts beyond sea in the year of our 
Lord 1336, and the condition wherein I left them in the 
year 1341, and to write a compendious history thereof 
briefly, and according to my humble understanding and 
genius and the weakness of my memory. Howbeit, let no 
one suppose that I beheld with my eyes each several one 
of the things which I intend to put into this book, but that 
I have happily extracted some of them from ancient books 
of history, and that some things I have heard from the 
lips of truthful men, all of which, in whatsoever places they 
are written or found, I have decided to trust to the judg- 
ment of the discreet reader. Indeed, I should have put in 
much more if, when in those parts, I had formed the inten- 
tion of writing some account of them a little earlier ; and 
at this present day I could put in yet more, which I pass 
over because of ignorant cavillers and scoffers, lest I should 
tell anything which they could not believe, and for which 
I should be held by them for a liar ; for to ignorant cavillers 
and scoffers, who are not worthy to know anything at all, 
everything seems incredible and passing belief. Where- 
fore because to such persons all good things are unknown, 
I have been obliged on their account to leave out many 
things which otherwise I should have written down and 
put into my book. 


I— Of the Holy Land. 

Now, the Holy Land, that is, the Promised Land, which 
God promised that He would give to Abraham and his 
seed, is beloved by God, praised by angels, and worshipful 
to men ; for our Lord Jesus Christ deigned to consecrate 
the same with His most precious blood, to honour it with 
His presence both in the form of our mortal weakness, and 
in old times, as we read in Bible history, by the glory of 
His Godhead and majesty, and furthermore therein to 
redeem the entire human race from eternal damnation. 
Yet this land, because of the divers sins of its inhabitants, 
has been scourged by God with divers scourges. Not only 
is it now scourged in the time of the Christians, but from 
old times it has been many times inhabited by divers 
peoples, and many times lost and retaken by them, as may 
be read in many histories and in the Bible. Yet Jesus 
Christ, not unmindful of His glorious Passion, hath cor- 
rected the Christians therein with the rod of fatherly chas- 
tisement ; so that now, when the sins of the Christians 
shall have been ended, and He hath been pleased to restore 
the land to us. He will have preserved all their places, 
cities, villages, castles and shrines, as one may say, unhurt 
to this day ; wherefore they might easily be defended, 
inhabited, and restored, and brought back to their original 
state, albeit some places and shrines have been sorely 
defaced by the Saracens. For, as the eye is the dearest 
and tenderest part of a man^s body, and can endure no 
foreign substance within itself, so is the Holy Land even as 
an eye to God, and for that cause He cannot endure un- 
repented sins therein. 

He that would go to the said Holy Land must beware 
lest he travel thither without leave from the Apostolic 
Father, for as soon as he touches the shore of the Soldan's 



country he falls under the sentence of the Pope, because 
since the Holy Land came into the hands of the Soldan, it 
was, and remains, excommunicate, as are likewise all who 
travel thither without the Pope's leave, lest by receiving 
tribute from the Christians the Saracens should be brought 
to despise the Church. For this cause, when any traveller 
receives his license to go thither from the Apostolic Father, 
besides the leave which is granted him, there is a clause in 
the Bull to the effect that he shall not buy or sell anything in 
the world, save only victuals and clothes and bodily neces- 
saries, and if he contravenes this he is to know that he has 
fallen back again under sentence of excommunication. 
There are, however, I have heard, many grounds on which 
one may journey thither without leave ; for example, if the 
traveller be in religion, if a man's father, mother, or friend 
be sick there, or held in captivity, then he may travel 
thither without leave, to seek for them or to ransom them, or 
when anyone is sent thither to make peace or to arrange 
and restore any other good thing. But to return to my 
subject. Whosoever would journey to the Holy Land 
must go thither either by land or by sea. If he would go 
by land, 1 have heard from some who know it well that 
the best way is through Hungary, Bulgaria, and the king- 
dom of Thrace, but they say that the road is a very tedious 
one. Nevertheless, he who could toil over it in safety 
would come by land, and not by sea, to Constantinople. I 
will say somewhat about this city. 

n. --Constantinople. 

Constantinople is an exceeding beautiful and very great 
city. It measures eight miles in circuit, and is built in the 
shape of a triangle of buildings in manner and form like 
those of Rome, having two of its sides on the banks of an 
arm of the sea, which is called the Arm of St. George, while 


the third side lies inland. The city is decorated with 
sundry and divers ornaments, which were built by the 
Emperor Constantine, who named it Constantinople. The 
Greeks at this day call it Bolos.^ In this city there is a 
church of wondrous size and beauty. I do not believe that 
in all the world there is a greater than it, for a ship with 
all its sails spread could easily turn itself round therein, 
and I do not dare to write fully about its vastness. This 
church is consecrated in honour of Sancta Sophia"^ in Greek, 
which in Latin means ' the Lord's Transfiguration.' It is 
adorned with many solemn relics of divers sorts, to wit : 
the seamless coat, one of our Lord's nails (of the cross), the 
sponge, and the reeds,^ and it is crowned with other relics 
of divers saints. In the midst of this church stands a great 
marble column, whereon is a well-gilt brazen statue of the 
Emperor Justinian'* on horseback, adorned with the imperial 
crown and royal vestments, having in his left hand a golden 
orb^ after the imperial fashion, and pointing to the east with 
his right as a threat to rebels in that quarter. In this church 
there is also a piece of the pillar whereat Jesus was scourged, 
and an exceeding great number of bodies of saints and of 

1 IIoAts. 

2 F. Deycks's comment is : ' Es scheint, Ludolf verstand nicht 

3 W. von Boldinsel, A.D. 1336, saw these relics, and 'the greater 
part of the cross ' as well. 

4 See Procopius, 'De Aedificiis,' in this series, Book I., chap. ii. ; 
also Sir John Maundeville, chap, i., fin. John of Hildesheim declares 
that the Empress Helena placed the bodies of the Three Kings beneath 
this statue. 

5 The emblem of sovereign power. Compare John of Hildesheim, 
chap, xxiii. : ' Pomum autem aureum quod Malchiar cum xxx denarijs 
optulit quondam fuit AUexandri magni, et totaliter potuit manu 
includi, mundum significans, quod ex minimis particulis tributorum 
omnium provinciarum conflari fecit, et ipsum semper manu portavit 
et velud sua potencia totum mundum manu conclusit ; quod pomum 
in India remansit quando de Perside reversus esi,' etc. 



Roman pontiffs rest therein. This may be known to be 
true, because in my own days certain gentlemen came 
thither from Catalonia and served the Emperor of Con- 
stantinople for pay, and when they departed begged the 
Emperor above all for relics. He granted their prayer, set 
up as many bodies of saints as they numbered heads, and 
the gentlemen stood afar off and chose each a body in turn, 
according to their rank. Every one of them who was de- 
serving thereof obtained an entire saint*s body, and all were 
content and returned to their own country with joy. I do 
not venture to say any more about the other ornaments of 
this church. In this city the Emperor of the Greeks con- 
tinually dwells. He who was Emperor^ in my time had 
the sister of Duke Henry of Brunswick for his spouse, and 
on her deatli married the daughter of the Count of Savoy. 
In this city dwells likewise the Patriarch of the Greeks, 
whom the Greeks obey in all things, even as the Latins 
obey the Pope, and they make no account of the Apostolic 
Father, neither do they regard any of his commands save 
such as please themselves. For since the Greeks became 
separated from the Church of Rome through heresy, they 
have chosen this Patriarch, and obey him as Pope even to 
this day. In Constantinople all such things as bread, 
meat, fish, and the like are sold as it were for nothing, 
and nothing is dear there save wine, which is brought 
thither from Naples. In this city dwell many different 
nations. There is also much cold weather there, where- 
fore meat is salted there, which cannot be done elsewhere 
in Asia because of the heat. There also turbots are caught 

^ 'Andronicus III,, Palaeolopu?, Kaiser 1321 bis 1341, war zuerst 
vermahlt mit Agnes (spater Irene genannt), der Tochter Herzog's 
Heinrich's I. und Schwcster Heinrich's 11. Herzogs von Braunschweig, 
in 2ter Ehe aber mit Anna, der Tochter des Grafen Amadeus V. von 
Savoyen.' — Dr. F. Deycks. 



and dried, and are exported from thence to all parts of 
Asia. In this city, also, in the Emperor's uld palace, there 
are some stone cups/ which of their own accord fill them- 
selves with water and straightway empty themselves, and 
again fill themselves and become empty. There are withal 
great and excellent pearls, in very great quantities and 
very cheap. The reader should know that once the Em- 
peror of the Greeks and the Greek people bore rule over 
the whole of Asia, both the greater and the lesser, and had 
them for their own, but since they have been divided from 
the Church of Rome by schism, they have almost entirely 
lost those countries. For sentence hath been pronounced 
against them that whosoever can take any of them captive 
may lawfully sell them as though they were cattle, and any 
Latin who can obtain land (there) by force may lawfully 
hold the same until they return to the bosom of Holy 
Mother Church and be converted. Wherefore they have 
lost exceeding great lands and kingdoms, as you shall be 
told hereafter. 

III.— The Way (to the Holy Land) by Land, and 
THE Kingdom of Garp (Algarve). 

But to return to my subject, and leaving Constantinople, 
from it one could go to the Holy Land by land, if travelling 
were safe through the Turks and Tartars and other hind- 
rances in the way. But by sea from Constantinople one 
must cross over to the kingdom of Cyprus, as you shall be 
told hereafter. This way, whereof I have made mention, 
leads ever northwards by land to Constantinople ; and 
from Constantinople, if it could be done with convenience 
and safety, one might go by land over the whole world 

^ Fabri, i. 358, mentions these 'shells,' as he calls them, and com- 
pares them to the weeping pillars of St. Helena's chapel. 


towards the south, wherefore there is no need to go by sea. 
In like fashion one ought to be able to go (to the Holy 
Land) through Barbary and the kingdom of Morocco, and 
the kingdom of Granada ; but the Barbarians will not 
suffer the Christians to pass through. Yet Saracens who 
dwell in Spain and Arragon pass along this road when 
they would visit the courts of their prophet Mahomet, 
but Christians cannot pass through these kingdoms, for 
these two kingdoms of Morocco and Granada are exceed- 
ingly powerful and rich, and are inhabited by Saracens who 
care naught for the Soldan, and are ever at odds with the 
King of Spain, and ever help the King of Algarve, who is 
a Saracen, and whose kingdom lies on the borders of Spain, 
on that part of the sea which lies over against the King of 
Spain. You must know^ that on that side of the sea the 
kingdom of the Saracens still endures, and is called the 
kingdom of Algarve, being exceeding powerful and lying 
on the Spanish border, as aforesaid. It has many great 
cities and strong places and towns, and I believe that the 
King of Garp is more powerful than the Soldan ; for if 
need were, he could in half a day have more than a hundred 
thousand stout armed men, and it is he who ever has 
quarrelled and quarrels at this day with the Kings of Spain 
and Castile, as you have often heard and known. Like- 
wise, in the kingdom of Arragon all the towns and cities 
have Saracens dwelling in them, in which, nay, in each one 
of which, the King has a lofty tower with guards, who 
watch lest the Saracens should set any mischief on foot, 
and whenever the Governor of any town wishes to force 
the Saracens to do anything, he gives them the swine to 
feed and drive to pasture, which thing is forbidden by their 
law, and by this and other means he forces the Saracens to 
do his will. 



IV. — Barbary and Pugia. 

Barbary is a land which is mostly sand and desert, and 
they who dwell therein are black Ethiopians. Near 
Barbary is another small country, not six (? German) miles 
wide, named Pugia/ wherein apes are bred and caught. All 
the dwellers therein have faces like apes, both men and 
women, and keep apes in their houses even as in these 
parts men keep dogs and fowls, and from these apes they 
breed young ones, which they sell and so make their 
living. For this cause they geld the young apes, lest any 
should be bred elsewhere ; yet I have often seen young 
apes bred in divers parts. It should be noted that between 
Morocco and Spain the Mediterranean Sea flows out to the 
ocean through an arm scarce a quarter of a mile in breadth ; 
wherefore upon one bank there stands a Christian woman 
and on the other bank a heathen woman washing their 
clothes, and wrangling and quarrelling with one another.^ 
This arm of the sea is called by the inhabitants the Straits 
of Gibraltar, or the Straits of Morocco. 

After one has crossed this little arm of the sea, one could 
go by land over the whole world to the southward, as I 
said before, were there no hindrances in the way. It is 
across this arm of the sea that the Kings of Morocco and 
Granada come to the help of the King of Garp, for they 
easily cross over it. As the Mediterranean Sea runs out 
of the ocean through this arm between Spain and Morocco, 
even so in the same fashion does the Mediterranean Sea 
run into the Pontic Sea near the walls of Constantinople, 
through the arm of the sea which is called 'the Arm of 
St. George,' which is of the same width as the aforesaid. 

^ Bougiah, on the coast of Algeria, in longitude 5° E. 
2 Fabri (vol. i., p. 115) copies this story, and also the stories about 
Gulph and Griip and the fishes. 



And it should be known that in the Pontic Sea no land is 
found any more, nor is any known of, save only an island 
called Cherson, whither St. Clement^ the Pope was exiled 
and drowned in the same sea ; and we read that in this sea 
there is a marble temple, to which a passage is open on 
the day of his feast ; but at the present day it is not, 
albeit of old it was so. For the body of St. Clement rests 
at Rome, and the island is deserted, albeit from it most 
beauteous and excellent marble is exported. [There^ 
is another sea to the east beyond the city of Gara, 
which is held by the Tartars of Cumana,^ which sea 
is called the Caspian. This sea does not join either the 
ocean, the Mediterranean, or the Pontic Sea by any visible 
arm. Some declare that it is connected with the Pontic 
Sea, which is the nearest to it, by an underground passage, 
and consequently is connected with all the others. This 
Arm of St. George whereof I have spoken divides Europe 
from Asia Minor, which is a province of Greater Asia. 
This arm is commonly called the mouth of Constantinople, 
because thereon on the European shore stands the noble 
city of Constantinople, also called New Rome, as afore- 

^ St. Clement, according to tradition, was the third successor of 
St. Peter, and suffered martyrdom in the Black Sea, into which he 
was cast with an anchor fastened to his neck. Presently the waves 
receded, and the corpse of the saint was found seated in a little 
chapel, with the anchor still attached to it. His feast-day is Novem- 
ber 23. 

2 Only one MS. has this. Deycks thinks it is a later insertion : 
' Ubricjens hat Felix Fabri' (Th. I.,s. no) 'diese Sielle benutzt.' See 
Felix Fabri, i. 116, in this series. 

3 Tartarus de Cumana=Comania. See Jean du Plan de Carpin's 
account of this country in Chanon's ' Voyageurs anciens et modernes ' 
(Paris, 185 1), vol. i., p. 230. See also ' De regno Cumanae' in chap, ii., 
and in Appendix to Ha\ ihon's ' Historia Orientalis,' in vol. ii. of the 
' Fragmentum 'of Vmceat of Beauvais, ed. R. Reineccins, Helmstad, 


v.— The Mediterranean Sea. 

The Mediterranean Sea is that over which one sails to 
the Holy Land, and is called the Mediterranean Sea 
because it has to the east Asia, whose frontier it forms, to 
the west and north Europe, and to the south Africa, 
which countries it separates by its arms. Africa and 
Europe, I have heard, are divided by a river named Tnda,^ 
wherein the forty martyrs were drowned, and this same 
river passes by a certain city named Biterris,- and it is 
called Biterris because it stands between two lands — to wit, 
Africa and Europe. Its Bishop is called the Bishop of 
Biterris. The Roman philosophers who divided the world 
among the Romans built this city long ago in the days of 
Hannibal, and he built another city close by it, named 
Narbcnne, as though it told good tidings {narrans bond), 
which city is now the capital of Biterrae, and the Bishop is 
called the Bishop of Narbonne. I have often been in that 
country. But to return to my subject. You must know 
that the Mediterranean Sea runs in and out, as you have 
heard, and ebbs and flows, and without doubt is never still, 
as may be plainly seen between Calabria and Sicily, 
between which the sea runs so hard that no sailor dares to 
sail through without a special pilot, and as may be clearly 
seen in many other places. It should also be known that 
the Mediterranean Sea is not in all parts of the same width, 
but in some places it is wider and in some narrower than 
in others. It is widest measuring from west towards the 

^ Indre in Berry, says Dr. F. Deycks ; but 'Gallia Christiana ' gives 
' Riterrensis ' as the title of the Bishop of Beziers, under the Arch- 
bishop of Narbonne. 

2 For Beziers see ' Gallia Christiana,' by Sainte Marthe (Paris, 1705), 
vol. vi., p. 293. The forty martyrs are generally supposed to have 
suffered at Sebaste, or Ancyra, in Asia Minor. See 'Acta Sanctorum,' 
March 9. 



east, as in Spain, Galicia, Catalonia, and partly in Pro- 
xence ; but it is narrower measuring from the west to the 
east, as in Calabria, Apulia, Naples, Venice, and the neigh- 
bourhood of these places.^ 

VI.— The Divers Perils of the Sea. 

So he who would go by sea to the Holy Land must or 
may take ship from whatsoever land, or city, or port, of 
the same that he may choose, and this matter I leave to 
his free will. With regard to food also, let him take as 
much as he can or as he has ; but in general men sailing 
from the West to the East are wont to make provision of 
food for fifty days, though when sailing from the East to the 
West they are wont to provide food for one hundred days, 
because the ship always flies as it were from west to east 
with a fair wind, making more way in the ni^ht than in 
the day, and travelling fully fifteen miles in every hour of 
the day. The reason is that the Western land is always 
exceeding cold and very windy. On the other hand, the 
Eastern land is exceeding hot and altogether without 
wind ; wherefore one sails much slower over the sea when 
returning than when going thither, and especially because 
great ships going from the West to the East are wont to 
return in the months of September and October, but 
galleys and vessels of that sort begin their voyage thither 
from hence in August, when the sea is smooth ; for in 
November, December, and January no vessels can cross the 
seas because of storms. Howbeit no vessels can, except 
very seldom, return without toil, peril, fear, and tempest. 
Of this I am w ell assured, seeing that I have often been in 
sundry storms at sea beyond all description [for no man 
can fully describe, neither would anyone believe that there 

' I have translated this passage as it stands, but cannot guess its 



can be such unheard-of and exceeding fierce storms at sea]. 
Indeed, I know it to be true that there is no stone or sand 
at the bottom of the sea that is not moved, if it can be 
moved, when the sea rages and raves thus, and this is 
often proved among islands, where the sea is narrow, 
where an exceeding great number of stones are cast from 
one shore to another in storms. Once when a certain man 
was travelHng on the Armenian coast in a galley, a sudden 
storm arose in the night, whereby they lost three men, and 
in the morning found the galle)^ covered deeper than the 
hand could reach with sand cast up by the sea in its rage. 
As the perils of the sea arise from divers causes, I have 
thought it well to tell somewhat about them. 

VII. — The Peril called ' Gulph.'^ 

First of all perils arise from the natural winds, as afore- 
said ; and likewise from extraordinary winds which sailors 
at sea call gulph, which proceed from the hollows of moun- 
tains, and do not do mischief to ships unless they are very 
near. In the year of our Lord 1341, on the night of the 
Sunday whereon Laetare Jerusalem- is sung, we were 
sailing from the East and had a very good east wind, so 
that the vessel, with six sails set, travelled all night as 
though she were flying ; but in the morning at daybreak 
as we were sailing toward the Satalian^ mountains, with 
the sailors all asleep, this same giilph flung the ship with 
all its sails violently on its side into the sea, so that all the 
sails were wetted, and the ship ran for a long distance 
almost upon its side, so that had the ship heeled over a 
palm's breadth more upon its side, we must all have been 

^ Ital., colpo di vento. 

2 The introit which gives its name to the Fourth Sunday in Lent. 

3 Satalia, a city in Asia Minor, the ancient Attaleia in Pamphylia, 
now Adalia. 



drowned. Howbeit we cut all the ropes and fastenings of 
the sails until the ship righted itself somewhat, and so by 
the grace of God we then escaped that great peril. 

VIII.— The Peril called Grup.^ 

There are also other perils at sea arising from an un- 
natural wind, which sailors call ^ru/>. It arises from the 
meeting of two winds, and sailors easily see it coming. 
Yet I have suffered peril from it even on my outward 
voyage. Moreover, there are other perils at sea from 
pirates or corsairs, who attack a ship even as men do a 
castle. But this peril has been much allayed since the 
cit)' of Genoa has chosen unto itself a Doge. 

IX. — The Perils of Shoals. 

There are also other perils at sea, which sailors call 
shoals. In respect of these you must know that the sea is 
not of the same depth in every part thereof, for in the sea 
there are mountains and rocks, grass and green stuff even 
as upon land, and these mountains and rocks are higher in 
some places and lower in others. In some places the 
rocks and mountains are scarce covered by a palm or a 
cubit of water, and for this cause no one dares to sail to the 
south towards Barbary, for many rocks and shoals are to be 
found there covered by the water. These perils are greatly 
to be feared at sea. Moreover in storms it is proved that 
grass and green things grow in the sea, for at such times 
sundry kinds of grass are found cast up on the shore, and 
also coral, whose branches stink when they are cast up 
from the bottom of the sea, and are afterwards polished by 
master craftsmen. Corals are at first white and stinking, 

' ' Das Wort " Grup " ist Italienisch. Gruppo di vento, ein Wirbel- 
wind.' — Dr. V. Deycks. 



but by the attraction of the sun on the bottom of the sea 
where they grow they are made red, and they grow in the 
fashion of a small bush of one ell in height. When they 
are thus cast up by the sea in great quantities, men gather 
them and sell them while yet stinking. I have seen in 
one house more coral than fifty horses could carry ; I do 
not dare to say more. 

X. — Perils by Fish. 

Likewise in the sea there are other perils, which, how- 
ever, rarely befall any save little vessels ; that is to say, 
perils from great fish. About these you should know that 
there is in the sea a certain fish which the Greeks call 
Troya marina,^ which means sea-swine, which is greatly to 
be feared by small ships, for this same fish seldom or never 
does any mischief to great ships unless pressed by hunger. 
Indeed, if the sailors give it bread, it departs, and is satis- 
fied ; but if it will not depart, then it may be terrified and 
put to flight by the sight of a man's angry and terrible 
face. Howbeit, the man must be exceeding careful when 
he is thus looking at the fish not to be afraid of it, but to 
stare at it with a bold and terrible countenance ; for if the 
fish sees that the man is afraid it will not depart, but bites 
and tears the ship as much as it can. If, however, the 
man looks boldly and savagely at the fish with an angry 
countenance, the fish becomes affrighted thereat and de- 
parts from the ship. An exceeding notable sailor has told 
me that when he was a youth he fell into peril with this 
in a small ship. There was with him in the ship a youth 
who thought himself exceeding brave and fierce, so that 

^ Troja marina is the Italian ; French, truie de nier ; German, das 
Meerschwein^ die Stachelsau, ein Art der Scorpasna. — Dr. F. Deycks. 
Fabri, who has copied all this gossip about the sea (i. 125), spells the 
name of this fish ' Troyp.' 



when the fish met him he would not give him bread because 
of the courage which he thought that he had, but lowered 
himself down by a rope from the ship to the water to look 
at the fish with an angry face, as is the custom. But when 
he saw the fish he was straightway affrighted and shouted 
to his comrades to pull him up by the rope, and the fish, 
seeing the man's fright, leaped out of the water as he was 
being drawn up, and with one bite took off half the man 
from his belly downwards, and departed from the ship. 
Yet it is said that this fish is not as long as a man can cast 
a stone, neither is it broad, but its head is exceeding great 
and broad, and all the damage which it does to ships it 
does by biting and tearing them. 

I have also heard from another very truthful sailor, who 
knows almost all the paths of the sea, and who has under- 
gone numberless frightful perils of divers sorts at sea — this 
same man told me that once near Barbary he was forced 
by a contrary wind to sail in places where sailing is ex- 
ceeding perilous, because of the rocks and shoals barely 
covered by water, while not far from such places no bottom 
could ever be found at ten thousand ells. Now, while he 
was thus sailing in these places with the greatest possible 
fear and danger, it chanced that the ship ran upon a fish 
which the French call melar^ who was lurking among the 
rocks there. The fish, when it perceived the ship coming 
towards him, thought that it was some great morsel which 
he could swallow, and opening his mouth gave the ship so 
strong a bite that, albeit heavily laden, it was nevertheless 
driven back a long way, and all the people on board were 
awakened by that bite and shock. When the sailor per- 
ceived that the ship had recoiled from something impas- 
sable, he cried out to the people of the ship to pray to 

^ Possibly from molaris. The word does not occur in Littrd. See 
Facciolati's Lexicon, s.v. Xiphias. 


God for their souls, seeing that there was no hope for their 
lives, for surely the ship must have struck some great rock. 
And straightway the mariners, the servants of the ship, 
went down into the hold, wishing to see where the ship 
was broken. They found that a fish's tooth, as thick as a 
beam, and three cubits long, had pierced the ship. They 
afterwards tried to pull out this part of the tooth with iron 
instruments, and could not, but with a saw they cut it level 
with the ship's side. There can be no doubt that the ship 
would have been broken had not this tooth been so sharp, 
and so wondrously pierced it. As I was wondering at the 
length and breadth of such a fish, the same sailor told me 
not to wonder, because there was in the sea a fish a mile 
long, which was four thousand six hundred miles (? ells) 
wide in the narrowest part, and even in a small pond not 
more than one crossbow-shot wide, fish an ell long are often 
caught. I have seen three such fishes off Sardinia. They 
puffed out water with their breath into the air in vast 
quantity, further than a crossbow could shoot, and made a 
noise like thunder. Moreover, in my time near the isle of 
Tortosa, such a fish while chasing other little fishes cast 
himself up on the dry land, driving a great wave of water 
before him, and when the water ran back into the sea the 
fish remained on the dry land, and fed all the dwellers in 
those parts with his flesh and fat. But not long afterwards, 
as the sun's heat increased, all that country was poisoned 
by the stench of the fish as it became putrid, and for a long 
time the skeleton of the fish could be seen from afar like a 
great house overset v/ith rafters sticking- up in the air, but 
after awhile was carried down lower by storms and squalls. 
And I have heard from many men of knowledge that there 
is an exceeding long eel in the sea. 




XI. — Divers Fishes. 

Likewise in the sea there are very many kinds of fishes 
of divers sorts, both great and small, of sundry colours, ap- 
pearance, shape, and arrangement, some with scales and 
some without, the nature of all of which cannot be under- 
stood by the human mind. Among these fishes of all 
sorts there are some which are exceeding wondrous, who 
lift themselves a long way up out of the water, but level 
with it, and withal fly for a long distance like bats ; but I 
am not sure how far they can fly. 

I have diligently inquired of knowing seamen whence 
these fish come, and they have answered me that in England 
and Ireland there grow on the sea-shore exceeding beau- 
teous trees, which bear fruit like apples. In these apples 
there is bred a worm^ and when the apples are ripe they 
fall to the ground, are broken in the fall, and the worms 
fly out, having wings like bees. Those of them who first 
touch the land become creatures of the air, and fly about 
with the other fowls of the heavens ; but such worms as 
first touch the water become creatures of the water, and 
swim like fish, but yet sometimes wander into the other 
element and exercise themselves by flight. Whether they 
do so grow upon trees I do not know beyond having heard 
the story ; but they are eaten like fish, and are seen to fly 
by men voyaging at sea. 

XII.— Migration of Birds. 

You must also know that in due season a vast number 
of birds of all sorts, great and small, journey across 
the sea from the west to the east and back again, more 
especially cranes, quails, and swallows, and countless other 
birds of all sorts and colours, great and small, whose names 



and numbers God alone knows. They fly from island to 
island on their way, and are so lean that they are nothing 
but bones and feathers, and so weary that they care not for 
stones or arrows. I have caught quails ... on board 
ship, but they straightway died. Yet in all the parts in 
which I have been beyond the seas, I have never seen a 
stork ; but once in a monastery of Minorites I saw a stork 
which was held to be a wonder for size. Likewise I have 
often been asked about swallows, whether they wintered in 
my country. I said ' No,' but that in my country they 
came in March, even as they did there, and no one knows 
from whence they come. Now, it befell that once upon a 
time, in some great lord's palace, the steward was sleeping 
upon a table, when there came two swallows quarrelling 
about a nest, and clinging to and biting one another, so 
that they both fell upon his face as he slept. He there- 
upon awoke, caught both the swallows on his face, and 
held them fast. He then bound a girdle round each of 
them, and let them fly away, and they came back every 
year with those same girdles to their nests. I could tell 
exceeding long stories about other sorts of birds, both 
great and small, who at their own times cross the sea, but 
must return to my subject and write no more about such 

Xni. — The Voyage across the Sea ; Troy, and 
THE Islands. 

Whosoever, then, would visit the Holy Land, or the parts 
beyond the sea, must travel thither in a ship or a galley. 
If he travels in a ship, then he passes straight across the 
sea, not putting into any port, unless forced so to do by 
contrary winds, want of food, or some such matter of prime 
necessity, and so he leaves Barbary on his right hand 
toward the south, and leaves Greece on his left hand 



toward the north. He gets a distant view of many famous 
islands, to wit, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Manta, Goy, 
Scarpe, Crete, Rhodes, and very many other islands, both 
great and small, and after seeing all these he arrives at 
Cyprus. But if he crosses in a galley, you must under- 
stand that a galley is a sort of oblong vessel which journeys 
from one shore to another, from one port to another, keep- 
ing ever close to the beach, and always putting into harbour 
ashore for the night. It has sixty benches on either side, 
and to each bench belong three sailors with three oars, and 
one archer. On board of a galley fresh provisions are 
always eaten, which cannot be done on a ship. Now, while 
the galley is journeying thus along the shore, one sees 
numberless exceeding fair places, cities, towns and castles, 
and more especially all those places which in a ship are 
only seen afar off are seen close at hand from a galley and 
minutely scanned by the eyes. Thus, it may almost be 
said that in a galley one coasts round the whole of the 
northern part of the world, as will be seen hereafter. As 
one is going thus in a galley from place to place, and from 
port to port, one comes to Constantinople, whereof I have 
already told you, and after leaving that city one comes 
down along the shore of Asia Minor to the place where 
once stood that most noble city Troy, whereof no trace 
remains visible, unless it be some foundations under water 
in the sea, and in some places a few stones and some 
marble columns buried in the earth, which, when found, are 
carried away elsewhere. For in respect of this you must 
know that in the city of Venice there is not a stone column 
or any good cut-stone work which has not been brought 
thither from Troy. Near the place where Troy once stood 
a little city has been built, which is called Aj/os Yamos in 
Greek, and is inhabited by Greeks. The city of Troy stood 
upon the sea-shore in the land called Phrygia, and is not 



very far distant from Calcedonia, but does not seem to 
have had a good harbour. As one goes on in a galley 
from Troy one sees the shores of Lombardy, Campania, 
Calabria, and Apulia, and one comes to an island named 
Corsica. It was near this island that St. Paul the Apostle 
was shipwrecked after he had made his appeal unto Caesar 
when taken prisoner in Judaea, and here it was that in the 
evening, when sitting by the fire in the inn, he was bitten 
by a viper and escaped unhurt, as we read in the Acts of 
the Apostles. On this island there still dwell men who 
boast that they are of the family of that innkeeper in 
whose inn these things befell St. Paul. These same people 
give to men the power of curing with their spittle any who 
may have been bitten by serpents or asps. When they 
confer this power upon any man they take a glass full of 
wine, and drink thereof first, and then put therein a good 
deal of their spittle, and if he who is offered to drink 
thereof is seized with loathing, they thereupon mix earth 
with the wine, and give it to him that would receive this 
power or grace, saying, ' Receive thou the power and grace 
bestowed by God upon us and our children, in honour of 
St. Paul the Apostle, which we in the same name bestow 
upon you, that whensoever thou shalt be bitten by a ser- 
pent, asp, or any other venomous beast, thou mayest with 
thy spittle be able to cure and heal thyself and no other 
man ; and this we grant thee without taking reward for the 
same, and give it to thee for God's sake. In the name of 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Amen.-* Should 
anyone heal any other man besides himself, he straight- 
way loses the power, but at the time it benefits him who is 
healed. From this isle of Corsica one sails to Sardinia, 
an exceeding noble island, of good and fertile soil, abound- 
ing in flocks, herds, and dairies, but not with wine, which 
is brought thither from elsewhere. In this island formerly 



rested the body of St. Augustine/ but the King of the 
Lombards translated it thence to Pavia. In this island 
also was born St. Macarius, most notable among hermits. 
This island once belonged to the Pisans, but the King of 
Arragon took it from them by force. It does not contain 
many cities, but has one fine city named Castel de Cal,^ 
Near this is a castle named Bonayr.^ On Ascension Day 
in the year 1341, we were driven upon this island in an 
exceeding great ship by a most furious and violent tempest 
which suddenly arose, so that it took us fifteen days to 
recover the distance which we ran before the storm from 
the sixth hour to the time of vespers. The oldest man of 
modern times remembers no such great storm at sea. The 
same night that we were driven thither thirty-four other 
great ships assembled there, which had, like ourselves, been 
driven thither from divers parts of the sea, and numberless 
other craft, both great and small, some of which had cast 
their cargo overboard, and some were damaged. Among 
all these ships there came the greatest ship in all the world 
from Naples, laden with a thousand tuns of wine of the 
largest size, with more than six hundred men and divers 
kind of merchandise, with which she was bound for Con- 
stantinople, but was driven back by the violence of the 
storm. This island of Sardinia is close to another little 
isle, called Sauper, that is to say, St. Peter's Isle,^ whereon 

^ St. Augustine's body was brought from Hippo in 506 (he died 
there in 430) to Sardinia, and from thence was brought by King 
Luitprand in 725, first to Genoa, and then to Pavia, where King 
Luitprand built the church of St. Peter and St. Augustine, called 
Cielo d'Oro. A monument to these saints was later erected in the 

2 Calaris, Cagliari. 

3 Bonaria. 

4 There is a little island called San Pietro off the south-west coast 
of Sardinia. 



there are wild horses, exceeding small and of great beauty, 
which for their swiftness cannot be taken, save that by 
stealth they are shot with arrows and eaten for venison. 
Between this island and Provence the sea is exceeding 
dangerous, and this place is called by sailors Gulph de 
Lean, which is, being interpreted, 'the lion's rage.' For 
though a ship may have sailed peacefully over all the rest 
of the sea, yet it never crosses this arm of the sea without 
great storms, dangers and alarms, wherefore this same 
place is called Gulph de Leun. From this island of Sar- 
dinia men sail to the island of Sicily, a most noble country 
measuring eighty miles round about. This is an exceed- 
ing good kingdom, and this island is fertile beyond all the 
neighbouring countries, for when by failure of rain there is 
dearth in all lands and parts beyond the sea, they are fed 
and helped by Sicily alone. 

XIV.— The Island of Sicily. 

This kingdom of Sicily hath within it seven bishoprics 
and one metropolitan — to wit, he of Monreal, who in my 
time was a Minorite friar. Moreover, it has very many- 
exceeding strong and noble cities, fortalices, and towns, 
and especially most beauteous and strongly fortified cities 
on the sea-shore, all of them with good harbours — to wit, 
Messina, Palermo, Trapani, and Catania. In the city of 
Catania dwell Dominican friars, who have a painting of the 
Blessed Mary at the time of the Annunciation, which the 
people of the city greatly reverence, as do also those who 
sail upon the sea, for no ship passes within a certain 
distance thereof without greeting and visiting this picture, 
and they tell one, and firmly believe, that if any ship were 
to pass by without greeting or visiting the picture, it would 
not reach home without meeting with a storm. In the city 



of Catania St. Agatha suffered martyrdom, and her entire 
body rests there, and is greatly reverenced and most carefully 
guarded, for because of her merits God daily works many 
miracles throughout Sicily. Near this city of Catania 
there stands by itself an exceeding lofty mountain, which 
they who dwell there call Mount Bel^ — that is to say, the 
Beautiful Mountain. This mountain never ceases to fiame 
and smoke like a fiery furnace, and casts forth burned 
stones of the size of a small house, which the people of 
these parts call pumice-stone, wherewith parchment is 
smoothed. This and other rubbish cast out by the moun- 
tain has been collected and heaped together by the wind 
till it has formed what may almost be called great and 
long mountains. It was from this mountain that there 
came forth the river of fire whereof we read in the Passion 
of St. Agatha, where it is said, ' They set up an awning to 
keep off the fire.' The course of this river may be clearly 
seen at the present day ; howbeit the like river of fire has 
often flowed out since the time of St. Agatha, and even 
now sometimes flows out. Indeed, a great part of Sicily 
is laid waste by these rivers of fire and the pumice-stone 
cast forth from the mountain, for when the rivers cool they 
harden, and cannot be broken up by irons or any tools 
whatsoever. It is said that in that mountain is hell's 
mouth, and no doubt there is something in this story, for 
it has been proved and decided by many voices, miracles, 
and examples, both at the present day and in the ancient 
histories of the kingdom ; for whenever there are any great 
battles anywhere, this same mount sends forth flames as 
high as heaven itself, and thereupon they who dwell in 
Sicily know that there are of a truth battles being fought 
in some parts of the world. A Minorite friar who had 
dwelt for a long time in Sicily told me that of his own 
* Mongibello, JEtna, so called from the Arabic Ge3e/. 



knowledge, when the Emperor Henry^ of blessed memory 
and the Pisans were fighting against King Robert in 
Mount Cachym,^ in which war King Robert's brother was 
slain, and lies buried in Pisa at this day beneath the 
sepulchre of the aforesaid Emperor, that this mount 
flamed so brightly that all through the night of the battle 
the Dominican monks in Messina, which is twenty miles 
distant from the mount, read their matins by the light of 
the flames. He declared that the same thing had befallen 
himself when there was a battle between the Florentines 
and Perusians at Altpas (Alepas). This friar told me 
many other wondrous stories of this mount, which would 
take long to tell. For this cause there is a common pro- 
verb in Sicily, ' I had rather be in Mount Bel with kings 
and princes than in heaven with the halt and blind ;' and 
the meaning is clear, for here the men are utterly vile, but 
the women are most admirable. In Sicily they practise 
three rites indifferently : in one part they follow the Latin 
rite, in another that of the Greeks, and in another that of 
the Saracens ; yet they are all Christians, albeit they differ 
and disagree in their rites. It is a great wonder that 
Sicily can be so fertile and charming a country when it so 
often sufl'ers such terrible damage from this mountain ; for 
sometimes it happens that this mountain casts forth so 
much ashes in one or two days, that the flocks cannot for 
a long time find any pasture. Moreover, sometimes so 
many rivers of fire and flames and other dreadful things 
come forth from the mountain, that they who dwell there 

^ Henry VII. of Luxemburg died 1313. His monument stands at 
the west end of the Campo Santo at Pisa. See John of Winterthur's 
chronicle in Eccard's ' Corpus Historicum Medii Aevi,' vol. i., p. 1775. 

2 There was a battle on Monte Catini on August 29, 131 5, where 
Ugguccione dello Faggiuola, the Ghibelline Prince of Pisa and Lucca, 
defeated the Florentines and the troops of Robert of Apulia. I con- 
clude that this is what is meant. 


fast and make vows, expecting that they will be taken down 
quick into helL These rivers come out of the mountain like 
red-hot glowing brass, and (the fire) consumes everything 
which it finds on its way, whether it be wood or stones, 
even as hot water consumes snow, and lays waste the land 
in some places for a distance of two miles, according as the 
land is high or low, making it a desert and for ever un- 
inhabitable, wherefore albeit Sicily is an exceeding good 
land, yet it is a fearful thing to dwell therein. 

XV.— The Mount Vulcan. 

Likewise near Sicily there is another small island having 
only one mountain in it, at the foot of which mount there 
is a most beauteous and delightful orchard. This mount 
is called Vulcan by the inhabitants, and it suddenly, like a 
furnace, pours forth blazing flames in much more horrible 
fashion than Mount Bel. This mount, we read, once stood 
in Sicily, but by the merits of the Apostle St. Bartholomew 
cast itself into the sea and removed itself from the land. 
It flames most exceeding terribly and violently, and casts 
forth pumice-stones of the size of small houses into the air 
like a catapult, with such force that they burst in the air 
like apples, and pieces fall into the sea for half a mile 
round about, and are cast up on the beach by the waves 
and gathered there. This is the pumice-stone which 
scribes use to smooth parchment, which some declare to 
be formed from the sea-foam, which is false, as you have 
been told. Once before I went to Sicily a lake of fire burst 
into the orchard at the foot of Mount Vulcan, and it was 
a stone's -throw long and wide, and for four days and 
nights flames went forth up to heaven from the length and 
breadth of it in so terrible a fashion that all men thought 
that of a truth heaven and earth were on fire, and that the 
day had come when they should pass away. When the 



flames ceased for four more days and nights so many 
ashes came forth that in many places men deserted their 
towns and cities and all that they had, and fled into the 
mountains to shelter themselves from the ashes as best 
they might, and all the flocks and very many people 
perished in the plains by the ashes. Many cities, even, 
could not be seen at all, they were so covered with ashes, 
and many rivers were dried up by the ashes. There was 
such sorrow and anguish through Sicily at that time as no 
man could remember or ancient history tell of There- 
upon the Sicilians vowed vows to God, proclaimed fasts, 
gave themselves up to works of penitence, and prayed to 
God that He would turn away His anger from them, and 
for the sake of the merits of St. Agatha would set them 
free from so great tribulation. Thereupon straightway the 
trouble came to an end, and thereafter they felt nothing 
of the sort. They then forbade upon the highest penalties 
the doing of many wicked deeds which had heretofore been 

XVI. — The City of Syracuse. 

There is also in Sicily another city, which is called Syra- 
cuse, wherein St. Lucia suffered martyrdom, and wherein 
her entire body now rests ; and there are numberless other 
venerable relics of saints. It would be too long for me to 
tell you of the other wonders of Sicily, and of the glories 
and palaces of the Emperor Frederick, the catching of the 
fish called tunny, and its other sources of wealth and 

Near Sicily there are many other islands, both great 
and small, inhabited by Saracens. Near it there is also 
another island called Malta, containing one bishopric, 
which I have often visited in passing. Near it there is 
another island named Colmat, whereon there are so many 



rabbit-holes that the people have hardly land enough left 
to live upon. Near it is another small island named 
Scola ; no one visits these little islands except he be on 
a special journey to them. Near these, too, is another 
island called Goy (Gozo), which abounds in flocks and 
dairy produce. Once I sailed between this and the other 
island with great peril in a great ship during a most 
violent storm, and no one remembered so great a ship to 
have ever gone through that way. 


Proceeding from Sicily, one sails across the Venetian 
Gulf, which divides Italy from Greece, and coasting round 
the shores of Greece, one comes to Achaia and Macedonia 
and other parts of Greece, which are called Romania. 
You must know that the land which used to be called 
Achaia is now called Morea. The Catalonians have reft 
this land from the Greeks by force. Therein is a fair city 
named Patras, wherein the Apostle St. Andrew suffered 
martyrdom. Moreover, St. Antony and many other 
saints once dwelt there or were born there. Not far from 
Patras is Athens, wherein once flourished the schools of 
the Greeks. This was once an exceeding noble city, but 
now is almost deserted ; for there is scarce anywhere in 
Genoa a marble column or piece of good hewn stone 
which has not been brought thither from Athens, and the 
whole city is built out of Athens, even as Venice is built 
of the stones of Troy. In this same land of Achaia there 
is the most beauteous and strong city of Corinth, standing 
on the top of a mountain, the like of which city has scarce 
ever been heard of for strength ; for were the whole world 
to besiege it, it never would lack for corn, wine, oil, and 
water. It was to this city that St. Paul wrote several 
epistles. Not far from Corinth stands the city of 



Galatas, to which also St. Paul wrote epistles. Ga/a in 
Greek means the same as /ac (milk) in Latin ; for they 
who dwell therein are whiter than the other people round 
about, from the nature of the place, and this city, which 
once was called Galatas, is now called Pera. Moreover, 
in Achaia, or Morea, there dwell brethren of the house of 
the Germans,^ who have there exceeding strong castles, 
and are ever at variance with the Duke of Athens and 
the Greeks. As one goes on from Achaia or Morea one 
comes to sundry Greek isles in sailing along the shore of 
Asia Minor, and one arrives at an island named Syo,- 
which is a specially notable isle. Therein grows mastic, 
and nowhere else in the world, for though trees thereof 
grow well enough elsewhere, yet no fruit is found upon 
them. Mastic grows like gum, dropping from the trees, 
and from hence is sent all over the world. This island has 
a Bishop, who in my time was of the Dominican Order. 
This island was forcibly reft from the Emperor of Con- 
stantinople by two Genoese brothers, and afterwards these 
two brothers fell out, and one of them secretly gave back 
his part to the Emperor, took his brother prisoner, and kept 
him for a long time in prison, and the Emperor took the 
island away from both of them ; but in my time he took 
the captured brother into his favour, made him the com- 
mander of his army, and gave him some castles. From 
Syo one sails to the desert isle, of Patmos, whither St. John 
the Evangelist was exiled by Domitian, and where he saw 
the heavens open, and wrote the Book of Revelation. 
From Patmos you can sail on to the coast of Asia Minor 
and come to Ephesus, if you please. This land, which 
once was called Asia Minor, is now called Turkey, for the 
Turks have taken it from the Greeks. You must know 

^ ? The Teutonic Order. Cf. Fabri, i. 185. 
2 Chios. 



that the Turks are tall black men and most zealous 
Saracens, yet not of the Saracen race, but rather renegade 
Christians. They are in all respects like the Frisians, and 
dwell by the northern {szc) sea-shore in exceeding strong 
castles which they have taken from the Greeks, having no 
arms but bows and arrows, living on milk and the like, 
wandering hither and thither with their flocks, in all 
respects mean, and with the same customs as Frisians. 

XVIII. — The City of Ephesus. 

You must know that the true city of Ephesus is four 
short miles distant from the sea. In this city there is a 
fair church built in the form of a cross,, roofed with lead, 
nobly decorated with mosaic work and marble, and entire 
to this day. It was here that the beloved disciple, 
when bidden to a feast, entered a sepulchre, was over- 
shadowed by darkness, and seen no more. This sepulchre 
is near the high altar, and the place where it is hewn in a 
rock is openly shown, if those who enter will first give a 
penny to the Turks. In the church the Turks now sell 
silk, wool, corn, and the like merchandise. The city of 
Ephesus once stood in a strange fashion between two hills, 
so that it had its outskirts upon mountains and its midst 
in a valley. The church wherein is St. John's sepulchre 
was a crossbow-shot distant from this city, and stood on 
the top of a mountain. But as the ground near the church 
was stronger, the city of Ephesus has been removed by the 
Turks through fear of the Christians, and the old city is 
now deserted. In my time there dwelt there a noble lady 
whose husband owned the whole city. There was also 
one Zalabin, a Turk, who took away the city from them, 
and by whose consent the noble lady dwelt beneath the 
castle of Ephesus. She had a license from him to sell 



wine to merchants, and with many groans opened to us 
the sorrows of her heart at the loss of her husband and her 
city. Near the city of Ephesus there is a small round 
fountain, which contains excellent fish in great numbers. 
From this fountain water bursts forth in such quantity that 
all the meadows and orchards and the whole land is 
watered thereby. You must know that the city, which 
once was called Ephesus, was afterwards called Theologos^ 
by the Greeks, and is now called Altelot, that is, High 
Place {alttis locus)^ because, as I have already told you, 
the city has been removed to a higher place round about 
the church. About four miles from this ancient town of 
Ephesus a new city has now been built, on the sea-shore at 
a place where there is a harbour, and it is inhabited by 
Christians who have been driven out of Lombardy through 
a quarrel. These people have churches and Minorite 
friars, and live like Christians, albeit they did in former 
times together with the Turks do great injury to Christian 
people. Near the new city of Ephesus there is a river as 
large as the Rhine^ which runs down through Turkey from 
Tartary. By this river much merchandise of divers sorts 
is brought down, even as is done on the Rhine in these parts. 
It is in this river that the Turks and Christians falsely so 
called, when they have a mind to fight against the 
Christians, are wont to collect their ships, arms, and pro- 
visions, so that from this river much harm and damage has 
come to the Christians. 

^ ' The modern name of Ayasaluk is a corruption of Agios Tzeologos^ 
an epithet which the modern Greeks apply to St. John, the founder of 
the Ephesian Church.' — Arrowsmith's 'Eton Geography.' 

' Ephesus,' says Mrs. S. S. Lewis, ' is called Ayassoulouk, a 
Turkish name derived, perhaps, from the Greek Agios Theologos, 
but called by the mediaeval Italians Alto Luogo, the High Place.— 
'A Lady's Impressions of Cyprus Remington, 1894. 



XIX. — The Different Isles of the Sea, and First 
OF ALL, Rhodes. 

From Ephesus one sails onward to many other different 
isles. You must know that in that part of the sea there are 
more than seven hundred isles, both great and small, in- 
habited and desert, many of which have many special virtues, 
and some of which abound with all manner of good things, 
while some are full of poisonous springs and exceeding 
venomous creatures. Among these isles there is one small 
one, which has a fount of very hot water, boiling like a 
pot, and so poisonous that a bird dies if it only flies over 
it. Near this isle is another isle, scarce measuring two 
miles in circuit, whereon stands a little church. On this 
isle there are stags and other wild animals, so that the 
isle has scarce room for them. Once my comrades landed 
on this isle, and found in the church lances, shields, cross- 
bows, very many arms, and great store of dried meat, 
which was brought thither by pirates and sea-robbers as 
they took it from time to time, and laid it up there. My 
comrades waited there all day expecting the robbers to 
come ; they also went hunting without catching any- 
thing. But it chanced towards evening that one of them 
was sitting between two rocks, and a stag happening to 
come upon him, he cut off its right foot and wounded the 
left with one blow of his sword ; so they got the stag, 
and departed. Near this isle is another, wherein there are 
are no animals save wild asses, which are exceeding good 
sport to hunt, but have not good meat to eat like other 
beasts of chase. Not far from this isle there is another 
named Peyra, a very good one, wherein are found three 
forms of the stone called alun, in exceeding great quan- 
tity, so that it is exported from thence to all the world. 
Not long ago the Genoese took this island from the Turks 


by force, and have well restored it and its bishopric into its 
original state. This island is near Turkey, and between 
them there is a bridge, over which the Turks will not, if 
they can help it, allow anyone to pass, whether there be 
peace or war between them, so vexed are they at the loss 
of the island. It is too long to tell you about the other 
isles. Leaving all these, one sails back again to the shore 
of Asia Minor or Turkey, and comes to Patara,^ which 
once was a noble and most beauteous city, but now has 
been destroyed by the Turks. In this city the pious Pope 
St. Nicholas- was born. One sails on from Patara, and 
comes to another once most noble city, but now destroyed, 
named Mirrhea,^ wherein the glorious Pope Nicholas, who 
has illustrated all that country by his many miracles and 
virtues, was wondrously elected Bishop.'* From Mirrhea, 
if you choose, you can sail on, and you will come to an 
exceeding good and notable isle named Crete, which once 
was a kingdom in itself, but which does not contain many 
forts or cities. Its greatest city is named Candia. In the 
greater part of this isle sage is burned for firewood. The 
Venetians have taken this isle by force from the Greeks. 
From Crete one sails to another most fair and notable 
isle, which is healthy and pleasant. It was once called 
Colos,^ and has a Metropolitan who is called Colossensis. 
^ See Sir John Maundeville, chap, iv. 

2 There have been five Popes of this name, but the Bishop of 
Myrrha was not one of them. 

3 Myra in Lycia. 

4 ' Comme le dit Jacques de Varazze, les prelates du voisinage dtaient 
venus pour donner un successeur a Teveque de Myre, et Tun d'eux 
apprit du Ciel qu'il fallait sacrer le premier qui se presenterait le 
matin a la porte de I'dglise. Ce fut Nicolas, qui venait faire sa priere 
sans se doubter de rien.' — ' Caracteristiques des Saintes dans I'Art 
Populaire,' par le Fere Ch. Cahier, S.J., Paris, 1867, art. 'Bourse.' 

5 See Sir John Maundeville, chap, iv., and Wright's note ; also 
Saewulf. St. Paul's Colossae was a city in the upper part of the basin 
of the Maeander, on one of its affluents called the Lycus. 



It was to this isle that St. Paul wrote his Epistles (to the 
Colossians). Now the isle is called Rhodes, because of 
the seventh climate of the world, wherein that isle stands 
alone, and divides and marks the climate.^ 

It was from this isle that first came the destruction of 
the noble city of Troy, for they say that there lived the 
ram with the golden fleece, of whom one reads at greater 
length in the histories of Troy. This isle of Rhodes is an 
exceeding precious one, being mountainous, and standing 
in a very healthy air, abounding in the wild animals called 
fallow-deer. Furthermore, from whatever part of the sea 
you sail you must pass by or near Rhodes. In this isle 
there is a city named Rhodes, exceeding beauteous and 
strong, with high walls and impregnable towers built of 
such great stones that it is a wonder how human hands 
can have laid them in their place. When Aeon was lost, 
the Master and brethren of St. John of Jerusalem took this 
isle by force^ from the Greeks. They besieged it for 
years, but they never would have taken the city had they 
not won over the inhabitants by bribes, so that they de- 
livered up the isle of their own accord. Thereupon the 
brethren of the Order made it their headquarters, and there 
they dwell to this day. There are three hundred and fifty 
brethren and the Master of the Order, who in my time was 
Elyonus,^ a very old and very stingy man, who has amassed 
countless treasure, and built much in Rhodes, and has set 
the Order free from vast debts. This isle lies within the 
sound of a man's voice from Turkey, from which it is 
separated by an arm of the sea, and takes tribute from all 
the country round about, and from Turkey a third part of 

' See ' Clima' in Zedler's ' Universal Lexicon.' It seems to be almost 
equivalent to 'degree of latitude ' 

2 The Grand Master Guillaume de Villaret, after useless negotia- 
tions with the Emperor Andronicus II., stormed Rhodes 1310. 

3 Helion de Villeneuve, Grand Master 1327-1346. 



the produce of the land. It has also a small and exceed- 
ing strong castle in Turkey.^ These brethren have a truce 
with the rest of the Turks on land, but not at sea, nor yet 
in places where they are harming the Christians. These 
same brethren of the Hospital hold also another island 
hard by named Lango,^ abounding in corn, wine, oil, and 
many fruits, and therein dwell fifty brethren from Rhodes. 
The brethren have yet another small isle, a good and fertile 
one, named Castelroys,^ which once was laid waste by the 
Turks, but now is well inhabited by the brethren and their 
mercenaries. In it there is an exceeding strong and lofty 
castle, from which all ships sailing to whatsoever part of 
the sea can be seen for a distance of almost fifty miles, and 
then they make signals to the brethren in Rhodes and 
Lango and to the other Christians round about, with 
smoke by day and with flames by night, telling them how 
many ships there are at sea, whereupon the brethren and 
Christians make preparations for battle and defence 
according to the number of ships signalled. This island 

^ In 1344 the Knights took the fort and part of the town of Smyrna 
from the Turks, and held their conquest for fifty-six years. Ludolph 
wrote in 1350, and probably alludes to this. 

2 Cos. See Wright's note to Sir John Maundeville, in Bohn's 
' Early Travels in Palestine.' 

3 This is the modern island of Kastelorizo, called by the Italians 
Castel Rosso, the ancient Cisthene, or Megiste (Liv., xxxvii. 22, 24), 
near Patara, at the south-west angle of Asia Minor. But an article on 
the Knights of Malta in the Penny Magazine., vol. v., p. 246, says : ' On 
the summit of a mountain in the island of Syme, Fulk de Villaret 
had erected a lofty tower whence ships could be discovered at a great 
distance. As soon as a strange sail was signalled, which was done by 
lighting fires at night and making a dense smoke by day, the pinks 
and light frigates of Syme, the row-boats and galleys of Rhodes, the 
feluccas and light and swift vessels of others of the islands, got under 
weigh,' etc. Syme is a small island between Rhodes and the pro- 
montory of Budrun (Halicarnassus). Leake ('Tour in Asia Minor,' 
1824) mentions Castelorizo. See his note on p. 184. 


is exceeding useful to the Christians, for since the brethren 
have held the island and castle, the Turks have done the 
Christians no harm with their ships. Moreover, before the 
time of the brethren the islands of Rhodes and Lango, and 
all the isles and country of the Christians round about, 
used to pay tribute to the Turks, but now by the grace of 
God the brethren have turned this the other way. When 
the Turks first heard that the isle of Rhodes had been 
conquered by the brethren of St. John, they collected a 
great army, and sent a solemn embassy asking at first in 
bland and pacific terms for the tribute due to them from 
the brethren, and declaring that they would willingly make 
peace and a treaty with the brethren, but that in any case 
they must have their tribute. At that time the Order had 
no Master, for Brother Fulco de Villaret,^ the Master of the 
Order, had been deposed by the brethren through a quarrel. 
But a certain brother from Basle, a very brave and honest 
knight, who was at that time Guardian of the Order, made 
answer to the Turks begging for a space of three days for 
consideration, and a truce for that time, which the Turks 
most willingly granted, and charged their army to observe. 
Meanwhile this same Guardian of the Order daily continued 
to feast with the Turks, and cunningly found out all about 
their army, its state and position, and what it intended to 
do ; in the meanwhile he got together as many ships and 
men as he could, and on the third day, pretending that he 
was about to leave Rhodes to fight against the Greeks, he 
asked the Turkish ambassadors to enter his chamber lest 
any evil should befall themi at the hands of the Christians 
until his return. The ambassadors did this, and that knight, 
the Guardian of the Order, after having set guards over 
them who were in his secret, embarked with his army and 

^ Grand Master Fulke de Villaret was elected A.D. 1308, was 
deposed 1321, and died 1327. 



put out to sea. At dawn on the morrow he fell upon the 
host of the Turks, and slew them all without distinction, 
men and women, young and old alike. For it is the habit 
of the Turks and Tartars to take their wives, their little 
ones, and all their property with them in their army 
whithersoever they march. So after they had slain all the 
people and won all their property and flocks, the brethren 
returned to Rhodes on the third day with great joy. I 
have heard from some who were present that they got so 
much plunder that they towed their spoils behind the ships 
by ropes in the sea. When all this had been arranged and 
settled, the Guardian of the Order called forth the Turkish 
ambassadors, and said to them that the brethren were 
willing to make a truce and treaty with the Turks, and 
straightway sent them away ; and they on the same day 
landed with great joy at the place where they had left 
their army. But they found all their army newly slain, 
the bodies stripped and plundered, and all the property 
carried off. When they beheld this, they went home as 
sorrowful as they had been joyful, and brought the news 
to the rest of the Turks. Thenceforth the Turks and 
Tartars have never asked the brethren of St. John or the 
Christians in Rhodes for tribute even to this day. At 
Rhodes there are also many venerable relics, among which 
is a brazen cross, which is believed to be made out of the 
basin wherein Christ washed the disciples' feet. Wax 
moulds of this cross have great power in quelling storms 
at sea. This cross and some other venerable relics of the 
brethren of St. John once belonged to the Templars, all of 
whose goods and castles are now owned by the aforesaid 
brethren. It would take too long to tell of the other 
glories of Rhodes, and of all the several victories of the 
aforesaid brethren. From Rhodes one sails to Cyprus. 



XX.— Cyprus. 

Cyprus is an exceeding noble and famous, and also an 
exceeding rich isle, beyond comparison with all the other 
isles of the sea, and is fertile in all good things beyond 
the rest. It was, we read, first inhabited by Noah's son 
Japhet, and for its size it excels all the other lands and 
seaside cities round about, being encircled as it were with 
a girdle by the countries of Egypt, Syria, Armenia, 
Turkey, and Greece. From Cyprus to all these is not 
more than a day's journey by sea, as you shall hear here- 
after. This glorious island once belonged to the Templars, 
who sold it to the King of Jerusalem. Then, when Acre 
and the Holy Land were lost and ruined, the King of 
Jerusalem, and the princes, nobles and barons of the 
kingdom of Jerusalem, removed to Cyprus and dwelt there, 
and there they abide to this day, and thus Cyprus became 
a kingdom. In Cyprus there are three bishoprics — to wit, 
Paphos, Limasol, and Famagusta, and one Metropolitan, 
the Bishop of Nicosia, who in my day was a Minorite 
friar named Elias, who was made a cardinal by Pope 
Clement VI.^ The oldest city in Cyprus is Paphos, once 
a very noble and great place, but now it is almost ruined 
by continual earthquakes. It stands on the seashore 
directly over against Alexandria. Paul and Barnabas 
converted^ this city to faith in Christ, and from thence the 
whole earth hath been converted to the faith, as is set 
forth in the Acts of the Apostles. Near Paphos once 
stood Venus's-^ Castle, where they used to worship the idol 
Venus, and travel from distant lands to visit her gates, 
and thither all noble lords and ladies and young damsels 

' Pope 1342-1353. 

2 Acts XV. 39. 

3 The ' Venusberg ' of the Tannhauser legend 


gathered together in that castle. It was in this temple that 
the first step was taken towards the ruin of Troy ; for Helen 
was taken when on her way to this temple. Moreover, all 
damsels and girls used to make vows in this temple for 
marriage and husbands, wherefore in Cyprus men are 
lustful by nature beyond those of all other lands, for if 
earth from Cyprus, and more especially from the place 
where Venus's Castle used to stand, be placed beneath a 
man's head as he sleeps, it will throughout the whole night 
dispose him to lust. Near Paphos is the place where 
St. Hilary used to dwell, and where he wrought many 
miracles, and there are many other places wherein many 
other saints used to dwell, especially St. Zyzonimus and 
St. Mamma, who was born in Germany, and it is to him 
that the Greeks are commonly wont to pray most devoutly 
for deliverance from carbuncles, 

XXL— The Vineyard of Engaddi. 

In this same diocese of Paphos is the vineyard of 
Engaddi, the like of which is not in the world. This vine- 
yard stands upon an exceeding lofty mountain,^ two miles 
long. A tall cliff girds it on every side like a wall ; it has 
one exceeding narrow entrance, and is quite flat on the 
top throughout. In this vineyard grow many grapes and 
vines of divers sorts, some of which yield grapes as big as 
great pears, and some yield grapes as small as peas. Some 
vines yield bunches of grapes as big as urns, and others 

^ Probably the promontory which terminates in Cape Gatto, the 
ancient Kyrias, near Limasol. This was the district which produced 
the wine called ' Commanderia.' It was guarded by the castle of 
Kolossin, the headquarters of the Hospitallers in Cyprus, wherein are 
the arms of the Lusignans, quartering Jerusalem, Armenia, and Cyprus, 
between three other coats, being those of Antoine Fluvian, Grand 
Master of the Hospitallers 142 1-1437, of Jacques de Milli, Grand 
Master 1454-1461, and another which has not been identified. 



exceeding small bunches, and some vines yield white 
grapes, some black, and some red ; some vines yield grapes 
without stones, and some oblong grapes, shaped like acorns, 
and transparent ; and countless other sorts of vines and 
grapes are to be seen in this vineyard. This vineyard 
once belonged to the Templars, but now belongs to the 
brethren of the Hospital of St. John at Rhodes. In the 
time of the Templars there were always a hundred slaves — 
that is, Saracen prisoners — there always, who had no duties 
or work imposed upon them save dressing and tending the 
vineyard. I have heard from many men of great experi- 
ence that there is no more beauteous, noble, or wondrous 
gem under the sun than this, which God hath made for 
the use of man, like as we read of the same in Solomon's 
Song : ' My beloved is unto me as a cluster of camphire^ in 
the vineyards of Engaddi.' 

Not far from Paphos is Limasol, once a fair city, but 
now much damaged by earthquakes and sudden rushes of 
water from the mountains. This city stands on the sea- 
shore directly over against Tyre, Sidon, and Beyrout. 
When Aeon was lost, the Templars and Hospitallers of 
St. John and other nobles dwelt in this city, and many of 
their palaces and castles may be seen at this day. Near 
Limasol is another vineyard, called Little Engaddi, wherein 
grow divers vines, which a man cannot span with his 
arms, but they are not very tall, and do not yield much 
fruit. In a place in this diocese called Pravimunt (Peni- 
nunt) dwell brethren of the Teutonic Order, and also 
Englishmen of the Order of St. Thomas of Canterbury. 
There is also in this diocese an exceeding lofty mount,'^ 

^ 'Botrus Cypri dilectus meus in vinea Engaddi,' in the Vulgate 
(Cant. i. 14, iv. 13), where the allusion is not to the island of Cyprus, 
but to the plant cypress (KVTrpos). 

2 S. Croce, the modern Stavrovuni, near Larnaca. See Fabri, 
i. 193-200. 


standin^^ by itself, much like Mount Tabor, on whose top 
stands a fair monastery, wherein are brethren of the Order 
of St. Benedict. In this monastery is the entire cross 
whereon the thief on Christ's right hand hung, which was 
brought thither by St. Helena, by whom also this monas- 
tery was built and endowed. This cross is devoutly 
greeted by all mariners at sea when they draw near to this 
mount, and God works many miracles on the mount by 
reason of the virtues of the said cross. Mount Lebanon 
can always be clearly seen from this mount. 

XXII.— The City of Famagusta. 

The third city of Cyprus is called Famagusta. It stands 
on the sea-shore, and there is now the harbour for the 
whole sea and the whole kingdom, and thither merchants 
and pilgrims must needs flock together. This city stands 
directly over against Armenia, Turkey, and Acre. This is 
the richest of all the cities in Cyprus, and its citizens are 
exceeding wealthy. Once one of the citizens of Fama- 
gusta was betrothing his daughter, and the French knights 
who were sailing with us reckoned that the jewels she 
wore on her head were better than all the jewels of the 
King of France. There was a merchant of this city who 
sold a royal golden orb^ to the Soldan for sixty thousand 
florins. It contained only four precious stones — to wit, 
a carbuncle, a pearl, a sapphire, and an emerald, and yet he 
afterwards went and begged to be allowed to buy that orb 
back again for a hundred thousand florins, but was re- 
fused. Moreover, the Constable of Jerusalem had four 
pearls which his wife wore as a brooch, which whenever 
and wherever he pleased he could pawn for three thousand 
florins. In a warehouse in this city there is more aloes- 

^ See the chapter on Constantinople. 



wood than five carts can carry ; I say nothing about spices, 
for they are as common there as bread is here, and are 
just as commonly mixed and sold. Neither dare I say 
any more about precious stones, cloth-of-gold, and other 
kinds of wealth, because in those parts there is an unheard- 
of and incredible store of them. In this city dwell number- 
less exceeding rich courtesans, some of them possessing 
more than a hundred thousand florins, about whose riches 
I dare say no more. 

XXIII. — Salamina and Nicosia. 

Near Famagusta there is another city on the sea-shore 
named Constantia or Salamina, which once was an exceed- 
ing noble, famous, and beauteous city, as its ruins bear 
witness. In this city a man of wondrous sanctity, St. 
Epiphanius,^ was miraculously elected Bishop, and is 
buried therein. In the same city was born St. Katharine 
the Virgin, and a chapel stands on the place of her nativity 
to this day. In this city St. Barnabas the Apostle suffered 
martyrdom, and near it his body was burned and buried. 
St. Epiphanius glorified this city and all the country round 
about with many miracles ; but the city is now utterly 
ruined. Also in Cyprus there is another exceeding great 
city named Nicosia. This is the metropolis of Cyprus, 
and stands in the midst thereof in a plain at the foot of the 
mountains, and in an exceeding healthy air. The King of 
Cyprus and all the bishops and other prelates of the 
kingdom dwell in this city because of the healthiness of 
the air, and also the greater part of all the other princes, 
counts, barons, and knights live there, and every day they 
amuse themselves with joustings, tournaments, and espe- 
cially with hunting. In Cyprus there are wild rams, 

^ Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis or Constantia, in Cyprus (May 12). 
I can find nothing strange about his appointment in ' Acta Sanctorum.' 



which are not found anywhere else in the world, and they 
are taken with leopards ; they can be taken in no other 
way. The princes, nobles, barons, knights, and citizens 
of Cyprus are the richest in the world, for one who has a 
revenue of three thousand florins is thought less of there 
than a man who had a revenue of three marks would be in 
these parts. But they spend it all in hunting. I knew a 
count of Jaffa who kept more than five hundred hounds, 
every pair of which dogs, according to the custom of those 
parts, had a servant of their own, to keep them clean, 
bathe them, and anoint them, which must needs be done 
to hunting dogs in those parts. Also another noble keeps 
at the least ten or twelve falconers, with special wages and 
their expenses. I have known many nobles and knights 
in Cyprus who could have kept and maintained two 
hundred armed men for less than they paid for their 
huntsmen and falconers ; for when they go forth to hunt 
they dwell sometimes for a whole month in the woods and 
mountains, wandering with their tents from place to place, 
taking their pleasure with their hounds and falcons, sleeping 
in the woods and fields in their tents, and carrying all that 
they need and all their provisions with them on camels 
and beasts of burden. You must know that all the princes, 
nobles, barons, knights, and citizens in Cyprus are the best 
and richest in the world, and now they dwell there with 
their children, but once they used to dwell on the main- 
land, in the cities of Syria and Judaea, and in the noble 
city of Acre; howbeit now that the mainland and its cities 
are lost they have fled to Cyprus, and abide there even to 
this day. There are also in Cyprus exceeding rich citizens 
and merchants, and no wonder, seeing that Cyprus is the 
furthest (east) of all Christian lands, wherefore all ships 
both great and small, and all merchandise of whatsoever 
kind and from whatsoever country, must needs come first 



of all to Cyprus, and can in no wise pass by it. Moreover, 
all pilgrims from all parts of the world whatsoever, when 
bound for the parts beyond the sea, must needs come to 
Cyprus, and every day from sunrise to sunset one hears 
rumours and news there. In Cyprus also all the languages 
of the world are heard and spoken, and are taught in 
special schools ; and in Cyprus excellent wine grows on 
lofty mountains exposed to the rays of the sun. This 
wine is at first red, but after standing in an earthenware 
jar for four, six, ten, or twenty years, it becomes white, and 
all the while that it stands it does not lose strength, but 
daily gains it, insomuch that usually nine parts of water 
are added to one of wine ; and if a man were to drink a 
whole cask of that wine, it would not make him drunk, but 
would burn up and destroy his inside. Yet it is exceeding 
wholesome to take some of the wine unmixed upon an 
empty stomach, and nowhere are there better wine- 
drinkers or more of them than in Cyprus. In Cyprus all 
trees and herbs grow as they grow in the Holy Land. 
Also in my time there were in Cyprus many nobles, 
barons, and knights who had left Germany — to wit, the 
Count of Vianden, the Count of Schwartzenberg, the Lord 
of Sleyde, the Prince of Lichtenstein, and many others. 
Also all the seaside places^ in Turkey round about pay 
tribute to the King of Cyprus — to wit, Candelor, Scalnun, 
Sicki, and Satalia, and the other places and castles in their 
neighbourhood. In this city of Satalia there are three 

1 ' Es ist wahrscheinlich, das unter diesen namen die stadte 
Kelenderis oder Kilindri, Selinus oder Selindri, Seleucia oder Selevke, 
und Attalia, samtlich an der kiiste klein Asiens in der nahe von 
Cyperu zu verstehen sind. Vergl Spriiner's Atlas der Mittel Alters.' — 
F. Deycks. With the help of Spriiner's invaluable atlas I have identi- 
fied Candelor with Alaya Candelorum, Scalnun (possibly) with Selinus 
(Trajanopolis) the modern Silintz, Sicki with Sequin, Siquinum (Syce), 
and Satalia, of course, with Attalia, the modern Adalia. 



heretical^ races of men, and the city is divided by walls 
and fosses into three parts: in the first dwell the Greeks, 
who keep holy the Lord's day ; in the second dwell the 
Jews, who kept holy the Sabbath day ; and in the third 
dwell the Turks, who keep Friday holy. In the Greek 
quarter there is a figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary painted 
upon a tablet, of which tablets there are three in the 
world— to wit, one at Rome, one at Constantinople, and 
the third at Satalia ; they are all of the same size, shape, 
and appearance. It is believed that St. Luke painted 
these three pictures from the Blessed Mary's own person, 
and out of respect for this painting God works many 
miracles there. It were too long to tell of the rest of the 
riches and nobility of Cyprus. 

XXIV.~The Cities by the Sea. 

To return to my subject, one sails from Cyprus to some 
one of the cities by the sea, in either Egypt or Syria. 
These cities are as follows : Alexandria, Tripoli, Beyrout, 
Byblium, Jaffa, Sidon, Tyre, Acre. Before going any 
further I will say somewhat about these, that you may 
know them. They all have been given different names to 
those which they bore of old, after the Holy Land has 
been lost and won so many times, and therefore I will say 
a little about them, that you may know to whose lot these 
cities fell when the Holy Land was won by the Christians. 
You must know that none of these cities are more than a 
day's journey distant from Cyprus. Now, Alexandria is 
the first seaside city of Egypt, and one of the best of the 
Soldan's cities. On one side it stands on the Nile, the 
river of Paradise, which falls into the sea close by it, and its 
other side is on the sea. This city is exceeding beauteous 
and strong, and is fenced about with lofty towers and walls 

I 'Perversa genera.' Compare Marco Polo, ed Panthier, p. 71. 



which seem impregnable. It was once inhabited by the 
Christians, and is now by the Saracens, and within it is 
exceeding clean, being all whitewashed, and in the corner 
of every street it has a fountain of water running through 
pipes ; the city is carefully kept clean by watchmen, whose 
duty it is to see that no dirt be cast into the streets or 
fountains by anybody. In this city the Soldan keeps 
mercenary soldiers and his bodyguard, who guard the city 
and harbour. St. Mark the Evangelist was Patriarch in 
this city, and was martyred there, and in succession to 
him there still remains a Christian Patriarch there. In 
this city there still stands entire to this day a great and 
exceeding beauteous church, adorned in divers fashions 
with mosaic work and marble, wherein at the request of 
the Venetians Divine service is celebrated every day. 
Indeed, many other churches are still standing in Alex- 
andria at this day, and in them rest the bodies of many 
saints. There are also many Christians and merchants 
living there. This city appears to the human eye to be 
impregnable, and yet it could be easily taken. I do not 
care to say any more about this matter. This city, which 
was of old called Alexandria, is now called Iscandria by 
its inhabitants. Near Alexandria is a place where St. 
Katharine was beheaded, and from whence she was borne by 
angels to Mount Sinai, a distance of about eighteen days' 
journey, and there are very many holy places and places 
of prayer in that city. Not far from Alexandria there is 
a village, all of whose inhabitants are Saracen work- 
people, who weave mats wondrous well in divers fashions 
and with most curious skill. In this place or village stands 
a fair little church, wherein is a small grotto. In this 
grotto it is believed that St. John the Baptist was be- 
headed. The grotto is believed to have been a prison, and 
is known because of the position of the place, which is on 


the border of Egypt and Arabia. These same Saracen 
workpeople guard the grotto with the uttermost care and 
reverence, lighting it with lamps and candles, and each 
one of them according to his means pays some especial 
reverence to the church and grotto ; for they firmly believe 
and say that it has been proved by experience that if they 
did not hold the church in such great respect, and were to 
leave it unlighted for one night, rats would come forth 
from the ground and would pull to pieces and spoil all 
their matwork ; and they say that the more respect a man 
shows for the church and grotto aforesaid, the better he 
succeeds in his work. This place where the church now 
stands was of old called Metharonta in Arabic. The 
nearest city to Egypt is called Tripolis. It stands by the 
sea-shore at the foot of Mount Lebanon, and is a county 
which when the Holy Land was recovered by the Christians 
was given to the Count of Thoulouse. This land or county- 
is fertile, and is famous for its grass, meadows, pastures, 
herbs, trees, and fruit beyond all other lands round about, 
and is exceeding beauteous ; wherefore beyond all other 
lands it is called a second paradise,^ and has a loveliness 
beyond human comprehension. This land or county of 
gardens is traversed by a torrent which runs down from 
the loftiest mountain-peak of Lebanon with a frightful 
rush, so that its noise may be heard for more than a mile, 
and he who stands near it is made deaf for more than 
three days. Likewise there is a well of water which runs 
through this land or county, and rises therein ; it is a 
fountain ever welling forth from the flat ground, and never 
falling off in quantity or form, and is in all respects like 
the fountain in the city of Paderborn, which is called 
Padere. By these two streams, the fountain, and the well, 
the whole land is watered. These are the streams whereof 
^ Compare Fetellus, p. 47. 



we read, ' A fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, 
and streams from Lebanon ' (Cant. iv. 15). And you must 
know that Mount Lebanon is exceeding long and in some 
places exceeding high. To my mind it is in all respects 
like the mount in these parts which is called Osning.^ It 
extends from the beginning of the Promised Land as far 
as Cilicia, and is a mount full of the most delightful trees, 
fruits, and herbage that the heart of man can conceive. 
The mount is also filled with countless towns and villages, 
in all of which dwell Christians according to the Latin 
rite, who daily long for the coming of the Christians (on a 
Crusade), and many of whose bishops I have seen con- 
secrated after the Latin rite. You must also know that 
the land up to which this mount reaches, which once was 
called Cilicia, is now called Lesser Armenia,^ for the 
Armenians took that land from the Saracens by force, and 
have fought and quarrelled with them for five hundred years 
without interruption. In this land is the glorious city of 
Tarsus, wherein St. Paul the Apostle was born. But to 
return to my subject : there is another seaside city named 
Baruth, which is fairly well peopled, and which on the 
recovery of the Holy Land by the Christians fell to the 
lot of the Lord of Starkenberg. This city is mentioned by 
the Emperor (Justinian) in the Prologue^ to the Digests, 
and formerly general studies greatly flourished here. In 
this city there stands a fair church dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, which is held in especial reverence by Christians. 
St. George converted this island to the faith of Christ, and 

1 The town of Paderborn, the source of the river Pader, and Mount 
Osning, which is in the Teutoburger Wald, point to Ludolph's home. 

2 See Anon,, p. 15, note. 

3 The words are : ' Haec autem tria volumina a nobis composita 
tradi iis tarn in regiis urbibus quam in Beryttensium pulcherrima 
civitate, quam et legum nutricem quis appellet, tanturnmodo volumus. 
—Dig., Proem., i 7 ; cf. 9 and 10. 


slew the dragon hard by it/ rescued the daughter of the 
King of the city from the dragon, and glorified the land 
with many miracles. The dragon's well may still be 
plainly seen. All pilgrims bound for Jerusalem meet 
together at this city and pass through it. Not far from 
this city there is another strong and well-fenced city named 
Byblium, which on the recovery of the Holy Land fell to 
the lot of the Knights of the Temple. One reads of this 
city in the Book of Kings- : Porro Byblii portabant ligna. 
This city, which was then called Byblium, is now called 
Ghiblet. Not far from this city there stands another city 
by the sea-shore named Japhe (Jaffa), which is still fairly 
well peopled. Once the common pilgrim-way passed 
through this city, but shortly before my time the Soldan 
laid waste the port out of fear of the King of France. 
This city has two other fair cities near it — to wit, Ramatha, 
wherein the prophet Samuel was born, and Ascalon. 
Jaffa is three days' journey from Jerusalem, or there- 
abouts, and is a county. The Count of Jaffa^ is also 
Marshal of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Lord of 
Ramatha and Ascalon, and so signs himself. In my time 
the Count of Japhe and Henry, Duke of Brunswick married 
two sisters. Not far from Jaffa is another exceeding 
beauteous seaside city, well fenced about with fine towers 
and walls, but utterly deserted. It is called Sidon, and 

^ Fabri, ii. 203. 

2 I Kings V. 18. ' Porro Giblii praeparaverunt ligna et lapides.' ' And 
Solomon's builders and Hiram's builders did hew them, and the stone- 
squarers ; so they prepared timber and stones to build the house ' (A.V.). 
See S.P.C.K. Bible, where we are told in a note that ' stone squarers ' 
should read ' Giblites.' Cf. Poloner, p. 33, note. 

3 This must have been Hugh d'Ibelin, Count of Joppa and Ascalon, 
Seigneur of Rama, and Seneschal of Jerusalem in 1338, who married 
Isabelle d'Ibelin, widow of Ferdinand of Majorca. See ' Les Comtes 
de Jaffa et d'Ascalon ' in ' Les Families d'Outremer,' by M. Rey, Paris, 




on the recovery of the Holy Land fell to the lot of a 
knight called De Neapoli.^ This city, which once was 
called Sidon, is now called Sagette. Near this city is 
another exceeding fair city, well fenced with fine towers 
and walls, and standing strangely by itself on an isle in 
the sea. It is named Tyre, but now it is almost deserted. 
When the Holy Land was recovered, it fell to the lot of 
Baldwin, Godfrey of Bouillon's brother. This city, which 
once was called Tyre, is now called Sur. Between Tyre 
and Sidon there stands a fair church at the place where 
the Canaanitish woman called upon the Lord, as the 
Gospel witnesseth, saying, ' Jesus departed thence into 
the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, and behold, a Canaanitish 
woman,' etc.^ 

XXV.— The Glorious City of Acre. 

Near Tyre, at a distance of one day's journey along the 
sea-shore, stands the glorious city of Acre, once the 
thoroughfare of pilgrims and all other travellers, three 
short days' journey from Jerusalem. Before going on to 
anything else. I must say somewhat about this city of 
Acre ; yet when I think of its present state I had liefer 
weep than say anything. Whose heart is so hard that the 
ruin and destruction of so great and noble a city would 
not melt it This glorious city of Acre stands, as I have 
said, on the sea-shore, built of squared hewn stones of more 
than wonted size, with lofty and exceeding strong towers, 
not a stone's-throw distant from one another all round the 
walls. Each gate of the city stood between two towers, 
and the walls were so great that two cars driving along 
the top of them could easily pass one another, even as 

' 'Eustach Grenier erhielt, a.d. iiii, Sidon zu Lehen.' — Wilken, 
' Geschichten der Kreuzzuge.' 
Mau. XV, 21, 


they are at the present day. On the other side also, 
toward the land, the city was fenced with notable walls 
and exceeding deep ditches, and variously equipped with 
divers outworks and defences, and conveniences for watch- 
men. The streets within the city were exceeding neat, all 
the walls of the houses being of the same height and all 
alike built of hewn stone, wondrously adorned with glass 
windows and paintings, while all the palaces and houses in 
the city were not built merely to meet the needs of those 
who dwelt therein, but to minister to human luxury and 
pleasure, each one as far as possible excelling the others in 
its glazing, painting, pavilions, and the other ornaments 
with which it was furnished within and beautified without.^ 
The streets of the city were covered with silken cloths, or 
other fair awnings, to keep off the sun's rays. At every 
street corner there stood an exceeding strong tower, fenced 
with an iron door and iron chains. All the nobles dwelt 
in very strong castles and palaces along the outer edge of 
the city. In the midst of the city dwelt the mechanic 
citizens and merchants, each in his own especial street 
according to his trade, and all the dwellers in the city, like 
the Normans of old, held themselves to be noble, and bore 
themselves like nobles, as of a truth they were.- First 

^ This entire account of Ptolemais before its capture is repeated 
word for word in the Latin chronicle of the Dominican monk, Hermann 
Cornerus, of Lubeck, written A.D. 1435. See Eccard's ' Corpus 
Historiarum Medii Aevi,' vol. ii., p. 941. — F. Deycks. 

2 Compare the following extract from Villani's ' History of Florence,' 
book vii., chap, cxliv. Muratori> ' Scriptores Rerum Italicarum,' 
tom. xiii., pp. 337, 338. ' Egli e vera cosa, che perche i Sarracini 
haveano ne tempi dinanzi tolte a' Christiani la Citta di Antiochia, et 
quella di Tripoli, e quella di Suri, & piu altre Citta, che i Christiani 
teneano alia marina, la Citta d' Acri era molto cresciuta di gente, & di 
podere, pero che altra terra non si tenea per li Christiani in Soria, si 
che per lo Re di Gieiusalem, & per quello di Cipri, e'l Prenze d' 
Antiochia, & quello di Suri, & di Tripoli, & la Magione del Tempio, 


there dwelt therein the King of Jerusalem and his brethren, 

and very many nobles of the family ; the princes of Galilee, 
the princes of Antioch and the chief captain of the King 
of France, the Duke of Caesarea, the Lord of Sur^ and 
the Lord of Tiberias, the Lord of Sagette,^ the Count of 
Tripoli, the Count of Jaffa, the Lord of Beyrout, the Lord of 
Ibelin,^ the Lord of Pysan,"* the Lord of Arsuf,^ the Lord 
of Vaus,^ and the nobles of Blanchegarde. All these princes, 
dukes, counts, nobles, and barons walked about the streets 
in royal state, with golden coronets on their heads, each 
of them like a king, with his knights, his followers, his 
mercenaries, and his retainers, his clothing and his war- 
horse wondrously bedecked with gold and silver, all vying 
one with another in beauty and novelty of device, and each 
man apparelling himself with the most thoughtful care. 
Every day they practised themselves in joustings, games, 
tournaments, and every sort of military display and each 
one had his own liberty or privileged piece of ground^ 

& dello Spedale, & 1' altre Magioni & Legato del Papo, & quelli, ch' 
erano oltra mare per lo Re di Francia, & per lo Re d' Inghilterra, tutti 
faceano capo in Acri, & haveano 17 sigriorie di sangue, la quale era 
una grande confusione.' Villani died 1348. 
^ Tyre. 

2 So spelt in Dr. F. Deycks's text. The place which the Crusaders 
called Sagitta, or Sajette, is the ancient Sidon, now Sayda. 

3 'The fortress of Ibelin, about ten miles from Ascalon, was built on 
the traditional site of Gath in 1144.' See 'The City of Herod and 
Saladin,' p. 296. 

4 Al. Poysan. Probably Bethshan. See ' Names and Places in the 
Old and New Testament,' by G. Armstrong. A. Watt, London, 1889. 

5 Antipatris, between Jaffa and Caesarea. Cf. ' The Condition of 
City of Jerusalem,' p. 32, notes 2, 4. See also C R. Conder in the 
' Survey of Western Palestine,' vol. v., p. 252. The Crusaders mis- 
takenly identified it with Ashdod. Spriiner, ' Atlas der Mittelaelters,' 
has Arsuf, Arsur, Assur, Antipatrida. 

^ See preface. 
7 Deduciio. 
Compare Fabri, vol. ii., p. 376. 


beside his own palace or castle. Therein also dwelt, to 
fight against the Saracens for the Catholic faith, the Master 
and brethren of the Knights Templars, armed knights ; 
the Master and brethren of the Order of St. John of 
Jerusalem, armed knights ; and the Master and brethren of 
the house of the Teutonic Order, armed knights ; likewise 
the Master and brethren of the Order of St. Thomas^ of 
Canterbury, armed knights ; and the Master and brethren 
of the Order of St. Lazarus, armed knights. All these 
dwelt in Acre, and had the headquarters of their Order 
there, and they and their fellows fought day and night 
against the Saracens. There also dwelt in Acre the 
richest merchants under heaven, who were gathered to- 
gether therein out of all nations ; there were Pisans, 
Genoese, and Lombards, by whose accursed quarrels the 
city was lost, for they also bore themselves like nobles. 
There dwelt therein also exceeding rich merchants of 
other nations, for from sunrise to sunset all parts of the 
world brought merchandise thither, and everything that 
can be found in the world that is wondrous or strange 
used to be brought thither because of the nobles and 
princes who dwelt there. It would take long to tell of the 
other glories, wonders, and beauties of Acre one by one, 

^ 'Another iittle-known Order merits notice. An English priest, 
William, chaplain to Ralph de Uiceto, devoted himself to burying the 
Christian dead at Acre. Afterwards he built a chapel and bought 
ground for a cemetery, which he dedicated to St. Thomas the Martyr. 
Through the patronage of Becket's sister, a hospital of St. Thomas the 
Martyr of Canterbury at Acre was built in London on the site of the 
Archbishop's house ; and in 1231, when Peter des Roches was in 
Palestine, he established these knights under the rule of the Templars. 
These knights of St. Thomas of Acre wore their own mantle with a 
cross of red and white, and have the distinction of being one of the few 
peculiarly English Orders. They survived in the kingdom of Cyprus 
till near the close of the fourteenth century.' ' The Crusades ' Story 
of the Nations,' T. F. Unwin, 1894. See also Stubbs's 'Lectures on 
Mediaeval History,' pp. 182-185. 



neither could any man tell fully of them all. This is that 
renowned city of Acre, which once was called Ptolemais, 
wherein Judas (?) Maccabeus was treacherously slain by 
Tryphon, as is told in the Book of Maccabees. Likewise, 
this is that city of Acre^ wherein was the idol Beelzebub, 
what time Ahaziah, King of Israel, fell down through a 
lattice in his upper chamber that was in Samaria, and said 
unto his servants, ' Go, inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of 
Ekron, whether I shall recover of this disease,' as is told at 
length in the Book of Kings.^ 

XXVI. — The Loss of the City of Acre. 

After having told of the glories and beauties of Acre, J 
will now shortly tell you of its fall and ruin, and the cause 
of its loss, even as I heard the tale told by right truthful 
men, who well remembered it. While, then, the grand 
doings of which I have spoken were going on in Acre, 
at the instigation of the devil there arose a violent and 
hateful quarrel in Lombardy between the Guelfs and the 
Ghibellines, which brought all evil upon the Christians. 
Those Lombards who dwelt in Acre took sides in this same 
quarrel, especially the Pisans and Genoese, both of whom 
had an exceeding strong party in Acre. These men made 
treaties and truces with the Saracens, to the end that they 
might the better fight against one another within the city. 
When Pope Urban'^ heard of this, he grieved for Christen- 
dom and for the Holy Land, and sent twelve thousand 
mercenary troops across the sea to help the Holy Land 

' Like inost mediaeval writers, Ludolph confuses Acre (Aeon) with 
Accaron (O.T., Ekron). See Anon. II., chap. !., note. 

2 2 Kings i. 2. 

3 Urban IV. reigned 1261-1264 ; it cannot therefore be he, but 
Jerome d'Ascoli, Nicholas IV., 1288-1292, who is meant. 


and Christendom. When these men came across the sea 
to Acre they did no good, but abode by day and by night 
in taverns and places of ill-repute, took and plundered 
merchants and pilgrims in the public streets, broke the 
treaty, and did much evil. Melot Sapheraph, Soldan of 
Babylon,^ an exceeding wise man, most potent in arms 
and bold in action, when he heard of this, and knew of the 
hateful quarrels of the people of Acre, called together his 
counsellors and held a parliament in Babylon, wherein he 
complained that the truces had frequently been broken 
and violated, to the prejudice of himself and his people. 
After a debate had been held upon this matter, he gathered 
together a mighty host, and reached the city of Acre with- 
out any resistance, because of their quarrels with one 
another, cutting down and wasting all the vineyards and 
fruit-trees and all the gardens and orchards, which are 
most lovely thereabout. When the Master of the Templars, 
a very wise and brave knight, saw this, he feared that the 
fall of the city was at hand, because of the quarrels of the 
citizens. He took counsel with his brethren about how 
peace could be restored, and then went out to meet the 
Soldan, who was his own very especial friend, to ask him 
whether they could by any means repair the broken truce. 
He obtained these terms from the Soldan, to wit, that 
because of his love for the Soldan and the honour in which 
the Soldan held him, the broken truce might be restored 
by every man in Acre paying one Venetian penny. So 
the Master of the Templars was glad, and, departing from 
the Soldan, called together all the people and preached a 
sermon to them in the Church of St. Cross, setting forth 
how, by his prayers, he had prevailed upon the Soldan to 
grant that the broken treaty might be restored by a pay- 
ment of one Venetian penny by each man, that therewith 

' Gino. 


everything might be settled and quieted. He advised 
them by all means so to do, declaring that the quarrels of 
the citizens might bring a worse evil upon the city than 
this — as indeed they did. But when the people heard this, 
they cried out with one voice that he was the betrayer of 
the city, and was guilty of death. The Master, when he 
heard this, left the church, hardly escaped alive from the 
hands of the people, and took back their answer to the 
Soldan. When the Soldan heard this, knowing that, owing 
to the quarrels of the people, none of them would make 
any resistance, he pitched his tents, set up sixty machines, 
dug many mines beneath the city walls, and for forty days 
and nights, without any respite, assailed the city with fire, 
stones, and arrows, so that (the air) seemed to be stiff with 
arrows. I have heard a very honourable knight say that a 
lance which he was about to hurl from a tower among the 
Saracens was all notched with arrows before it left his 
hand. There were at that time in the Soldan's army six 
hundred thousand^ armed men, divided into three com- 
panies ; so one hundred thousand continually besieged the 
city, and when they were weary another hundred thousand 
took their place before the same, two hundred thousand 
stood before the gates of the city ready for battle, and the 
duty of the remaining two hundred thousand was to supply 
them with everything that they needed. The gates were 
never closed, nor was there an hour of the day without 
some hard fight being fought against the Saracens by the 
Templars or other brethren dwelling therein. But the 
numbers of the Saracens grew so fast that after one 
hundred thousand of them had been slain two hundred 

^ With regard to these outrageous figures, and the mythical com- 
plexion of the whole story, compare Wilken's ' Geschichte der 
Kreuzzuge,' vii. 757, and Dr. F. Deycks's work, ' Uber altere Pilger- 
fahrten,' p. 49. 


thousand came back. Yet, even against all this host, they 
would not have lost the city had they but helped one 
another faithfully ; but when they were fighting without 
the city, one party would run away and leave the other to 
be slain, while within the city one party would not defend 
the castle or palace belonging to the other/ but pur- 
posely let the other party's castles, palaces, and strong 
places be stormed and taken by the enemy, and each one 
knew and believed his own castle and place to be so strong 
that he cared not for any other's castle or strong place. 
During this confusion the Masters and brethren of the 
Orders alone defended themselves, and fought unceasingly 
against the Saracens, until they were nearly all slain ; 
indeed, the Master and brethren of the house of the 
Teutonic Order, together with their followers and friends, 
all fell dead at one and the same time. As this went on 
with many battles and many thousands slain on either 
side, at last the fulfilment of their sins and the time of the 
fall of the city drew near; when the fortieth day of its siege 
was come, in the year of our Lord one thousand two 
hundred and ninety-two, on the twelfth day of the month 
of May, the most noble and glorious city of Acre, the 
flower, chief and pride of all the cities of the East, was taken. 
The people of the other cities, to wit, Jaffa, Tyre, Sidon 
and Ascalon, when they heard this, left all their property 
behind and fled to Cyprus. When first the Saracens took 
Acre they got in through a breach in the wall near the King 
of Jerusalem's castle, and when they were among the 
people of the city within, one party still would not help the 
other, but each defended his own castle and palace, and 
the Saracens had a much longer siege, and fought at much 
less advantage when they were within the city than when 
they were without, for it was wondrously fortified. Indeed, 
^ Altius = altenus. 



we read in the stories of the loss of Acre that because of 
the sins of the people thereof the four elements^ fought on 
the side of the Saracens. First the air became so thick, 
dark, and cloudy that, while one castle, palace, or strong 
place was being stormed or burned, men could hardly see 
in the other castles and palaces, until their castles and 
palaces were attacked, and then for the first time they 
would have willingly defended themselves, could they have 
come together. Fire fought against the city, for it con- 
sumed it. Earth fought against the city, for it drank up 
its blood. Water also fought against the city, for it 
being the month of May, wherein the sea is wont to be 
very calm, when the people of Acre plainly saw that 
because of their sins and the darkening of the air they 
could not see their enemies, they fled to the sea, desiring 
to sail to Cyprus, and whereas at first there was no wind at 
all at sea, of a sudden so great a storm arose that no other 
ship, either great or small, could come near the shore, and 
many who essayed to swim off to the ships were drowned. 
Hovvbeit, more than one hundred thousand men escaped 
to Cyprus. I have heard from a most honourable lord, 
and from other truthful men who were present, that more 
than five hundred most noble ladies and maidens, the 
daughters of kings and princes, came down to the sea- 
shore, when the city was about to fall, carrying with them 
all their jewels and ornaments of gold and precious stones, 
of priceless value, in their bosoms, and cried aloud, asking 
whether there were any sailor there who would take all 
their jewels, and take whichever of them he chose to wife, 
if only he would take them, even naked, to some safe land 
or island. A sailor received them all into his ship, took 
them across to Cyprus, with all their goods, for nothing, 
and went his way. But who he was, whence he came, or 
^ Marino Sanuto book iii., part xii., chap, xxi., ad finem. 


whither he went, no man knows to this day.^ Very many 
other noble ladies and damsels were drowned or slain. It 
would take long to tell what great grief and anguish was 
there. While the Saracens were within the city, but before 
they had taken it, fighting from castle to castle, from one 
palace and strong place to another, so many men perished on 
either side that they walked over their corpses as it were 
over a bridge. When all the inner city was lost, all who still 
remained alive fled into the exceeding strong castle of the 
Templars, which was straightway invested on all sides by 
the Saracens ; yet the Christians bravely defended it for 
two months, and before it almost all the nobles and chiefs 
of the Soldan's army fell dead. For when the city inside 
the walls was burned, yet the towers of the city, and the 
Templars' castle, which was in the city, remained, and 
with these the people of the city kept the Saracens within 
the city from getting out, as before they had hindered their 
coming in, until of all the Saracens who had entered the 
city not one remained alive, but all fell by fire or by the 
sword. When the Saracen nobles saw the others lying 
dead, and themselves unable to escape from the city, they 
fled for refuge into the mines which they had dug under 
the great tower, that they might make their way through 
the wall and so get out. But the Templars and others 
who were in the castle, seeing that they could not hurt the 
Saracens with stones and the like, because of the mines 
wherein they were, undermined the great tower of the 
castle, and flung it down upon the mines and the Saracens 
therein, and all perished alike. When the other Saracens 
without the city saw that they had thus, as it were, failed 
utterly, they treacherously made a truce with the Templars 

I This story is repeated by Lampadius in his ' Mellificium His- 
toricum,' A.D. 1617, part iii., p. 312. Cf. Fuller's 'Holy Warre,' 
book iv., chap, xxxiii. 


and Christians on the condition that they should yield up 
the castle, taking all their goods with them, and should 
destroy it, but should rebuild the city on certain terms, and 
dwell therein in peace as heretofore. The Templars and 
Christians, believing this, gave up the castle and marched 
out of it, and came down from the city towers. When the 
Saracens had by this means got possession both of the 
castle and of the city towers, they slew all the Christians 
alike, and led away the captives to Babylon. Thus Acre 
has remained empty and deserted even to this day. In 
Acre and the other places nearly a hundred and six thou- 
sand men were slain or taken, and more than two hundred 
thousand escaped from thence. Of the Saracens more 
than three hundred thousand were slain, as is well known 
even to this day. The Saracens spent forty days over the 
siege of the city, fifty days within the city before it was 
taken, and two months over the siege of the Templars' 
castle. When the glorious city of Acre thus fell, all the 
Eastern people sung of its fall in hymns of lamentation, 
such as they are wont to sing over the tombs of their dead, 
bewailing the beauty, the grandeur, and the glory of Acre 
even to this day. Since that day all Christian women, 
whether gentle or simple, who dwell along the eastern shore 
(of the Mediterranean) dress in black garments of mourning 
and woe for the lost grandeur of Acre, even to this day. 

After this the Saracens worked for many years en- 
deavouring to utterly subvert and destroy down to their 
foundations all the walls, towers, castles, and palaces, lest 
the Christians should rebuild them ; yet in hardly any 
place have they been able to beat them down to the height 
of a man, but all the churches, walls, and towers, and very 
many castles and palaces, remain almost entire, and, if it 
pleased God, could with great care be restored throughout 
to their former state. At this day about sixty Saracen 



mercenaries dwell in Acre as a garrison for the city and 
port, and make a living out of silk and birds, for there are 
so many partridges and pigeons to be found in Acre, that 
all the birds to be seen in this country are not to be 
compared to them. These mercenaries have an especial 
delight in Germans, whom they straightway recognise by 
their appearance and walk, and drink wine deeply with 
them, albeit it is forbidden by their law. Thus have I 
told how the glorious city of Acre was lost by quarrels, 
and from that time forth all the glory of the Holy Land, 
of its kings, princes, and other lords, has been carried over 
into Cyprus, as you have already heard. 

XXVII.— Of Gaza and Azotus. 
But to return to my subject : from Acre one goes on to 
Gaza, once an exceeding fine city of the Philistines, now 
almost a desert, whose iron gates Samson broke and took 
away with him into a mountain. The distance from Acre 
to Gaza is twenty-three miles, and on the way one sees 
the following places. But before going further, I propose 
to tell you somewhat about the cities of the Philistines. 
Round about this city of Gaza lies the land of Palestine, 
wherein we see that four exceeding great cities once stood, 
which now have been brought down to small villages, all 
save two — to wit, Azotus (Ashdod) and Gath. You must 
know that the land which once was called Philistia is now 
called Palestine, and that the city which once was called 
Azotus is now called Arsuf,^ whose noble lord I have often 
seen. And the city which once was called Gath- is now 

^ Arsuf= Antipatris. Balian d'Ibelin was Seigneur d'Arsuf in 1368. 

2 ' Scandalium, south-west from Tyre, built by Alexander the Great, is 
not the same as Gath,' says F. Deycks, who identifies the Scandalium of 
the Crusaders with Alexandroscene, the place where Alexander's tent 
was pitched during the siege of Tyre. See Theoderich, chap, li., and 
Tobler's note thereto. 



called Scandalium, a name which Baldwin, King of 
Jerusalem, gave it when he was building it. It was in 
this city that Goliath was born, whom David slew, and 
many other wonders may be read of about this city. From 
this city onwards all the cities and villages, castles and 
places, on the sea-shore aforesaid, and for a space of four 
miles inland, have been laid waste and remain so to this 
day. For as soon as the Holy Land, Syria, and Acre 
were lost, the Saracens thought that they should possess in 
peace all the aforesaid places, cities, villages, and castles 
on the sea-shore. But at that time the people of Gath, or 
Scandalium, were exceeding strong men, and very valiant 
in arms ; indeed, it is said that the place is of such a 
nature that men born there are fiercer than other men. 
These same people of Gath, albeit few in number, being 
less than one thousand, are noble and valiant, and know 
all the roads and by-ways of the land ; for they are wont 
to wander hither and thither with arms in their hands, 
serving for hire, and they know the manners and customs 
of the Saracens, and the going in and the coming out of 
the land, and they never rested, but went to and fro con- 
tinually, by land and by water, by night and by day, 
dressed in Saracen clothing, with arms concealed beneath 
it. While they were among the Saracens, they went as 
Saracen merchants,^ and entered with them into their 
cities and villages, ate and drank with them, and by 
degrees gathered together ; and whenever they thought 
that they had a good opportunity, they took and burned 
the town or village in which they happened to be, and 
slew the Saracens or sold them for slaves. When the 
Saracens saw that they could not guard themselves against 

I I hardly know whether this is to be taken as serious history. A 
story of the same sort is told by William of Tyre about the rescue of 
Baldwin II, from Khortbert. 



these men, they deserted their cities and villages and went 
away, yet seldom escaped, and thus all the places along 
the sea-shore, the cities and villages and other places as far 
as four miles inland, were made utterly desolate even to this 
day. I have heard from truthful men who were present 
when these things came to pass, and the public talk and 
rumour of them still remains there, that so great fear fell 
upon the Saracens because of these aforesaid men of Gath, 
that as far as six days' journey therefrom mothers used 
to quiet their crying children with this word Scandalium. 
Moreover, no man dared meet another on the road, for 
because of the people of Scandalium no precaution would 
make a man fully safe. But to return to my subject : near 
Acre there is a river of no great size named Belen.^ This 
river rolls down a sort of glassy sand, which is carried 
away to distant lands. There is likewise another river 
near Acre, on one side of which no serpent or venomous 
thing can live, though they can do so well on the other 
side ; and it has been proved that serpents cast across this 
river die straightway. 

XXVIII.— Of Mount Carmel. 

Also near Acre, on the right hand, three miles away, not 
far from the sea, stands Mount Carmel, which is smooth, 
and wide, and most beauteous at the top, adorned with 
much grass and pleasant places. On this mount dwelt 
Elijah the prophet, and wrought many miracles. On this 
mount also, at Elijah's word, the captains of fifty of 
Ahaziah, King of Israel, were consumed by fire from 
heaven. On this mount also Elijah prayed that it might 
not rain upon the earth, and it did not rain for three years 

^ ' This is the Belus whose glass manufactures are mentioned by 
Pliny and Tacitus.'— Dr. F. Deycks. 



and six months, as we read in the Book of Kings. On 
this mount it may be seen that there once stood an 
exceeding fine convent built in honour of St. Mary, and 
the friars who derive their origin from thence are called 
Carmelites to this day. They are begging friars, and one 
may see that they once had fifteen fair convents in the 
Holy Land. On one side of the mount there is a clear 
fountain running into the sea, from which Elijah the 
prophet used to drink, and it is called Elijah's Fountain to 
this day. At another place at the foot of the mount one 
may see where there stood a city of the Templars, now 
utterly destroyed, called Cyphas.^ Not very far from this 
city there is a small fountain, which is one of the sources 
of the Jordan. At the end of Mount Carmel there was 
once a fair city, now destroyed, named Jezreel, where 
Jezebel took away Naboth's vineyard, and was cast down 
at the same place, as we read in the Book of Kings.^ 
Near this city are the plains of Megiddo, wherein Josiah, 
King of Judah, was slain. Not far from Mount Carmel, 
on the left-hand side, there once stood a fair city, now 
destroyed, named Sepphora, which stood on a hill, and 
wherein St. Anne, the Blessed Mary's mother, was born. 

After passing over Mount Carmel one crosses a river, 
which is one of the sources of the Jordan, and comes to 
Caesarea of Palestine, which once was called Dor, and now 
is called Caesarea of Palestine, but is utterly destroyed. 
In this city there was a fair church made out of the house 
of Cornelius,'^ whom Peter converted to the true faith. 
This same city, on the recovery of the Holy Land, came 
into the possession of a certain knight of these parts, 

^ Haifa. 

^ I Kings xxi. 

3 Compare the Bordeaux Pilgrim, p. 17 : ' Onaliter Sita est Urbs 
Sancta Jerusalem,' 32. 



named De Horne, whose son-in-law's widow was living 
even in my own time, for I have often seen her and talked 
upon this subject with her. Going on from Caesarea, one 
comes to what once was a fair city, but now is deserted, 
called Pilgrim's Castle, which of old was called Assur.^ 
This city was given to the Templars by Godfrey de 
Bouillon, the first Christian King of Jerusalem, for a 
memorial of himself. Going on from Assur, or Pilgrims' 
Castle, one comes to a very fair city, tolerably full of 
people even at this day, called Ascalon. Going on from 
Ascalon, one comes to Joppa, an exceeding ancient and 
beauteous city standing on the sea-shore. It was the port 
of this city that the prophet Jonah entered when he essayed 
to flee from before the face of the Lord. It is about two 
days' journey distant from Jerusalem, but pilgrims are not 
able to land at the port. Inland, not far from Joppa, there 
stands a fair city, once called Ruma,- but now called Bael, 
situated in a most beauteous, pleasant, and delectable 
place, and inhabited by Christians alone. It is believed 
that no Jew or Saracen could live or dwell therein for 
more than a year. All the wine drunk by the Christians 
in Jerusalem and the other places is brought from hence. 
On the left hand side of this Ruma, or Bael, there stands a 
fair city, still well peopled, called Diospolis, or by another 
name, Lydda. In this city the glorious martyr St. George 
suffered martyrdom, and was beheaded. There is an ex- 
ceeding fair church, well adorned with mosaic work and 
marble, wherein, in the choir, the place of his beheading is 
publicly shown. After seeing all these things one comes 
first to Gaza, whereof I said somewhat already, because I told 

^ Castrum Peregrinorum, also called Petra Incisa. See ' Guide- 
book,' p. 34. Assur is not Castrum Peregrinorum, but Athlit. which 
was fortified by the Templars, and lost by them after the fall of Acre 
in 1291. See also ' La Citez de Jherusalem,' p. 31, note, and preface. 

2 * Ruina ' in two MSS. ; Ramla, the N.T. Arimathaea. 




you of the other cities of the Philistines. It is four days' 
journey from Acre to Gaza, visiting all the places afore- 
said. Going on from Gaza, one comes to a castle called 
Dar in Arabic, which is the last place in Syria as you go 
down into Egypt. Going this way, one leaves Jerusalem 
on the left hand, twenty miles off, or thereabouts. These 
are not the common pilgrim ways, but are good ones for 
seeing first Arabia and Egypt, and all that therein is. 
From the castle of Dar one goes to Egypt across the 
sandy desert in seven days. In this desert there is no lack 
of anything needful save only water, which can be well 
carried in skins on camels. Good Saracen inns may be 
found at the end of each day's journey, and all that one 
needs except wine. 

XXIX.— Of Egypt. 

After crossing this desert one comes into Egypt, on 
entering which one finds places of the greatest beauty and 
delight, full of all good things that the heart of man 
can conceive, and full of everything needful except wine. 
Travelling onward toward New Babylon^ one comes to a 
very beautiful and delightful village called Belyab, and so, 
leaving Alexandria and Damietta on the sea-shore, one 
goes along the highroad and comes to Carra (Cairo) and 
New Babylon, which are two exceeding great cities not far 
apart, standing on the Nile, the river of Paradise. The 
city which once vv^as called Carra (Cairo) is now called 
Alcayre. In this city of old dwelt Pharaoh when he 
persecuted the Hebrews. Herein also signs and wonders 

^ ' New Babylon was a fortress, built by Babylonian exiles over 
against Memphis in the time of the Persian kings' (Strabo, xvii. i). 
— Dr. F. Deycks. But most mediaeval writers call Cairo 'Babylon' 
without any reservation. 



were wrought by Moses and Aaron, as the Bible testifies. 
Near Carra (Cairo) on a mount, not high, but rocky, 
stands the Soldan's palace, and there are very many other 
strange and wondrous things. Above all, in these two 
cities one sees elephants and gryphons. You must know 
that Cairo is bigger than Babylon, and is not two cross- 
bow-shots distant from it ; for Babylon stands on the bank 
of the Nile, but Cairo stands a little way off the Nile. 
Now, Cairo is bigger than Babylon, for I have heard from 
merchants that they reckoned Cairo to be seven times as 
big as Paris. In Cairo there are low buildings like ovens ; 
in them are furnaces, wherein eggs are laid upon dung, and 
by this heat chickens are hatched and come forth from the 
eggs. The master then takes them and gives them to an 
old woman, who nurses and cherishes the chickens in her 
bosom, even as a hen does beneath its wings, and feeds 
them and takes care of them. There are numberless old 
women in those parts who have no means of livelihood 
save by nursing and taking care of chickens, wherefore the 
fowls there are like the sands of the sea for number. A 
countryman often drives five or six thousand fowls to 
market once a week, even as a shepherd drives his sheep, 
and he takes a camel or some other beast with panniers, 
which he fills with the eggs laid by the fowls on the way, 
and when he comes into the market set apart for fowls, he 
never loses one single fowl, neither do one man's fowls 
ever mix themselves with another's, which is indeed 
wonderful, when so many thousand fowls all meet together 
in one place. Moreover, near Babylon there is an exceed- 
ing fertile place with very rich pasture, called Goshen, 
where the patriarch Jacob dwelt at the instance of Joseph 
in Pharaoh's time, as the Bible tells us. 



XXX. — Of the Garden of Balsam.^ 

Moreover, near Cairo, on the side toward the Syrian 
desert, is the Garden of Balsam, which is half a stone's- 
throw across, and not very strongly walled or fenced about. 
In this garden there are five wells, which water the shoots 
and shrubs of balsam, and each shoot or shrub has its own 
especial guardian, who cleanses it, dresses it, and washes it 
as carefully as he does his own body. These shoots or 
shrubs of balsam do not grow so high as two ells, and have 
a threefold leaf. At the beginning of March, when the 
time of its ripening is at hand, it is watched yet more 
carefully, and when it is ripe the shoots and shrubs are cut 
and wounded, like as vines are pruned, and their wounds 
and cuts are bound up with muslin. From these wounded 
shoots the balsam drips out, as water does from a cut 
vine, and oozes into the muslin bound round the wound. 
Beneath each wounded branch and bandage there hangs a 
silver cup, into which the best balsam drops. ^ 

Thus the tree is cut when the balsam runs; at that time 
the Soldan of Babylon is very busy, being himself present 
in the garden, and so carefully does he guard it that no one 
but he himself can obtain a drop of balsam by any means. 
But when the legates and ambassadors of certain kings and 
princes come from foreign parts, he gives each of them a 

^ This account of the Garden of Balsam is word for word the same 
as that of John of Hildesheim in his ' History of the Three Kings.' 
With regard to the properties attributed to balsam, the curious reader 
may compare H. Crombach's account of myrrh in ' Primitiae Gentium, 
sive Historia S.S. Trium Magorum,' torn, ii., chap. xli. 

2 The Berlin MS. Diez C, marked ' A' by Dr. Deycks, has here the 
words, ' As may be seen in the figure of this tree/ and a coloured 
picture of the balsam-tree, which has three large and three small 
boughs, from each ot which hangs a silver cup with a red spot in the 



little glass phial, made specially for this purpose, with 
balsam therein, which he thinks to be the richest jewel that 
he could give. Afterwards, when all the (true and good) 
balsam has thus oozed out, the guardians of the shrubs cut 
off the ends of the shoots, which belong to them, boil them 
in water, and then whatever balsam was left in the tops of 
the shoots boils out like fat, and swims upon the top of the 
water like oil, whence it is taken up with a spoon, put into 
a vessel, and left to stand for some time. Even this 
balsam is of great value, albeit it has been boiled, and it is 
of a reddish colour, with some mixture of black ; but the 
crude balsam which drips forth naturally is of the colour 
of wine.i And you must know that crude balsam is the 
most precious jewel in the world, wherefore the holy 
patriarchs were wont to mix it with holy oil for anointing, 
and whatsoever flesh is touched with crude balsam never 
rots or corrupts, and when it is dripping fresh from the 
tree, if a drop be placed in a man's hand, it will drip 
through on the other side and pass through his hand. 
Moreover, if four or five drops of crude balsam be put into 
a man's eyes, which are going blind through lack of mois- 
ture, old age, or any other infirmity, straightway his eyes 
will for ever remain exactly as they were at the instant 
when the balsam was poured in, getting neither better nor 
worse ; wherefore, in one way it is a perilous venture to 
try, unless a man altogether despairs of his sight. This 
fact is clearly shown in many corpses of great men of old 
which have been found entirely uncorrupt, because they 
have been anointed with balsam. Likewise, if the scar of 
a new wound, when it is beginning to heal, be rubbed round 
once a day with half a drop of balsam on a pencil, it 
straightway restores the skin of the wound as it was before, 
and makes no blemish, and no one can see that there ever 
^ See Sir John Maundeville, chap. v. 



was a scar in the place. Moreover, this boiled balsam is 
an exceeding noble drug, and is very good for the scars of 
wounds, as aforesaid ; it is especially good when a man 
falls down from a high place, for then if he takes some of 
it his whole body, which was broken inside, would be 
restored and made whole again. It has also much power 
over the eyes, and is good for anointing flesh meat that it 
may not decay. But in all and every way it has less power 
than crude balsam ; for it is forced out by boiling, whereas 
the crude balsam oozes out naturally. You must know 
that only Christian men are able to tend and keep the 
Garden of Balsam, for if other men were to tend and keep 
it they would straightway shrivel up and die, as hath often 
been proved. The Blessed Virgin Mary^ dwelt with the 
Boy Jesus in the place where the Garden of Balsam now 
is, when she fled into Egypt from before the face of Herod ; 
and she constantly washed her sheets and clothes and Jesus 
in the fountains which water the garden, for which cause it 
is thought of a truth that the balsam grows here, for as far 
as we know it is found nowhere else in all the world.'^ It 
would take long to tell of the other virtues and glories of 
balsam, neither can I recall them to my mind. In my 
time, among the Christian guardians, there were four Ger- 
mans, one from Schwartzenburg, who once had been a 

^ Fabri, vol. iii., p. 2 (part ii., p. 746), came to the village of Busiris, 
where his dragoman took the party into the castle of the village, 
wherein are the Lord Soldan's hot baths, and summer palace, near the 
Fountain of the Sun, which is the Fountain of the Blessed Virgin, 
adjoining which is the Garden of Balsam. The pilgrims' lodging had 
windows overlooking the garden, which he describes at length. 

Fabri declares that the Queen of Sheba brought balsam to Solomon, 
who planted it in the vineyard of Engaddi : ' Botrus cypri in vinea 
Engaddi,' Cant. i. 14. ' Cyprus,' which the A.V. translates ' camphire,' 
seems to have been thought in the Middle Ages to refer to the island. 
Consequently a 'vineyard of Engaddi' was established there by the 



renegade, and one other, a one-eyed man named Nicholas, 
who was a very good man, as the Christian captives bore 
witness. He was taken captive at Acre, but the Soldan 
set him free because of his goodness, and made him guard 
the steps of his bedchamber. 

XXXI.— The Christians and the Ancient Tombs. 

You must know that in Babylon and Cairo, in my time, 
there were about four thousand Christian captives, not 
counting children. These men have there a Patriarch, 
priests, churches, and very many venerable relics of the 
saints ; above all, they have the entire body of St. Bar- 
bara^ the virgin, for which in my time many kings and 
princes begged, but out of consideration for the comfort of 
the captive Christians the Soldan never so much as cut off 
one limb from her body. The Christian captives there 
merrily keep St. Barbara's Eve,^ just as in these parts 
people keep St. Martin's Eve, sending to one another the 
seeds of divers plants. Near New Babylon, on the other 
side of the Nile, toward the Egyptian desert, stand many 
tombs of wondrous size, and one of great beauty, built of 
great squared stones. Among these are two exceeding 
great square sepulchres, once of great beauty. On one of 
them there are many inscriptions carved, in Latin on one 
wall, in Greek on another, in Hebrew on the third, and in 
Chaldean and many unknown tongues on the fourth. On 
the first wall, where the writings are in Latin, these verses 

^ ' Item alia ecclesia beatae Barbaras virginis, qua corpus ipsius in 
parvo monumento marmoreo conservatur.' — Wilhelm von Boldinsel, 
chap. iii.. Fabri somewhere remarks that he had seen so many relics 
of St. Barbara that he thought that there must have been more than 
one saint of that name. 

2 See John of Hildesheim's 'Historia trium Regum,' p. 154, in the 
Early English Text Society's edition, by C. Horstmann ; Triibner, 1886. 
Also p. 280 in the Latin version at the end. 


are carved, as far as they can be read, because of their age, 
as follows : 

' Vidi pyramidas sine te, dulcissime frater, 
Et tibi quod potui lacrimas hie moesta profudi. 
Et nostri memorem luctus banc sculpo querelam — 
S(c)it nomen Decimi Anni pyramidis alta, 
Pontificis, comitisque tuis, Trajane, triumphis 
Lustra sex intra censoris consulis esse.'^ 

' Alone ^ alas ! the Pyraniida I sec^ 
And can but weep, my brothe?' dear, for thee. 
Upon the stone Pve sadly carved thy name, 
The greatest Pyramid now knows the fame 
Of Anniiis Dccimiis, who fought for Rome 
With Trajan, and retimied in triumph home, 
Who, e'en before his thirtieth birthday passed. 
Was Pontiff, Consul, Censor, too, at lastJ 

The interpretation of these verses I leave to the discreet 
reader's judgment. These tombs are called by the natives 
Pharaoh's granaries,^ and very many other wonders are to 
be seen in and near Babylon. As I have heard from many 
truthful men and merchants, ancient Babylon, where the 
tower of Babel was, is some thirty days' journey distant 
from thir Babylon, to the north-east, in Chaldaea, near 
Baldach. And you must know that, after having dili- 
gently for a space of five years conversed by day and by 
night with all men who could speak any human language, 
and after making daily inquiries of divers people, from all 
of whom I got some information, I was nevertheless never 
able to" make out from any living creature any more about 
ancient Babylon, where the tower Babel was, than here 

^ These verses are quoted, with slight variations, by W. von Boldin- 
sc), who reads 'Cetianni' in line 4, whence Dr. C. L. Grotefend, his 
editor, conjectures that the person alluded to may have been D. Titianus, 
who was Consul a.d. 127. Fabri says, ii. 89^ (vol. iii., p. 43), that he 
saw these verses, and gives an almost identical version of them. 

2 Fabri, vol. iii., p. 67 ; ' Speculum Historiale,' book v., chap. i. 



XXXII.— Ancient Babylon, or Baldach. 

In Eastern Chaldaca there is an exceeding fair and noble 
city, powerful beyond measure, and at this day one of the 
best of all the cities of the East, named Baldach.^ It 
stands on the banks of the Euphrates, one of the rivers of 
Paradise, and they who dwell there say and believe that 
half a mile or thereabouts from it stood ancient Babylon. 
This also is proved by the vast ruins and immense piles of 
buildings of divers sorts, and of stones, which have a strange 
aspect from a distance, especially at the place where the 
tower of Babel stood, where th-e confusion of tongues arose. 
Another proof lies in the impassable road between the 
ruins and Baldach, by reason of the venomous creatures ; 
and many other signs show that ancient Babylon stood 
there, as the inhabitants do most firmly believe : for be- 
cause of those venomous creatures ancient Babylon was 
removed, and called by another name, to wit, Baldach. I 
can tell nothing else that is true concerning old Babylon, 
nor could I ever learn anything more about it from anyone 
in those parts. In this city of Baldach there are now the 
richest and best merchants under heaven, neither is there 
in any place in the East so much and so many different 
kinds of merchandise as there. In this city used to dwell 
the Caliph, that is, the successor of Mahomet, to whom 
the Saracens render obedience in all things, even as do the 
Christians to the Pope, the successor of St. Peter. I will 
tell you somewhat about the loss of this city of Baldach, 

^ ' Dr. Rock (" Textile Fabrics," p. 40) derives the word " Baudekin," 
" Baldakinus,'"' from Ealdak or Bagdad, which " held for no short length 
of time the lead all over Asia in weaving fine silks, and, in special, 
golden stuffs.'"' — 'St. Paul's Cathedral,' by W. Sparrow Simpson, D.D. 
London : E. Stock, 1894. ' Baudekin : tissue or cloth of gold, with 
figures embroidered in silk (old statute).' — Bailey's Dictionary. 
Littrd, s.v. ' baldaquin,' gives the same etymology. 



according as I have read thereof in the chroniclesi and 
histories of the kings of Armenia, and have heard from a 
right truthful knight who was there at the time. In the 
year of our Lord 1268, when the Tartars had conquered all 
the kingdoms of the East, Ayco, the then King of Armenia, 
of his own accord proceeded to the great Khan, the Em- 
peror of the Tartars, to visit him. Ayco was kindly re- 
ceived by him, because so great and singular an honour 
had been shown him, that kings should of their own accord 
visit him and come to meet him^ whereat he was much 
pleased, and honoured the king with many presents. In 
process of time, when the King of Armenia was about to 
return home, he asked the Emperor to grant him five 
boons. First, that the Emperor and all his people should 
become Christians ; second, that there might always be 
peace between the Tartars and Armenians ; third, that 
he would destroy all the churches of Mahomet and con- 
secrate them in honour of God ; fourth, that he would aid 
him to recover the Holy Land and restore it to the Chris- 
tians ; and fifth, that he would besiege Baldach and destroy 
and bring to nought the Caliph, the successor of Mahomet, 
and his name. To all these demands the Emperor wil- 
lingly agreed and consented, and fulfilled them in every 
respect, save only the fourth demand, which was hindered 
by his death. With regard to the fifth demand, that he 
should destroy Baldach and the Caliph, he charged his 
brother Haloon,^ who then had conquered Persia, that as 
soon as he had settled the kingdom of Persia, and pro- 

^ He probably alludes to ' Haithoni Armeni Historia Orientalis' in 
vol, ii. of Vincent of Beauvais's ' Fragmenta.' 

2 Marco Polo calls him ' Houlagou Khan.' He tells the story of how 
Houlagou offered the Caliph gold to eat, and probably it was from his 
book that Ludolph copied it. Marino Sanuto improves the story by 
saying that 'Halao' poured liquid gold down the Caliph's throat to 
reproach him for his avarice. 



vided for its safe-keeping, he should join the King of 
Armenia in besieging Baldach. This he willingly did, and 
had no sooner settled the affairs of Persia than he removed 
himself to the great city of Nineveh, rested during the 
winter, and when the month of March came, went with the 
King of Armenia to Baldach and besieged the Caliph. 
He charged his four chief captains, each of whom had 
thirty thousand Tartars under him, to besiege Baldach 
without ceasing until they should take the city, which was 
done ; for they took the city on the thirtieth day, slew all 
the inhabitants, both young men and old alike, and won 
such rich spoils of gold, silver, precious stones, and other 
kinds of wealth, as no one ever was heard to have taken in 
any city whatsoever. Indeed, out of these spoils the whole 
of Tartary has been made rich even to this day, and there 
is not now in Tartary a single gold or silver cup that has 
not been brought thither from Baldach. Now, when all 
were slain or captured, they took the Caliph alive, and 
offered him to Haloon, with all his treasure, which was so 
great that Haloon feared to look upon it, and in wonder 
said to the Caliph, ' How comes it, wretched man, that 
thou hast so great a treasure, which I fear even to look 
upon With it thou mightest have overcome the whole 
world, and oughtest to have brought it under thy yoke. 
Wherefore didst thou not hire enough troops to defend thy 
city ?' The Caliph answered, ' Evil counsel brought this 
ruin upon me ; for they said that even women could easily 
defend the city against the Tartars.' Then said Haloon, 
' Behold, thou art Mahomet's successor, and the teacher 
of his law ; I dare not do thee any hurt, neither is it fitting 
that thou shouldest live or eat like other men, for out of 
thy mouth proceeds the law and doctrine of Mahomet.' 
He ordered him to be placed in a fair palace, and poured 
out before him gold and silver, precious stones, and pearls, 


saying to him, ' Mouth, from whence proceeds so great a 
law and doctrine, it befits thee to eat such precious food 
as this.' So the Cah'ph was shut up in the palace, and on 
the twelfth day was found dead of hunger ; and after him 
no Caliph, successor to Mahomet, has arisen in Baldach, 
even to this day. At present the Emperor of the Tartars 
rules in Baldach, but its inhabitants are chiefly Saracens 
dwelling under an exceeding heavy tribute. In these parts 
I have heard and read many falsehoods about Baldach ; for 
in these parts men have said, in short, and have had it in 
writing, that the King of Baldach sent letters to the lords 
of those parts, and invited them to jousts and tournaments, 
which is utterly false. There is no man that can remember 
jousts or tournaments ever to have been held in Baldach, 
for the people occupy themselves with other things. Near 
Baldach, at a distance of four days' journey, is another 
city, which once was called Susa, wherein Ahasuerus 
flourished. This city, which once was called Susa, is now 
called Thaurus. In this city there is a dry tree, whereof it 
is said that the Emperor of the Romans is fated to hang his 
shield thereon. 1 The people of this city say that no Jew 
can live or sojourn therein. Not far from Thaurus is 
another city, named Cambeleth, which also belongs to the 
Emperor of the Tartars, and it is said that that city is 
richer and better than all the realm of the Soldan. 

XXXIIL— Of the River Nile. 

But to return to my subject : the Nile, one of the rivers 
of Paradise, flows through Egypt near New Babylon and 
Damietta_, and falls into the Mediterranean Sea near Alex- 
andria. It is bigger and wider than the Rhine, and is very 

' Dicitur quod Imperalor Romanorum in ea clipeum suum pendere 


muddy, because it sometimes runs into the ground or into 
mountains, and is not seen again for two or three miles, 
and then comes out of the earth again and enters it again, 
until it comes to Egypt, where it flows straight on. It 
contains excellent and very fat fishes, and its water is ex- 
ceeding wholesome ; when first drawn out, it is warm, but 
when it is put in a jar in the sun it becomes cool, and 
greatly helps digestion. The sources of this river have 
never been discovered, beyond what the Holy Scripture^ 
says thereof, albeit attempts have often been made. In 
my time the Soldan kept swimmers who were able to sup- 
port themselves in the water as naturally as fish. The 
Soldan promised these men great rewards if they would 
discover the source of the river, and would bring him a 
green bough of aloes-wood for a sign. These swimmers 
went away once upon a time, and did not return for three 
or four years. Some of them died on the way, and those 
who returned said that at last the river came down from 
the mountains with such great force that they could do 
nothing at all against it. In this river there is an evil 
beast called a crocodile, which is exceeding strong, fierce, 
and swift, and does much hurt to those who dwell near 
him, and to their beasts, and for fear of him it is dangerous 
to sail upon the Nile. This beast is very great. I have 
seen a crocodile's skin through which an ox might easily 
pass. I have been told by a certain Knight Templar that 
once upon a time the Templars caught a young crocodile 
and drew his teeth, and that a stone which ten men could 
not move was tied to his tail, and he drew it alone up to a 
building that was being made. Yet he is slain by a little 
worm, which naturally hates him, and follows him whither- 
soever he goes. The crocodile swallows him, together 

^ Under the name ofGihon, Gen. ii. 13. 



with other food, and then the worm pierces the crocodile's 
heart and slays him. There are likewise many other evil 
beasts in the Nile. 

XXXIV.— Of the Land of Egypt. 
Now, the land of Egypt is very rich, pleasant, and de- 
lightful, abounding beyond all other lands in the world in 
trees, fruits, herbs, meadows, and pastures. It is fifteen 
days' journey long, and three days' journey wide, and is, I 
have been told, like an island, surrounded by the desert 
upon three of its sides, and bounded by the Grecian Sea upon 
the fourth side. This desert is seven or eight days' journey 
wide in its narrowest part. Egypt is an exceeding hot 
country, so that winter there can scarce be distinguished 
from summer, and roses and other flowers never, or scarce 
ever, cease blooming, albeit it never rains there. Its people 
have two brazen columns with marks thereon. One of these 
they have set up in the middle of the Nile near Babylon, 
and the other in the Nile near Alexandria, and when the 
river rises so high as to touch the marks on the columns, 
then there cannot be any scarcity for two years to come. 
Thereupon the Egyptians lead the waters of the Nile 
through ditches and channels and passages, and cause 
them to run about their land, their fields, woods, gardens, 
and orchards, which are then refreshed and watered 
throughout, and when the land has been thus watered at 
night, the corn and grass will have grown more than a 
hand's breadth by morning. At that time the Egyptians 
keep watch all that night beside the waters, until all the 
land is watered. Every year this river begins to rise thus 
in the month of August, and waxes every day until the 
Feast of St. Michael, and makes the most desert land 
abound with delights and fertility. While the Nile is 
rising thus, the people catch all kinds of trees, herbs, and 



little birds therein, with nets, more especially aloes-wood 
and the little birds called parroquets. But where this 
wood comes from no man has ever found out. It seems 
that these are old trees, dried up by age, which fall into 
the water from the mountains. At that time they also 
take in the Nile shittim wood, which cuts up well like 
other woods, but cannot be burned. The little green par- 
roquet birds^ are caught together with the boughs and trees 
whereon they live, as aforesaid. Some say that they are 
born in the mountains of Gilboa, which is false ; and they 
say, too, that they cannot endure water, which also is false, 
for they are bred upon islands and on the water, and I 
have seen them swimming on the sea ; but they cannot 
well endure cold, neither can they keep on flying or swim- 
ming for long. This river Nile also has very rich islands 
in it, abounding in crops and other good things. In Egypt 
also there are countless fowls, as you have heard already, 
which are hatched in ovens and in the sun's rays. Like- 
wise in Egypt there are numberless partridges, more than 
all the birds^ in this country, and this seems very strange, 
though there it is common. For sometimes a countryman 
brings ten thousand partridges with him to market, all of 
them flying, and when the countryman sits down on the 
ground they all stop with him, and when he rises and claps 
his hands they all fly along with him again. If he loses 
any of them some way off, he whistles with a pipe, and 
they straightway come back ; and when he comes to the 
poultry market in the city, he sells as many of them as he 
can, and takes those which he cannot sell home again with 
him. A wonderful number of pigeons also are to be seen 

^ Haitho, the Armenian, in his ' Historia Orientalis,' chap, v., 'De 
Regno Indiae,' mentions ' aves qui vocantur papagai.' 

2 Isa. xviii. i calls Egypt ' a land shadowing with wings ' ; but this is 
usually interpreted to be an allusion to the sails of vessels on the Nile. 



in Egypt, and I do not believe that in any place in the 
world there are so many pigeons as in Egypt. It is alto- 
gether forbidden to catch them, for the Soldan and other 
princes send all their messages by carrier pigeons, wherefore 
in a short time they know the news and secrets of distant 
lands. In Egypt also there are numberless deer, so that 
the fawns of deer and of goats may be found on the roads 
and in gardens like domestic sheep, and are caught and 
sold by they who pass by. In Egypt also, even at this 
day, many cloisters and monasteries, churches and hermit- 
ages, are standing entire, but deserted, and excellently well 
painted, but their paintings have been in many ways 
spoiled by the Saracens. Likewise in the Egyptian deserts 
there stand at this day so many cells and hermitages of 
holy fathers, that in some places, I believe, for two or 
three (German) miles there is one at every bow-shot. At 
the present day very many of them are inhabited by Indians, 
Nubians, and Syrians, living under the rule of St. Antony 
and St. Macarius. In these deserts God hath wrought 
great miracles by the hands of the holy fathers, and es- 
pecially at the place called Stichi,^ by the hands of St. 
Antony and St. Macarius, as is told in the ' Lives of the 
Fathers.' In this desert there is a place beneath an ex- 
ceeding tall and narrow rock, wherein St. Antony used to 
dwell, and from out of that rock there flows a stream for 
half a stone's-throw, until it is lost in the sand, even as 
running water flows into snow and is seen no more. This 
place is visited by many for devotion and pleasure, and also 
by the grace of God and in honour of St. Antony many 
sicknesses are healed and driven away by this fountain. It 
is believed to have flowed forth from the rock at his especial 
prayer, which is clearly true, for it appears to flow no 

^ Solitiidinem Sceie sive SciiJii. Life of St. Macarius in ' Acta 



further than was enough to give water to his little cell and 
little garden. It would take long to tell of the other 
glories of Egypt, its fertility and its beauty ; but I may 
add that all sheep, goats, and the like beasts bear young 
ones twice in the year, and for the most part bear twins at 
each birth. In Egypt there are three exceeding great 
cities, which stand beside the Nile, the river of Paradise ; 
that is to say, New Babylon, Alexandria, and Damietta. 
This city was of old called Rages,^ afterwards Edissa, and 
now Damietta. It was to this city that Tobit^ of yore sent 
his son to Gabael. In this city also the body of St. Thomas 
once lay, and through him God wrought many miracles in 
the same. In this city^ also was the letter which Jesus 
sent to Abgarus, King of this city, wherefore no heretic or 
infidel was suffered to remain long therein. But afterwards 
for the sins of the people the city was profaned, and thus 
at this day it has all been brought to nought. At this day 
the city has been removed further inland away from the 
Nile. It was often taken away from the Saracens by St. 
Louis, the King of the French, and other Christians. But 
St. Louis was taken prisoner there, and for his ransom the 
city was given back to the Saracens. Now, since the 
Saracens had heard that none but Christians could live in 
the city, they removed the city to another place out of 
hatred for them. At this day the city is chiefly inhabited 
by fishermen, and very many merchants come together 

1 ' Regnum Mesopotamiae dilalatur usque ad flumen Euphratem et 
civitatem Rohais, quae fuit civitas regni Abagari, ad quern fuit trans- 
missa Veronica, quae hodie Romae invenitur.' — Haython, chap. xii. 

2 Tobit V. 7. The city to which Tobit sent his son was Rhey, near 
Teheran, in Persia. 

3 He has just told us that Damietta was otherwise called Edissa ; 
he now confuses it with Edessa (Orfa) in Upper Mesopotamia. 
Marino Sanuto knew where Edessa was, but identified it with Rages 
(book iii., part vii , chap. i.). 




there with their ships, and buy great quantities of fish 
exceeding cheap, which they export to all parts of the 
world. Many other wonders may be read of about this 

XXXV.— Of the Desert and of Mount Sinai. 

But to return to my subject : going on from Cairo and 
Babylon one reaches Sinai in twelve days, for six of which 
one passes along the road whereof I have just told you, 
which is full of people, and where there are many things to 
be seen ; and for six days one passes over the desert, and 
must carry all things needful upon camels and beasts of 
burden — to wit, bread, wine, water, meat, biscuits, grapes 
and raisins, figs, and the like, and, above all, mats to sleep 
on at night. You must know that the camels, who pass 
that way every day, know exactly the length of a day's 
journey and the proper resting-places, and when they 
come to those places in the evening they lie down on the 
ground to chew the cud, and will go no further, which is 
as much as to say to you that this is the proper day's 
journey and halting-place ; and then they are fed with 
bread and thorns. A camel is easily fed, and scarce drinks 
once in three days, whereas if they had to be foraged in 
proportion to their size, no man could cross the desert 
with them. After you have crossed the desert you come 
to the Red Sea, and you must know that the desert is 
nought but salt and sandy ground, burnt exceeding dry 
by the sun's heat, and it is rare to find any green thing 
therein. Howbeit, the desert is not barren in all parts 
alike, and it is a wondrous thing that whereas its rocks and 
mountains are very salt, yet the fountains which gush forth 
therein are very sweet, and are most excellent to drink. 
Beside these fountains are grass and herbs and the like 
green things. Near them also one finds the tracks of 


lions, dragons, and other dangerous beasts, and especially 
of hares. When one has crossed this desert in six days 
and beheld its wonders, one comes to the Red Sea, as 
aforesaid, when coming from Babylon. The Red Sea has 
excellent fishes in large quantities. Its water is not red, 
but the earth and bottom thereof is red ; the water appears 
red to one looking down upon it because of the red bottom, 
but at a distance it is of the same colour as other water, 
and its water is exceeding clear and pellucid, so that a 
penny can be clearly seen on its bottom at a distance of 
twenty stadia, and then because of its red bottom and the 
clearness of its water it looks like the clearest red wine. 
One finds much coral_, many precious stones, and other 
things, cast up on its shores. The Red Sea lies in Arabia, 
and all the land of Arabia is red, wherefore because of this 
redness what things soever grow or are born therein, 
save only men, are red. For this cause the purest gold 
is found there, like slender roots. Moreover, in the Red 
Sea there are many islands, wherein grow red woods of 
divers kinds, chief among which is found what is called 
here Brazil^ wood. The Red Sea is not very big, neither 
long nor wide, and at the place where the children of Israel 
passed over it is scarcely four or five miles wide. In the 
Red Sea there is a castle belonging to the Soldan, wherein 
noble Christian captives are imprisoned. Moreover, this 
castle keeps guard lest any Latin or man from this side of 
the sea or born in these parts should pass by it to India, 
lest they should bring home any tidings of the power and 
condition of the people in parts beyond the sea, or of 
Prester John and the Indians, or carry letters to them ; 
for it would be easy to sail down the Red Sea to the 
ocean and to India if this castle did not stand in the 
way. But the Indians and Eastern merchants may pass 
^ Fabri, ii. 656. 



that way as often as they please. Howbeit I know 
bishops and lords who are ever wont to send accounts of 
this part of the East, and all kinds of news, across the 
Red Sea to Prester John. The men of this castle are wont 
to make great nets of leathern thongs, and cast them into 
the sea. Then they let the coral, which grows in the sea 
like a plant, entangle itself among the thongs, and every 
half-year they pull it up full of countless and most splendid 
corals, whereby they make vast gain all for nothing. 
Through this Red Sea comes much precious merchandise 
from India, and this is taken through that branch of the 
sea which runs out of the Red Sea, and down the Nile to 
all parts of the world. As I have said already, by going 
thus round about the shore of the Red Sea one comes to 
the place where the children of Israel crossed over the sea 
when pursued by the Egyptians, and on this journey one 
finds many rare things of divers sorts on the beach. Thus, 
after leaving many mountains behind, and seeing many 
wondrous sights, one comes to the well of Marah,^ where 
the water was salt when the children of Israel passed that 
way, and by casting in wood was at God's bidding made 
sweet. Going on from Marah through various places, after 
seeing and leaving behind many mountains, one comes to 
Elim,^ where when the children of Israel passed that way 
there were seventy palm-trees and twelve wells. This 
place is very fertile and very beautiful ; one can also see 
that many cells of holy fathers and hermitages once stood 
near it. Leaving Elim, one comes into the wilderness of 
Sin, to Mount Sinai. An exceeding great and fair convent 
has been built at the foot of this mountain, in the place 
where Moses saw the burning bush which was not con- 
sumed, and God spoke to him out of the bush ; it is roofed 
with lead, fenced with iron doors, and well fortified in every 
' Exod, XV. 23. 2 Exod. xv. 27. 


way. In it are more than four hundred Greek, Georgian, 
and Arab monks, both clerical and lay, who do not always 
abide in the monastery, but are scattered abroad here and 
there, working at the business affairs of the monastery. 
By great toil they get what is needful both for themselves 
and for pilgrims, and right faithfully distribute the same to 
pilgrims ; they live most devout, strict, and chaste lives, in 
humble obedience to their Archbishop and prelates, dwelling 
in all holiness and righteousness in all things. They rarely 
drink wine save on especial feast-days, never eat flesh, but 
feed on salads, vegetables, beans, dates, and the like, with 
water, vinegar, and salt, in one refectory without table- 
furniture. They most devoutly celebrate Divine service 
daily and nightly according to their rite, and in all things 
follow the rule of St. Antony. The lay brethren work 
very hard, burning charcoal on the mountains, and bring- 
ing dates from Elim in great quantities on the backs of 
camels and beasts of burden to Babylon, where they sell 
them, and there ample alms and presents are made to them 
by the Christians and merchants dwelling there. Without 
this so many people could not support themselves in a 
desert place, nor could they afford the costly hospitality 
which they so liberally and kindly bestow upon pilgrims ; 
but they fetch dates from Elim and charcoal from the 
mountains, a distance of more than twelve days' journey, 
and sell them, as I have told you already. In this monas- 
tery stands an exceeding fair church, which they keep very 
clean within, and light with many lamps and lights of 
divers kinds, and hold in especial reverence the place 
where the high altar stands. They put off their shoes 
before entering this place, and make pilgrims who wish to 
enter it put off their shoes likewise ; for in the place where 
the high altar now is once stood the burning bush, out of 
which God said unto IMoses, ' Put off thy shoes from thy 



feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.'^ 
In this church, on the right-hand side of the high altar, but 
in a higher place, stands a kind of chest of white marble, 
wherein are placed and enclosed the head and the bones of 
the glorious virgin Catharine, mixed together in disorder, 
which bones were translated thither from the top of Mount 
Sinai. This head and bones are displayed very solemnly by 
the Archbishop and other prelates of the monastery, with 
censers, candles, and acolytes ; and at these times the 
Saracen guides and camel-drivers and grooms who come 
with the pilgrims earnestly beg that they, too, may be 
allowed to see these holy and wondrous bones, and kneel 
with the greatest devotion by the side of the Christians. 
When the bones are thus being shown to the pilgrims, if 
there be a bishop or other prelate among the pilgrims, 
then the Archbishop or chief prelate of the monastery 
takes one of the holy bones in his hand, and rubs it hard 
with a silver instrument shaped like a rod, whereupon oil^ 
bursts forth from the pores like sweat. In the chest 
wherein the holy bones are enclosed, there has been formed 
in one corner a cavity into which all the oil that runs out 
of all the bones flows and gathers. There is always a 
silver spoon in this cavity, which the prelate who shows 
the bones takes in his hand, fills little glass phials with the 
oil, and gives each pilgrim a little phial with oil therein. 
Moreover, in this monastery there are very many other 
venerable relics, yet the monks of the monastery could not 
exist there save by the especial grace of God, for divers 
reasons caused by the instigation of the devil. For this 
cause there never is any jealousy or discord among them, 
but they are in favour with all who see them, as well 
with Saracens as with Christians, and especially with the 
Soldan, who is wont to bestow great alms upon them. 
' Exod. iii. 5. - Anon., i. 3. 



So in their labours and continual passage over the desert 
they never are hurt by any dangers or by fierce beasts, 
neither are they troubled or made sick either in summer 
or winter by unseasonable weather or excessive heat of the 
sun. They have even, I believe, obtained an especial 
grace, whereby certain unclean creatures, such as flies, 
wasps, hornets, fleas, and the like, cannot live there, or 
enter the walls of the convent.^ A monk of that convent 
of rare learning told me that once upon a time, at the 
instigation of the devil and by Divine permission, these 
creatures did them as much harm as they could, and they 
suffered so many and such grievous torments and molesta- 
tions from unclean creatures of this sort, that they even 
thought of leaving the place, but by the holy counsel of 
one of the monks they took courage, and prayed to God 
that of His mercy He would drive away and remove all 
such creatures from them. This prayer was straightway 
granted by Him, and from that time forth they have never 
noticed any such creatures whatsoever within the walls of 
the monastery, albeit without the walls they do most 
grievous hurt both to men and beasts. Moreover, it has 
often been proved that such unclean creatures when carried 
alive within the walls die straightway. All these privileges 
the brethren have obtained by their holy and righteous 
lives, for they do not serve the pilgrims for money or out 
of greed, but to all who come thither and for as long as 
they please to stay there, whether they be rich or poor, 
high or low, the brethren give all that they themselves 
have, simply and kindly, in God's name ; and should any- 
one offer to give them, or any one of them, any present, 
they altogether refuse and reject it, and should any one of 
them take it, he would be severely punished. So also 
when the pilgrims are leaving them they most kindly, and 
^ Sir John Maundeville, chap. v. ; Fabri, ii. 551. 



without any charge, give each one of them loaves of bread, 
beans, and the like, according to the best of their abihty, 
for each day of his journey, until he shall reach the 
dwellings of men, and this they do alike to rich and poor, 
high and low. These monks hold the Feast of St. Gregory 
the Pope in especial reverence above all other feasts, for 
during the time when he was head of the Church he 
supported them by gifts from the treasury of the Church, 
and encouraged them to dwell there, and from that time 
forth they have remained four hundred in number, though 
before they were few. 

Above this monastery towers Mount Sinai, up which one 
climbs by many steps with greater toil than words can 
express. At the top of this mount a church stands on the 
spot where God said to Elijah the prophet, 'What dost 
thou here, Elijah as we read in the Book of Kings. 
Near this there is another chapel in the place where the 
law was given to Moses, and the glory of the Lord appeared 
to him. At this place there is still to be seen a cavity in 
the hard rock, wherein the image of Moses is engraved as 
in a seal. It was in this cavity that God stretched forth 
His right hand over Moses when He passed by in His 
majesty and showed Moses His hinder parts, because 
Moses could not abide the splendour of His face. It was 
to the top of another taller mountain beside a deep valley 
in the same place that the body of the glorious virgin 
Catharine was borne by angels from Alexandria, and 
miraculously discovered by the hermits who dwelt thereon. 
This same mount is most toilsomely climbed and visited, 
but on its top there is no chapel, or oratory, or dwelling, 
I suppose because the ascent is so difficult that human 
hands could not build anything there. But there may be 
seen the place where St. Catharine's body was found, 
where there is the mark of human shoulders on the rock, 



and this place is marked with stones. Upon this mount 

God wrought many wonders, all of which it would take 
long to tell. You must know that Mount Sinai exceeds 
all the other mountains of those parts in height, and, as I 
have said, one climbs it with exceeding great toil, more 
than any tongue can tell, up very many^ exceeding narrow 
steps cut out of the rock. On the side towards Egypt it 
loses the name of Sinai, and is called Horeb. From its 
top all the countries round about can be easily viewed, and 
at that height a man is greatly affected by the air ; from 
thence one can narrowly examine the Red Sea, Elim, the 
place where it rained manna upon the children of Israel, 
and all the other places in the neighbourhood. At the 
foot of the mount is a fair plain, whereon Moses used to 
feed the flock of his father-in-law Jethro, and there he saw 
the burning bush. It was on this plain also that Israel 
fought against Amalek,^ while Moses prayed with uplifted 
hands, and Joshua (Aaron) and Ur stayed up his hands. 
It was likewise on this plain that the children of Israel 
made themselves a molten calf, whereof the Bible tells us. 
On this plain also the fire consumed Nadab and Abihu,^ 
and many places may be seen round about it of which the 
Scriptures make mention. 

XXXVI. — Of the Wilderness of Sinai. 

From Mount Sinai one journeys on toward Syria across 
the wilderness in thirteen days, taking some provisions of 
one's own, and being given some by the convent. This 
wilderness is very bad and dangerous. It lies in Arabia, 
and all this land, whether it be habitable or desert, is called 

^ The ' Commemoratorium de Casis Dei^ says that there were 7,700 
steps. See Tobler's excellent note in his ' Descriptiones Terrae 
Sanctae,' p. 384. 

- Exod. xvii. 3 Lev. x. i. 



Arabia. In this wilderness there is exceeding great scarcity 
of water, and countless people dwell therein like wild beasts. 
They are called Bedouins, and move about in companies 
of hundreds and of thousands together, dwelling in tents 
made of felt or leather,^ and roaming to and fro about the 
wilderness with their cattle and beasts of burden, pasturing 
them in whatever places they can find water, though it 
be only a little, in wells and runnels, and living on the 
milk of their camels and flocks. They never eat bread, 
unless some pilgrims chance to give them some, or unless 
it be brought to them more than twelve days' journey ; for 
they neither sow nor reap, but live like wild beasts, and 
their faces are dreadful to look upon, black, and bearded ; 
they are very fierce and swift, and on the backs of their 
dromedaries they can go as far as they please in one day, 
seeking for the places where water may be found. They 
wind an exceeding long linen cloth round their heads 
because of the unbearable heat of the sun, and they use 
bows and arrows. In this wilderness water can scarce be 
found for two or three days' journey together, and in 
places where it is found on one day it will be dried up on 
another. Moreover, in this wilderness, in places which are 
altogether flat for one hour, in another hour a monstrous 
hill of sand^ may be heaped up and gathered together, first 
in one place and then in another, never continuing in one 
stay, wherefore the road across the wilderness can never 
be known save by the mountains, and from the Bedouins, ^ 
who know and understand the roads in the wilderness even 
as men know the way about their own houses. These^ 

' ' Sub tentoriis de filtris et pellibus.' Wilhelm von Boldinsel, as 
well as Ludolph, has these words. 

2 Fabri, ii. 469. 

3 'Parum curant de Soldano ; ipse tamen caute capitaneos eorum 
trahit ad se muneribus et hujusmodi, quia, ut dicitur, quando cultores 
hujus deserti vellent et pssent unanimes, possent /Egyptum et Syriam 
de facili occupare.' — W. \'o-n Boldinsel. 



Bedouins care nothing for the Soldan, and render him no 
obedience whatever ; but the Soldan cautiously tempts 
and quiets them with presents, even when they dwell far 
away from him ; for if they chose they could with the 
greatest ease conquer and ruin the whole of the Soldan's 
kingdom. The Virgin Mary crossed this wilderness with 
the Child Jesus, when she fled from Judaea from before the 
face of Herod, and all along the road whereby she is 
believed to have passed there grow dry roses which in these 
parts are called roses of Jericho. The Bedouins gather 
these roses in the wilderness and sell them to pilgrims for 
bread ; moreover, the Saracen women are very glad to have 
these roses by them, and when about to be delivered they 
drink the water which has been poured over the roses, and 
declare that they are most useful and valuable during 
pregnancy.^ In this wilderness there are many other 
perils, whereof it would take long to tell, from winds, 
sands, savage men, serpents, lions, dragons, and other 
venomous and dangerous beasts. Now, after crossing this 
wilderness, which lies to the southward, one comes to the 
beginning of the Promised Land, to a city, once fair but 
now deserted, called Beersheba. It appears that this city 
was once adorned with many fair churches, whereof some 
remain standing at this day. 

XXXVII.— Hebron, the Vale of Mambre, and 

Going on from Beersheba at mid-day, one comes to a 
fair and ancient city, still tolerably populous, named 
Hebron. On the side of a hill near this city there stands 
a fair church, wherein is the double cave^ wherein the 
three patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, are buried 

I John of Hildesheim, chap, xxiii. -- Gen. xxiii. 17. 



together with their wives. This church is held especially 
sacred by the Saracens, and they will not suffer any 
Christian to enter it, but let them pray at the door. They 
suffer Jews to enter, which in my time they paid money to 
do. Howbeit this church can be viewed by Christians 
both inside and out, and wathin it is whitewashed and 
well adorned with stones, and one goes downstairs as into 
a cellar, into the cave where the patriarchs and their wives 
are buried. Near Hebron is the field of whose earth 
Adam was made, and the more of that earth is dug up 
and carried away, the more it fills up of its own accord. 
This earth is carried away to distant lands, and some say 
that it is sold, but about that I know nothing for certain. 
Near Hebron also is the vale of Mambre, where Abraham 
sat at the door of his tent and saw three^ and worshipped one. 
In my time there were in Hebron three renegades, from 
the diocese of Minden, it was said. Two of them were 
esquires,'^ and the third was their servant. One of them 
carried water on his shoulders and sold it in the street, as 
is the custom in those parts ; another laboured with his 
hands and got his living as best he could; the third, who 
was their servant, was a soldier, because he was thought a 
better-looking fellow in every way by the Soldan's officers. 
When asked why they had renounced their faith, they 
replied that they had hoped that their lord would obtain 
riches and honour, but he had disappointed them, and they 
declared with groans that they would willingly steal away 
out of the country if they could ; for they were leading a 
most wretched life. They had not the heart to tell who they 

' Gen. xviii. i, 2. Compare W. von Boldinsel, chap. v. ; and Anon., 
vi., p. 38, note. 

2 Do)nicelli. I find in ' Littre's Dictionary,' ^ Damoiseaic : titre 
donne autrefois a un jeune gentilhomme qui n'dtait pas encore re9u 
chevaher. . . , Etym. anc. Liegois, dames heal ; Prov. donzel^ etc., etc., 
du has Latin doininicellus^ diminutifde doimnns, seigneur.' 


had formerly been. These three men were very friendly 
with a certain knight in those parts, named William de 
Bolensele {sic), who lay in over - sea parts before my 
time, and was greatly honoured there by the Soldan and 
other kings and princes. I have heard that he died at 
Cologne.^ Going on from Hebron, one easily reaches 
Bethlehem in one day. On this day's road once stood the 
monastery of St. Karioth the Abbot.- When the time of 
his dissolution was at hand, his monks, seeing him to be 
in the last agony, said, ' After the death of our Abbot St. 
Karioth, shall we live any longer upon earth And at 
that very word they all entered upon their last agony and 
died, and remained for a long time uncorrupt, standing 
as though in the death-agony, neither were the Saracens 
able to destroy them, albeit they often tried ; but now 
the convent is desolate, and no traces of them remain. 
Bethlehem is an exceeding fair and pleasant village, not a 
long one, standing upon a mountain ridge, and almost 
entirely inhabited by Christians. It abounds with pastures, 
grass, and herbs, and is well fenced by valleys all round 
about ; wherefore the King of Jerusalem and the Christians 
were always wont to gather together their armies there. 
Its people have abundance of wine and other good things. 
In Bethlehem^ stands a great and very fair church, most 

^ Wilhelm von Boldinsel landed at Tyre in 1332, was at Jerusalem 
on May 5, 1333, and wrote his book ia the spring of 1336. A letter of 
his, dated Avignon, Michaelmas Day, 1337, is extant, in which he 
states his intention of coming to Cologne. 

2 Anon., p. 62, note ; p. 72. 

3 ' Super tugurium et speluncam nativitatis domini Helena pul- 
cherrimam fundavit ecclesiam opere mosayco, marmoribus auro et 
vitro regaliter et ditissime ornatam, in modum castri cum propug- 
naculis factam ; sed non est testudinata, sed super ligna et tigna 
cedrina est plumbo cooperta. et in hac ecclesia ante chorum descen- 
ditur ad speluncam in qua Christus natus est, et non longe ab altari 
quod ibidem est, est presepium trium vel quatuor pedum, in quo 
Christus infantulus fuit reclinatus ; et in ipsa spelunca S. leronymus 



excellently fortified with many towers and outworks like a 

castle. It is roofed with lead ; it is adorned with mosaic 
work of jasper, marble, and gold, beyond, I believe, any 
other church under the sun, and is in every way built most 
richly, nobly, and royally, as it is meet that it should be. 
It possesses about seventy precious marble columns, and is 
not vaulted, but roofed beneath the lead with most noble 
wood, and beams and planks of cedar. The walls of the 
church are gilded under glass, and wondrously wrought 
with painted glass. Before my time the Saracens wanted 
to carry off some of the columns, but were much frightened 
by a vision,^ and let them stand, nor did they ever try to 
take them away afterwards. In front of the choir in this 
church one goes down some steps into a stone cave, not 
built, but natural, wherein, immediately beneath the high 
altar, is the place where for our sake God was made man 
of a virgin mother. On the place itself there stands an 
altar, and not far from the altar stands the manger wherein 
the Blessed Virgin Mary laid the Infant Jesus, wrapped in 
swaddling clothes, very God and man weeping in human 
weakness even as children are wont to weep. Near the 
manger may still be seen irons fixed in the marble with 
lead, wherein were iron rings to which the country people 
tied their beasts of burden and cattle when they came to 
market. The manger is of stone, about four palms long, 
as is the custom in that land. St. Jerome is buried in this 
cave. On the night of the Nativity all nations under 

Paula et Eustochium sunt sepulti. et in ista ecclesia sunt Ixx 
columpne marmoree ; et anno dni M^ccc^xli" Sarraceni pulchriores 
columpnas excipere voluerunt et in templo suo ponere, sed horribili 
visione perterriti ipsas stare permiserunt.' — John of Hildesheim's 
* Historia ill Regum/ chap, xxxviii. 

' See John of Hildesheim, in preceding note ; Fabri, i. 598. The 
date in the preceding note, 1341, must be wrong, as Marino Sanuto, 
who wrote before that date, tells the same story. The legend was 
probably a much older one, possibly connected with serpent worship. 



heaven assemble there, as is very right, and each nation 
has a particular place in this church set apart for itself for 
ever wherein to celebrate Divine service according to its 
own rite. The Latins have now the place wherein God 
was made man, and in like manner each separate nation 
has its own separate place. In my time the Nubians had 
not as yet any place of their own, but the Soldan had a 
chapel especially built for them. Before this church stands 
the monastery in which St. Jerome, St. Paula, and Eusto- 
chium, and very many other saints once dwelt, and by the 
grace of God wrought many miracles. A Saracen now 
dwells on this spot, and receives one Venetian penny 
from anyone who wants to go into the church. Also at 
Bethlehem there is an underground chapel beneath the 
rock, which seems to have had two doors, and therefore 
one could pass straight through it, but now one door has 
been built up. In this pit, which now is a chapel, the 
Blessed Virgin lay hid for three days for fear of Herod, 
and suckled the Child Jesus there. In her fear she chanced 
to let fall some of her milk^ upon a stone in that place, 

^ See Fabri, i. 563, in this series, and Marino Sanuto, iii., xiv. 11 ; 
also Abbot Daniel, p. 41. In John of Hildesheim's ' Historia Trium 
Regum,' chap, xxvii., I find the following : ' Post recessum trium regum 
beata virgo cum infantulo Jhesu in tugurio aliquantulum permansit, 
sed crescente de ipsa et de tribus Regibus tarn mirabiU fama, tunc 
de ipso tugurio in aham spelunca subterraneam cum infantulo Jhesu 
metu Judeorum intravit, et usque ad diem purificacionis sue perman- 
sit in ea : et quia omnes eam diligebant, prout poterant ipsam colebant 
et necessaria ei ministrabant ; in qua spelunca post modum facta est 
capella in honore iii Regum at S. Nychclai consecrata. et videtur 
per ipsam capellam communis transitus fuisse, et ii januas habuisse, 
sed una jam lapidibus est obstructa. et in ilia capella videtur adhuc 
lapis super quem beata virgo sedendo Filium lactare consuevit. et 
quadam vice modicum lactis de sua mamilla super lapidem cecidit, 
cujus lactis species usque in presentem illem super ipsum lapidem 
permansit, et quanto plus abraditur tanto plus crescit.' — John of 
Hildesheim, edited by C. Horstmann, in the Early English Text 
Society. See also ' Guide-book,' p. 26, note. 



which milk is there even to this day. The milk oozes out 
of the stone like moisture, and is a milky colour with a 
tinge of red. The more of the milk is scraped off, the 
more is restored in the same quantity, and no more. This 
is the milk which may be seen, and is shown in many 
different churches ; for it is taken away hither and thither 
by the pilgrims. Also near Bethlehem there is a great 
cave in the rock, into which a great number of bodies of 
the Innocents were cast, and this rock has been almost 
entirely carried away by pilgrims. Moreover, one mile 
from Bethlehem is the place where St. Jerome was 
especially wont to dwell, and where he translated many 
books from Hebrew, Chaldee, and Greek into Latin. 
Near Bethlehem also, half a mile away toward Sodom and 
Gomorrah, is the place where the angels announced to the 
shepherds that God was born as man. In this place there 
has been built an exceeding fair double church, which is 
called Gloria in excelsis, which the angels sang there. For 
this cause in Bethlehem also they begin all the canonical 
hours of the day with Gloria in excelsis, just as we do with 
Deus in adjutorium} And they begin all Masses, even 
Masses for the souls of the dead, w^ith Gloria in excelsis deo, 
by special custom, as I have often seen in their service- 
book. This is Bethlehem, the city of God most high, 
wherein David was born, whereof also the prophet Micah 
said, 'And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not 
the least among the princes of Juda.'^ For Bethlehem 

^ ' In loco etiam in quo pastoribus angelus Christum natum annun- 
ciavit ; ipsa duplicem ecclesiam pulcherriman construxit, quam Gloria 
in excelsis vocavit ; que ecclesia fuit quondam ditissimum collegium 
canonicorum, qui ex special! privilegio omnes horas canonicas cum 
"Gloria in excelsis deo,' etc., inceperunt, sicud nos per "Deus in 
adjutorium," et adhuc incipiunt ibidem horas cum " Gloria in excelsis." ' 
— John of Hildesheim, chap, xxxvii. 

'-' Micah V. 2 ; Matt. ii. 6. 


stands in the midst of Judah, wherefore the whole of that 
land is called Judaea ; but the land which once was called 
Judaea is now called Syria, and its people are called 
Syrians. From Bethlehem one goes on to Jerusalem, by 
a road on the left of which is the tomb of Jacob's wife 
Rachel, at the place where she bore Benjamin, and died in 
childbirth. Near this road is the aforesaid church called 
Gloria in excelsis, and also beside this road there are and 
have been very many cells of saints, churches and caves, 
monasteries and tombs, belonging to the Christians. Here 
God has wrought many miracles through these saints, and 
to this day very many incorrupt bodies of saints, whose 
names God alone knows/ are found in divers places in the 
caves and grottos. Also near this road is the place where 
was the pit into which Joseph was cast by his brethren, 
and sold to the Ishmaelites. After seeing these and many 
other sights, one arrives at Jerusalem, and the distance 
between the two places is only three of the short miles of 
the country. 

XXXVIII.— The Holy City Jerusalem. 

Jerusalem, the holy city, wherein our redemption was 
wrought, stands on a mount in a wholesome air. It is 
well fenced on the north side by walls, towers, and out- 
works, on the east by the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and on 
the south and west by other deep valleys ; but it lacks 
water within the walls, and its cisterns are filled by water 
which is brought from Hebron by underground aqueducts 
and channels, which may clearly be seen by the side of 
that road as one journeys along it. This glorious city is 

^ Dr. F.J. Bliss tells us that the Armenian inscription on the mosaic 
pavement found at Jerusalem in June, 1894, is to the effect that the 
place was in memory of the salvation of all those Armenians whose 
name the Lord knows (Quarterly Statement, P.E.F., October, 1894). 



not over-long or over-wide, neither is it too great or too 
small, but it is tolerably well built, and has been some- 
what removed to the east of where it stood at the time of 
Christ's crucifixion, by Aelius Hadrianus, after its destruc- 
tion by Titus and Vespasian, to show honour to the place 
of Calvary. In Jerusalem stand the Lord's Temple and 
Solomon's Temple, and they alone take up a great part of 
the city. The Saracens suffer no Christian to enter this 
temple, and if they do enter they must either die or 
renounce their faith. This came to pass in my time, for 
some Greeks got in and trampled upon the Saracens' 
books. As they refused to renounce their faith, they were 
cut in two. The Lord's Temple is round, built in the 
Greek fashion, very tall and large, roofed with lead, and 
made of great hewn and polished stones. Upon its pin- 
nacle the Saracens have after their fashion placed a 
crescent moon. This temple also has a great fore-court, 
which is not roofed in, but well paved and adorned with 
white marble. Near this temple, on the right hand, there 
is an oblong church with a lead roof, which is called 
Solomon's Porch. The Saracens pay the greatest rever- 
ence to the Lord's Temple, keeping it exceeding clean 
both within and without, and all alike entering it unshod. 
They call it ' the holy Rock,' not ' the Temple,' and 
therefore they say to one another, * Let us go to the holy 
Rock.' They do not say, ' Let us go to the Temple.' 
They call the temple 'the holy Rock' because of a little 
rock which stands in the midst of the temple, fenced 
about with an iron railing. I have heard it said of a 
truth by Saracen renegades that no Saracen presumes 
to touch that rock, and that Saracens journey from 
distant lands to devoutly visit it. Indeed, God has 
deigned to show respect to this rock in divers ways, and 
has wrought many miracles thereon, as the Bible bears 



witness to us both in the Old and New Testament. First 
of all, it was upon this rock that Melchisedech, the first 
priest, offered bread and wine. Also it was upon this 
rock that Jacob slept and saw God's glory, and a ladder 
standing upon this rock, whose top reached to heaven, and 
the angels of God ascending and descending the same. 
Also it was upon this rock that David saw the angel 
standing with a bloody sword in his hand, and stayino" 
from the slaughter of the people.^ It was upon this rock 
that the priests used to lay the burnt sacrifices, which often 
were consumed by fire from heaven. It was within this 
rock that Jeremiah the prophet is believed to have 
miraculously enclosed the Ark of the Covenant when the 
people were removed to Babylon, saying, ' As for that 
place, it shall be unknown until the time that God gather 
His people together again, and receive them unto mercy,'- 
and therein it is believed to have remained even to this 
day. Upon this rock Christ was presented when a child, 
and was given into the arms of the Just Simeon and 
was received by him. It was upon this rock that Christ 
disputed with the Jews when He was a boy of twelve years 
of age, and His parents lost Him ; from this rock He 
often taught the people and often preached. The Lord's 
Temple, we read, was built by Solomon on the threshing- 
floor of Oman, and albeit it has been destroyed by many, 
yet it has always been rebuilt on the same spot, in the 
same form, and with the same stones. God, moreover, has 
greatly honoured and glorified this Temple, and greatly 
loved it. It was from this Temple that Solomon saw 
^ 2 Sam. xxiv. i6 ; 2 Chron. iii. i, 

~ 2 Mace. ii. 5, 6 ; but we are told in verse 4 that the prophet took 
the ark ' to the mountain where Moses climbed up and saw the 
heritage of God.' And Fabri, vol. ii., 182, 233, points out the place in 
the valley of 'Galmoab' (Vulgate), 'a valley in the land of Moab, 
over against Bethpeor,' Deut. xxxiv. 6 (A.V.). 


smoke going up and the glory of God abiding over it. In 
this Temple Joseph's rod flowered. In this Temple the 
Blessed Virgin Mary was presented, and made her offering 
after her betrothal. In this temple Christ was presented, 
and was set upon its pinnacle/ and tempted by the (evil) 
spirit. Out of this Temple also Christ cast those who 
bought and sold ; He often taught and disputed therein, 
and wrought many miracles, as is testified by the Gospels. 
Christ also consecrated this Temple by His glorious 
presence, and therein in our weakness He suffered much 
abuse and much ill-usage at the hands of the Jews. It 
was from this Temple that St. James the Less, our Lord's 
brother, was cast down and martyred. Near this Temple, 
on the left hand thereof, is the ancient Golden Gate, 
through which on Palm Sunday Jesus entered riding upon 
an ass. To this gate on every Palm Sunday, even to this 
day, a solemn procession of Christians is made before sun- 
rise, and over this gate boys sing Gloria, laus, etc. Then 
the Archbishop of the Armenians enters the gate on an 
ass, and is welcomed by the boys and the people even as 
Christ was there welcomed by the Jews. A little way to 
the north of this Temple there is a church on the spot 
where the Blessed Virgin Mary was born, and on that 
same spot St. Anne and Joachim her husband lie buried in 
an underground cave. In front of this church stands the 
sheep-pool, having five porticos round about it, wherein 
the sick used to be healed when the waters were troubled 
by an angel, as the Gospel bears witness. At this day 
there is a cave there, wherein when it rains all the water 
from the city collects together. Out of this Church of St. 
Mary the Saracens have now made a church of their own. 
Yet all the story of Anna and Joachim and the Blessed 
Mary's birth remains to this day right nobly painted on 
' .See my note to Anon., p. 66. 


the front of the church. This painting in my time used to 
be all devoutly and religiously explained to Christians by 
an old Saracen woman named Baguta. She used to dwell 
over against the church, and declared that the picture of 
Joachim stood for Mahomet, and the painting of the 
trees for paradise, wherein Mahomet kissed girls, and 
she referred the whole of the painting to Mohammed, and 
set it forth with fervour, and would tell many more and 
more wondrous stories about Mahomet with tears in her 
eyes. Not far from the Lord's Temple, on the south side? 
below the city, is the hill of Sion, which is a little highej 
than the rest of the ground whereon the city stands, k 
was on this mount that of old stood the city of Dav0, 
whereof the Scripture makes mention. Upon this Moi/nt 
Sion, or in this city of David, there once was built /an 
exceeding fair monastery called the Convent of St. lyary 
on Mount Sion, wherein were canons regular. Wjthin 
this monastery were enclosed all the following holy pl^ces.^ 
First of all in this place Christ supped with His disciples 
and celebrated the first Easter, made His testamerit and 
revealed His betrayer, while the beloved disciple lav upon 
His breast and drank in the secrets of heaven, /ilso in 
this same place Christ humbly washed His discip^ies' feet 
and dried them with a napkin, and, though He Was their 
Lord and Master, gave them an example of humility. 
Christ also frequently visited this place while in the flesh, 
and it was here that after His death and resurrection He 
appeared to His disciples as they sat with closed doors, 
and was seen there once again ; there Thom-as the un- 
believing thrust his fingers into His side. H^ere also the 
Blessed Mary and the disciples were sitting gVieving, with 
the doors closed for fear of the Jews, when ':hey received 
the Holy Ghost the Comforter. Here a^-iso after the 
* Fabri, i. 289 et seq. 





Lord's Passion the Blessed Mary often dwelt ; in this 
place she rendered up her spirit to her Son, and here all 
the disciples were miraculously assembled. In this place 
also St. Matthias \vas wondrously chosen an Apostle. 
Here also the beloved disciple often celebrated Mass with 
the Blessed Mary, and dwelt here with St. Mary and 
St. Luke until the Blessed Mary's death. Here also St. 
Stephen was buried between Nicodemus and Abybos. In 
this place also David and Solomon and the other kings of 
Judah are buried, and their sepulchres may be seen at 
this day. In this monastery there now dwell Minorite 
brethren, who in my time were amply furnished with 
necessaries by Queen Sancea, the wUe of King Robert,^ 
and there they publicly and devoutly hold Divine service, 
except that they are not allowed to preach publicly to 
Saracens, and they bury their dead without the know- 
ledge of the officers of the city. These brethren were in 
my time exceeding prosperous men. Foreign merchants, 
and even Saracens, praised them much, for they did good 
offices to all men. 

At the foot of this mount there stands an exceeding 
strong castle, called David's Castle, which is believed to 
have remained standing from the time of David, for when 
the cit}^ was destroyed by Titus and Vespasian, the 
Mount Sion and this castle stood without the city. This 
castle was once held by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, but 
now is iniiabited by an officer of the Soldan, and is most 
carefully '^^uarded by him and his mercenaries. At the 
foot of this mount there is also a church called St. Saviour's, 
wherein is the stone which the angel rolled away from the 

' This Kingi, according to Dr. F. Deycks, must have been either 
Charles Robert, of Anjou, King of Hungary, or Robert Bruce, King of 
Scotland. I think that, after reading Fabri's account (ii. 379) of the 
Minorite conven t on Mount Sion, one is inclined to think that Ludolph 
meant Rupert, King of Apulia, Calabria, Sicily, and Jerusalem. 


sepulchre, which is there publicly shown. Near this mount 

also St. James the Great was beheaded, and over the spot 
a church has been built, wherein now is the Archbishop of 
the Armenians and canons of the Roman obedience. Also 
in Jerusalem there is another church called St. Mary the 
Latin. In Jerusalem, moreover, there are many churches 
of schismatics and heretics, and very many other holy 
places and gracious oratories. Above the Mount Calvary 
and Christ's sepulchre a great and fair church has been 
built, nobly decorated with marble, mosaic work, paintings, 
and other ornaments. It has towers in front of the choir 
and above the same, and it is open above the place oi 
Christ's sepulchre. The inside of this church is very muc\i 
like the cathedral of Munster in Westphalia, especially m 
the choir. In this church, near the choir, on the south si<ie, 
is Mount Calvary, where Jesus was crucified. One ascends 
this mount at the present day by some stairs within the 
church, and once one used also to ascend thither by .'ome 
stairs outside the church, but this door has now been 
blocked up on the outside. This mount is formed of 
exceeding hard rock, and beneath the mount is the chapel 
of the Nubians, cut out of the solid rock. On the top of 
Mount Calvary also there is a chapel, to which one ascends 
from within the church, and in the place where Jesus was 
crucified there is the hole in which the cross w?s placed, 
and the rending of the solid rock which came to pass at 
the time of Christ's Passion may still be plainly seen. 
Also in this same chapel are buried those right glorious 
princes, Godfrey, Duke of Bouillon, and Bildwin, his 
brother, the first Christian Kings of Jerusalem, who won 
the Holy Land with exceeding great toil, and puissantly 
recovered and held the same, wrought the Saracens in- 
estimable hurt, and bestowed the greatest boons upon 
Christendom. It is a great wonder that the Saracens 


suffer their sepulchres and bodies to rest undisturbed in 
such honour, seeing how much harm they did them, and 
how they even took away from them the whole of the 
Holy Land ; for in Lombardy, when Christians quarrel, 
they cast one another's rotten corpses to the dogs. These 
same glorious princes made a rule that no King of 
Jerusalem should wear a golden crown, but a crown of 
thorns, which rule their successors observe even to this 
day. On this Mount Calvary the story of Christ's Passion 
is read every day, when any Christians are dwelling there, 
as I have clearly read in their service-book. Near Mount 
^Calvary, where now there is a cupboard, is the place where 
IHis mother and the disciples and the other women stood, 
a»nd there Jesus commended his mother to the care of His 
disciple, saying, * Woman, behold thy son.' In front of 
the door of the choir, on the south side, there is a black 
stor.\e, which is the place whereon they laid Jesus's body 
whe;n they took Him down from the cross and wrapped 
Him in linen cloths. In front of the choir, on the west 
side, istands a small double chapel which has as it were 
three vdoors, and wherein three altars seem to have stood. 
From this first chapel one goes into another chapel, 
wherein is Christ's sepulchre, through a low and small 
doorvv^ay, arched semicircularly, and made so that one 
must en,ter it with a bent back. This chapel is semi- 
circularly vaulted ; it has no window, and in it is Christ's 
sepulchre. The length of this chapel and sepulchre is 
about nino palms, the width of the chapel about seven 
palms, and the height of the chapel about twelve palms. 
Christ's sepulchre^ is cut out of the solid rock, but lest it 

' Wilhelm von Boldinsel observes (chap, vii.) that ' Monumentum 
Christ! excisum erat in petra viva , . . ibtud vero ex pluribus est 
compositum et de novo conglutinatum cemento minus artificialiter et 
minus quam dece t ordinate.' 


should be defiled or carried away by pilgrims, it is covered 
with other stones of white marble. The stone which covers 
it on the front side has three holes pierced through it, and 
through those holes one can kiss the true sepulchre and 
the true stone thereof. This stone wherewith the sepulchre 
is cased is so cunningly joined on to the sepulchre, that to 
the ignorant it seems to be all one stone. For this reason 
I do not believe that there is in any church a piece of the 
true stone of Christ's sepulchre ; for with the exception of 
those places whereof you have heard, it is and ever has 
been kept most carefully guarded. Indeed, if Christ's 
sepulchre could be carried away in grains of sand, it would 
have been so carried away long ago, even had it been a great 
mountain, so that scarce one grain of sand would have 
remained on the spot. Now, as for the lamps and candle- 
sticks which are said to be round about the holy sepulchre, 
I declare that there is no lamp or candlestick whatever 
round about the sepulchre ; but there dwell in the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre ancient Georgians who have the 
key of the chapel of the holy sepulchre, and food, alms, 
candles, and oil for lamps to burn round about the holy 
sepulchre are given them by pilgrims through a little 
window in the .south door of the church, and if this 
should fail it remains without any light whatsoever, and is 
altogether without honour and respect, for the Saracens 
have as much respect for Christ's sepulchre as Christians 
have for a Jewish synagogue. In this church also, in front 
of the choir, a little way to the southward, there is the 
place where the three Maries stood and said to one 
another, * Who shall roll away the stone for us from the 
mouth of the sepulchre ^ Also in this same church stands 
one part of the pillar to which Jesus was bound and 
scourged ; the other part is at Constantinople. 

In this church also one goes down forty steps to t^ 


place where the three crosses were found, and in this 
lower part, in the chapel, stands the episcopal chair of 
James the Less, wherein he used to sit as Bishop of 
Jerusalem. In this church also stand the pillars which at 
the time of Christ's Passion stood in Pilate's house, which 
pillars from that time to this present have never ceased to 
sweat forth water. Furthermore, in this church there is 
the place where the dead man was laid upon Christ's cross, 
and was raised up to life. In this church also is the place 
where Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalen in the likeness 
of a gardener. All these holy places are enclosed within 
this church, and the church is like a palace prepared for 
the various needs of pilgrims and of those who are locked 
up therein ; for pilgrims who visit it are locked up therein 
from the first hour of one day till the same hour of the 
following day, and can inspect everything to their hearts' 
content. Twice a year — that is to say, from Good Friday 
to Monday after Easter, and from the Eve of the Invention 
of the Holy Cross till the morrow of the feast — the 
Christians who dwell there are let into the church for 
nothing, and locked in, and then one finds shops in the 
church where sundry things and victuals are sold, even as 
in this country they do in markets and fairs, and then 
one hears talk and songs in divers tongues. Each several 
nation has its own special place for holding Divine service 
according to its own rite, of whom the Latins have the 
place where Christ appeared to Mary Magdalen in the 
likeness of a gardener. Near the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre once dwelt the brethren of St. John of 
Jerusalem, and their palace is now the common hospital 
for pilgrims. This hospital is so great that one thousand 
men can easily live therein, and can have everything that 
hey want there by paying for it. It is the custom in this 
^lace, or hospital, that every pilgrim should pay two 



Venetian pennies^ for the use of the hospital. If he 
sojourns therein for a year he pays no more, if he abides 
but for one day he pays no less. In my time there dwelt in 
this palace, or hospital, a matron named Margaret of Sicily, 
who had a brother a canon of the holy sepulchre, named 
Nicholas. This Margaret was of great use and service 
there, and to my certain knowledge suffered much misery 
and trouble for love of the Christians, and was always 
viewed by the Soldan with especial favour because of her 
usefulness.- You must know that canons of the holy 
sepulchre have great prerogatives and privileges, as I have 
read in their service-book, and they begin (the service for) all 
the hours of the day with A//e/um,^ as we do when we say 
In adjutorium, etc., as though they were men to whom the 
whole world bore witness from afar. They read all the 
chief matters in the Gospel with gesticulation ; for instance, 
the deacon reads the Gospel on Easter Day as follows •} 
' At that time Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of 
James, and Salome, brought spices, that they might come 
hither and anoint Jesus.' And when he comes to the 
words, * He is not here. He is risen,' then the deacon points 
with his finger to Christ's sepulchre, and so in other cases. 
In front of the church, on the west side, there is the stone 
whereon Jesus rested awhile when bearing His cross, when 
His strength failed Him because of His tortures and the 
weight of the cross ; and there the Jews compelled Simon 
of Cyrene, who was coming from his village, to bear the 
cross. Near the church, a little way to the south, is the 
stone whereon Jesus stood when He said, ' Ye daughters 
of Jerusalem, weep not for Me, but for yourselves,' etc. 

^ Denarii. Fabri (i. 395) says ' two Venetian marks.' 

2 The ordinary text has fidclitatem. I prefer to read utilitatcm^ 
with the Berlin MS. marked ' B ' by Dr. F. Deycks. 

3 John of Wurzburg, chap. xii. 

4 Matt, xxvii. 56; Mark xv. 40; Luke xxiv. i-io; John xix. 40. 
See ' Marino Sanuto,' III., vii. 2. 



The pavement of the house of Pilate may be seen in 
Jerusalem to this day ; but it was then without the city, 
and the house of Caiaphas, wherein they took counsel, and 
he prophesied, saying, * It is expedient that one man 
should die for the people,' is three of the miles of that 
country distant from Jerusalem. Moreover, in Jerusalem 
there are to be seen very many other wonders and holy 
places, about each one of which it would take long to tell 
you. Going onward from Jerusalem, one comes to a city, 
once fair, but now deserted, which stands in the hill country 
of Judaea, and is called Zacharia. It is five miles distant 
from Jerusalem. It was in this city that Zachariah and 
Elizabeth, the parents of St. John the Baptist, dwelt, and 
to it the Blessed Mary came from Nazareth after the 
annunciation by the word of Gabriel, when Elizabeth met 
her and the babe leaped in her womb, and the Blessed 
Mary said, ' My soul doth magnify the Lord,' etc. On the 
place where they met and embraced one another, an 
exceeding fair church has been built, which is called 
Magnificat to this day. This place is distant from 
Nazareth three and a half days' journey of the short 
journeys which our Lord's mother then made, as the 
Gospel tells us,^ ' Mary arose with haste and went into the 
hill country of Judaea.' In this city also St. John the 
Baptist was conceived and born. As one returns from this 
city of Zacharia one sees the place where (the wood of) 
Christ's cross is believed to have grown moreover, by 
the roadside one sees many tombs of the saints, hermi- 
tages, caves, and grottos, wherein to this day are found 
many incorrupt and entire bodies of saints, whose names 
God alone knows. As one comes back to Jerusalem this 

' Luke i. 39. 

" Wilhelm von Boldinsel (chap, viii) mentions this place, and says 
that there was a fair church, and a convent of Georgian monks. 


way, there is the place without the North Gate where the 

first martyr, St. Stephen, was stoned. Here a fair church 
seems to have stood, which now is overthrown, and it 
stands above the Valley of Jehoshaphat. In the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat there is a holy but not very beautiful church^ 
built in honour of the Blessed Mary, into which one goes 
down sixty steps and comes to the Blessed Mary's 
sepulchre, which is adorned with more and better lamps 
and candles than Christ's sepulchre. The place where the 
sepulchre stands is not larger than what eight men can con- 
veniently stand in, and the sepulchre of Christ and that of 
the Blessed Mary are both shaped alike. The place where 
this church stands was at the time of Christ's Passion the 
house of Annas, the Chief Priest, and it was there that 
Peter denied Christ. On the spot where he denied Him 
there stands a marble pillar for an everlasting memorial. 
It is believed that on the last day Christ will come to this 
valley as a strict Judge, and will reward every man accord- 
ing to his works. Through this same valley runs the 
brook Cedron, being the moisture and rain-water which 
comes from the hills on either side thereof. Near this 
brook, at the foot of the Mount of Olives, is the garden 
wherein Jesus was taken and was betrayed by Judas with 
a kiss. God when in the flesh often visited this garden 
with His disciples. A fair church stands at the place 
where Christ was taken, but nowadays the Saracens shut 
up their flocks and beasts to feed therein. A little way 
from the garden, to the left, beneath a rock, is the place 
where Christ prayed to the Father, saying, * Father, if it 
be possible, let this cup pass from Me,' and in His fear He 
in His human weakness sweated blood. At the foot of 

^ ' Ecclesia devota sed non multum pulchra.' — Ludolph. ' Haec 
ecclesia non est pulchra, sed devota.' — W. von Boldinsel. The order 
in which these two writers describe the holy places agrees exactly. 



the mountain opposite, whereon Jerusalem is built, are the 
bathing-pools of Siloam, and now there is a collection of 
putrid water. Over against the bathing -pool stands 
Absalom's statue, cunningly wrought, and of wondrous 
size.i Above the Valley of Jehoshaphat, to the south, is 
the potter's field, or Aceldama, also called the Field of 
Blood, which was bought with the price of blood to bury 
strangers in. But a certain Eastern history declares that 
only the worth of fifteen pennies was bought, which, 
indeed, may well be believed, because it does not take up 
the third part of the field. 

XXXIX. — Of the Thirty Pieces of Silver. 

We read in a history of those kings of the East who 
offered gifts to our Lord, that Terah, Abraham's father, 
made money, or pennies, at the bidding of a King of 
Mesopotamia named Ninus, and that he received thirty 
pieces of silver for his pay. These pieces of silver he gave 
to Abraham, who spent them during his wanderings in 
exile, and these same pieces of silver passed through 
divers hands until they came into the hands of the 
Ishmaelites, and with them Joseph was bought from his 
brethren. Afterwards, when Joseph bore rule in Egypt, 
these same pieces of silver came back into Joseph's hands 
from his brethren as the price of corn, and when they 
were restored to his brethren, his brethren gave them to 
Joseph's steward, who sent them to Sheba to buy mer- 
chandise for Pharaoh. Now, in Solomon's time, when the 
Queen of Sheba came from the East to hear his wisdom, 
she offered these thirty pieces of silver in the temple. In 

' \V. von lioldinsel mentions Siloam, but does not call the water 
putrid, and mentions Absalom's 'statue ' in the same words as in the 
text, except that he says that it is boiiae inagniittdinis, whereas Ludolph 
says ini'rae viagniiiidijiis. 


the time of Rehoboam, when Nebuchadnezzar despoiled 
the temple and took away its treasure, he gave the thirty 
pieces of silver with other treasure to the King of Godolia, 
who was with him in his army, and so they remained with 
other treasures in the treasury of the Kings of Godolia 
until Christ's birth. At that time the kingdom of 
Godolia was removed to Nubia. Now, when our Lord 
was born, Melchior, the King of Nubia, saw in the star that 
Christ was born of a virgin. He therefore took the thirty 
pennies, because he could find no more noble or ancient 
gold in his treasury, and by God's will offered them to 
Christ. Afterwards the Blessed Virgin Mary, when fleeing 
into Egypt through fear of Herod, lost the thirty pennies, 
together with the rest of the presents of the Magi, at the 
place where the Garden of Balsam now is. A shepherd 
found them and kept them for thirty years. Then the 
fame of Jesus being noised abroad, this same shepherd 
came to Jerusalem, where Jesus healed his sickness. When 
Christ was preaching and teaching in the temple the 
shepherd offered Him the thirty pennies and the other 
presents of the Magi, but Jesus refused them, and bade 
him offer the pennies in the temple, and lay the other 
gifts upon the altar. The shepherd did so, and the Jews 
cast the thirty pennies into cordan, and afterwards gave 
them to Judas for betraying Jesus.^ Then when Judas 
brought them back again, they bought the potter's field 
for fifteen pennies, and gave the other fifteen to the 

^ John of Hildesheim, though his account is substantially the 
same, is somewhat more diffuse. For instance, at this point he 
explains that when the shepherd offered the gifts, the priest burned 
the frankincense on the altar, but put the gold and myrrh into the 
treasury. Probably John's was the 'long rambling story 'alluded to 
by Fabri (i. 537). See Quarterly Review^ October, 1846, art. ' Cologne 
Cathedral': Theodericb, chap, xxxix., p. 59. Another version of the 
legend makes the thirty pieces to have been struck at Capernaum. 
.See ' The Condition of Jerusalem,' in this series, part ii., p. 31. 



soldiers who were guarding Christ's sepulchre; and when 
that had been done with the pennies which had been pre- 
destined, they straightway were divided and scattered 
hither and thither. But until that was done which it was 
fated should be done by them, they always kept together, 
as you have heard. The Scripture calls them silver 
pennies, because in old times they called all metal silver;^ 
but there is no doubt but what they were of gold. The 
neld of blood is not large,^ as I have told you, but has an 
exceeding deep pit dug in it, with a vaulted roof above it. 
This vault is pierced with round holes, through which holes 
dead bodies are cast into it, and after three days nothing 
of them is found save bones. Were it not so, such a little 
place would not be sufficient to contain so many dead 
bodies. Near this field there is an exceeding pleasant 
place with beauteous trees, which the preaching friars^ 
(Dominicans) were trying to buy when I was leaving ; but 
I know not whether they got it. Near it also there are 
very many hermitages of saints, cells, and oratories full of 
grace, which now are deserted. Likewise near it is the 
cave wherein Peter hid himself after he had denied Christ, 
and wept bitterly. Not far from this cave is the place 
where Judas hanged himself in despair. 

XL.— The Mount of Olives. 

Near Jerusalem, toward the east, is the Mount of Olives, 
which now is called the Mount of Lights, a very pleasant 
place, with only the Valley of Jehoshaphat between it and 
Jerusalem. The Mount of Olives is so much higher than 
the city, that all within the city can be seen from its top, 
and it is called the Mount of Olives because many olives 

1 John of Hildesheim tells this part in the same words. 

2 ' Vix ad semijactum lapidis,' says John of Hildesheim. 

3 Fabri, i. 535 ; ii. 380. 


grow thereon ; it is also called the Mount of Lights/ be- 
cause by night the lights of the Lord's Temple shine over 
against it. The two eastern gates of Jerusalem leading 
to the mount are always shut, because the Valley of 
Jehoshaphat between the city and the mount is so steep 
that a man could scarce climb up and down on his hands 
and feet, and that one gate is now called the Golden Gate. 
On the Mount of Olives stands a fair church called 
St. Saviour's, on the place where forty days after His 
Passion Christ ascended meekly to His Father, and where 
the angels said that He should come again as a strict 
Judge. The mark of Christ's footsteps may be seen on 
the pavement of that church even to this day, and we 
read that when the Christians were first building and 
paving that church, whenever they came to the place 
where Christ's footprints were, and laid stones thereon, the 
stones always sprung off again even as a man would step, 
and so the footprints have remained to the present day. The 
church is open, for the vault could never by any means be 
made over the place through which Christ passed. On 
the Mount of Olives there also stands another chapel on 
the place where Christ said the Lord's Prayer and taught 
it to His disciples, and that chapel is still called Pater- 
noster. Once also upon this mount there stood another 
chapel, now overthrown, at the place where Jesus saw the 
city and wept over it. On this same mount there is a 
small village^ named Galilee, often mentioned in Scripture, 
wherein the disciples dwelt together. This is that Galilee 
whereof we read, ' Go into Galilee; there will you see Him, 
as He said to you'; and again, ' I will go before you into 
Galilee ' (Matt. xxvi. 32). But there is another Galilee, 
which is a great land, and is three days' journey distant, 
as you shall be told hereafter. On this mount also there 
^ Fabri, i. 495. ^ ^\^[^ j^ys^ tower called ' Viri Galilei.' 



were many dwellings of saints, and hermitages, and gracious 
oratories. Near the Mount of Olives is Bethphage, where 
on Palm Sunday Christ mounted the ass to ride into 
Jerusalem. A good rider He must have been, otherwise 
one never could tell that a man on an ass could have 
ridden down such a road, for this road comes down very 
steep and narrow from the Mount of Olives. A short half- 
mile from Bethany is Bethphage, once a very fair castle 
standing on the hillside. In it are three churches, whereof 
one stands on the place where Lazarus was raised from 
the dead, and his sepulchre is still to be seen there. The 
sepulchres of Christ, of the Blessed Mary, and of Lazarus 
are all shaped alike. The second church stands in the 
place where once was the house of Simon the leper, where 
Christ was asked to dinner, and the blessed Mary Magdalen 
came and anointed the head and the feet of Jesus, washed 
them with her tears, and wiped them with her hair, as the 
Scripture bears witness. The third church is made out of 
Martha's palace, wherein God in our weakness, when 
hungry and thirsty, naked and weary, was often received 
as a guest by Martha, refreshed, and entertained when 

The Saracens who dwell there now shut up their oxen 
and beasts of burden in these churches. In this place 
Solomon set up his idol Moloch.^ 

XLL— The Desert ; Jericho ; Sodom and 


From Bethany one reaches the Jordan in one day, 
crossing a little wilderness called Montost.^ In this wilder- 

» I Kings xi. 7. 

2 I do not understand this word. Wilhelm von Boldinsel says 
(chap, viii.) : ' De hoc loco [Bethany] parva diaeta est in Jordanenn, 
deserto quodam montoso medio existente,' etc. John of Hildesheim 


ness St. John the Baptist taught, and ate locusts and wild 
lioney in the same. In this wilderness also a certain man 
fell among thieves as he was going down from Jerusalem 
to Jericho, as the Scripture tells us. At the end of this 
wilderness is the mount which is called Quarentana, 
whereon Jesus fasted for forty days and forty nights, and 
was an hungered, and here the devil tempted Him to 
make bread of stones. Halfway up the mount a fair 
hermitage has been hewn out of the rock wherein Christ 
fasted, and wherein Georgian monks now dwell. In my 
time the King of Gazara^ caused the road to be broken, so 
that the monks could not get down nor pilgrims get up, 
but when the Soldan heard of this he had the road well 
repaired, and granted leave to the monks to dwell there 
for ever. On the top of this mount stands a fair church 
in the place where Jesus was tempted of the devil. It is 
of this wilderness that we read, 'Jesus was led up. of the 
Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.'- 
Near this mount, toward the plain of Jordan, there is a 
fountain and an exceeding fair orchard, where Abraham 
dwelt when he came from Chaldaea,and built an altar there 
and called upon the name of the Lord. This place is 
called Abraham's Garden^ to this day. After passing these 
places one comes into Jericho, once a royal and famous 
city, now brought down to a small village, but standing in 
an exceeding beauteous and fertile spot in the Valley of 
the Jordan. This is the Jericho* whose walls God cast 
down by a miracle, and gave it to Joshua, with a curse on 
him who should rebuild it. To this Jericho belonged 

says (chap, xlii.) : ' Et inter Jordanum et Jerusalem est quedam pars 
deserti que ibidem Mentost vocatur, et in ipso deserto Johannes Baptista 
habitavit et penitenciam predicavit,' etc. Al. Montoft, Moncost. 

^ Fabri (ii. 56) copies this story ; but in his day the place was 

^ Matt. iv. I. 3 Theoderich, chap, xxviii. 4 Josh. vi. 26. 


Rahab the harlot and Zacchaeus^ who was Httle of stature. 
It was the boys of this Jericho who mocked Elisha^ the 
prophet, saying, ' Go up, thou bald head ! go up, thou bald 
head !' and were devoured by two bears to avenge him, to 
all of which things the Scripture bears witness. Near 
Jericho is the place where Jesus lightened the eyes of the 
blind man as He passed by. Near Jericho there runs the 
brook which the prophet Elisha^ made sweet, which before 
was bitter. Three short miles from Jericho is the Dead 
Sea, which is about eighty miles of this country long, 
where stood the great cities of Sodom and Gomorrha, 
Seboim and Adana, and all the places within them and 
near them, all of which cities, villages, castles, and 
fortresses God overwhelmed because of their detestable 
sins. No creature can use the water of this sea for any 
purpose whatever, and it has a most unbearable and evil 
stench, wherefore when the wind blows it poisons all the 
country round about. In storms it casts up many beau- 
teous pebbles, but if anyone picks them up his hand will 
stink for three days so foully that he will not be able to 
bear himself. Some say that a man cannot sink therein. 
Of this I know nothing save what has been told me, and 
perchance no one has ever tried it. But I have heard 
from the people of those parts that in some parts of the 
sea one can find the bottom, and in some not. But as 
for the buildings which stood there before the great de- 
struction, no traces of them can be seen ; indeed, a man 
can scarce approach it because of its vile and intolerable 
stench. Yet all the country round about is full of trees 
and great fruits,* exceeding fair to see ; but when these 

^ Luke xix. 3. ^ 2 Kings ii. 23. It was not at Jericho, but at Bethel. 

3 2 Kings ii. 20. 

4 Dead Sea fruit. Tac, 'Hist,,' v. 7; Josephus, ' De Bell. Jud.,' 
iv. 8 ; August., ' De Civ. Dei,' book xxi., chap. v. Compare Robinson's 
' Palestine,' vol. ii,, p. 472. 



fruits are plucked and broken open, they are full of dust 
and ashes within, and for three days the hands of him 
who plucked them cannot be rid of a vile stench ; for even 
all the country round about it is full of God's curse. In 
this country the serpent called tj/r?is is found and taken, 
whence what is called tyriac (treacle)^ gets its name, for it 
is chiefly made thereof. This is a serpent not half an ell 
long, as thick as a man's finger, of a yellow colour mixed 
with red, and it is blind. No cure for its poison is known 
except cutting off the bitten limb. When it is angry it 
puts out its tongue like a flame of fire, and one would 
think that it was fire indeed, save that it does not burn 
the creature ; it sets up the hair on its face like an angry 
boar, and its head at such times grows bigger. Were it 
not blind, I believe that no man could escape from it, for 
I have heard from those whose trade it is to catch these 
serpents, that if they bit a man's horse, they would kill 
the rider.2 Near the Dead Sea, on the right hand toward 
the mountains of Israel, on a little hill, stands Lot's wife, 
turned into a pillar of salt. At this place in my time 
there were Templars, who had been made prisoners at the 
fall of Acre, who sawed wood here and there in the moun- 
tains for the Soldan's service, and did not know that the 

^ Qr^piaKfj. Cf. Fabri, i. 537. See ' Carpenlier's Glossary,' arts. 
Thiriaca and Triaculiim. Liitre gives the etymology of ' theriaque ': 
'' Qq.'c\^v . theriacle ; Vvo\%r\(;. tiriaca^ iriacla ; Catal. triaga j Espagn. 
teriaca, triacaj Ital. teriaca ; du Lat. theriaca^ qui vient du Grec 
Or]pLaK7], sous-entendu di/rtSoTo?.' Under OyjpiaK'q Liddell and Scott 
quotes Alexander of Tralles, v., p. 244, Galen, and Nicander's po-m 
on such antidotes. Under the word 'Treacle,' Bailey's Dictionary 
gives ' {Jrmc/e, Fr., triakel, Y)\y.,theriaca, L., OyjptaKy), Gr., of dqpiov, 
Gr., a viper], a physical Composition made of Vipers and other In- 
gredients.' See Vincent of Beauvais's ' Speculum Naturale,' book xx., 
chap xlvi. 

2 The story is to be found in John of Hildesheim, chap, xlii., as are 
also the stories about the Dead Sea fruit, ' Jor,' and ' Dan,' and St. 
John's arm at the monastery by the Jordan. 



Order of the Templars had been suppressed ;^ for they 
worked here and there in the mountains, and had seen no 
man from this side of the sea since they had been taken 
prisoners. These men strongly dissuaded us from riding 
further along the shore of the Dead Sea, if we did not wish 
to lose our lives through its stench ; but they showed us the 
statue of Lot's wife, which we could see plainly a long way 
off. Within the year the Soldan set these men free, 
together with their wives and children, in answer to some- 
one's intreaties, and they came to the Court of our Lord 
(the Pope), and were sent with honour to their homes ; one 
of them was a Burgundian, the other came from Thou- 
louse. Not far from the statue of Lot's wife stood the 
city of Zoar, which by Lot's prayer was saved from 
destruction. Beyond the Dead Sea, toward the east, is 
the strongest castle^ in the world, which in Arabic is called 
Arab ; in Chaldee, Schobach ; and in Latin, Montreal. 
It is said that there is no castle in the world to compare 
therewith, and it is girt about with three walls. Within 
the first wall there is an exceeding lofty rock with three 
springs running out of it, which water all the land round 
about. Within the second wall there grows enough corn 
to easily support all the people of the castle from one year 
to another. Within the third wall there used to grow as 
much wine, but the vines have been grubbed up. The 
whole world cannot take these things, except the trees and 
vines, away from the castle. This castle once belonged to 

' In 1307 the Grand Master and all the Knights Templars in Paris 
were arrested by order of Philip IV. (le Bel). Their trial dragged 011 
for five years, at the end of which the Order was abolished. 

2 The castle called Montreal or Petra by the Crusader-, was founded 
by Baldwin I. in 11 15. I suppose this is the place mentioned by 
Fabri (ii. 402) under the name of 'the Mount Rama.' The fortress of 
Kerak was on the east side of the Dead Sea, while Montreal stood at 
ihe south end of it. Ludolph seems to have confused the two places. 


the Christians, but their sins caused them most basely to 
lose it by their own treachery. The Soldan now always 
keeps his treasure in this castle, and his son and heir, and 
to this castle he always flees for refuge in time of need. 
At the foot of this castle is a village called Sabab, wherein 
dwell more than six thousand Christians, earnestly looking 
for the Redeemer of the Holy Land. 

XLIL— Of the River Jordan. 

From the Dead Sea one comes to the Jordan, which is a 
river not ten paces wide. But albeit the Jordan is a small 
river, yet it is exceeding deep and muddy ; it waxes and 
shrinks according to the season, and sometimes is so 
swollen with rain-water that it would float loaded ships. 
It has a very muddy bottom, sweet water, and excellent 
fish ; it rises about four days' journey to the north of the 
Accursed Sea, at the foot of Mount Lebanon, from two 
streams called Jor and Dan. Passing through Galilee, it 
takes the names of both these rivers, and is called Jordan ; 
but at the foot of Mount Carmel a brook runs out and 
falls into Jor. Near the Dead Sea, two short miles up the 
Jordan, is the place where Jesus was baptized by John ; 
the place is called the Fords of the Jordan. Here Joshua 
and the children of Israel passed over dryshod. Here also 
the water of Jordan was divided at the bidding of Elijah 
the prophet, and here also the water was divided when 
Elisha struck it with Elijah's mantle. Near this place, 
not far from the bank of the Jordan, a fair monastery has 
been built in honour of John the Baptist, and is inhabited 
by Greek monks, who declare that they possess St. John's 
arm. This monastery has been removed a little way from 
the river bank because the waters sometimes overflow. 
All the Christians of the land, and even pilgrims from 
far-off lands, gather together at this place on the day of 



the Lord's Epiphany, and all read there in Latin the 
Gospel 'When Jesus was born in Bethlehem/^ etc., bless 
the water, and baptize the cross. All who have any sick- 
ness or disease then leap into the water, and most of them 
are healed of their infirmities in the sight of all men. In 
the Valley of the Jordan is the heap of foreskins,^ the place 
of circumcision, the place of weeping, and the twelve 
stones which the children of Israel took out of the bed 
of the Jordan for a testimony. It was of these stones that 
John the Baptist spoke, when he said, ' The Lord^ is able 
of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.' This 
valley is called the Valley of Achan, because therein 
Achan was stoned because of the King's gold which he had 
stolen. It was in this valley also that Elijah was carried 
up to heaven in a chariot of fire. Not far — only two short 
miles away — from the place where Jesus was baptized, the 
Jordan enters the Dead or Accursed Sea, and is seen no 
more, and it is a question in the East why such blessed 
water should enter so accursed a place. Some say it is 
that the curse of the one may be allayed by the blessing 
of the other, others declare that it is swallowed up just at 
the entrance, both of which may well be believed ; but to 
me it seems more likely that it is drunk up by the earth, 
for sometimes the rain-water running from all the hills round 
about makes the Jordan so great that it would not be 
possible for such a body of water to run into the sea 
without making it overflow, and flood all the country 
about it. The length of the river Jordan is, from its source 
to its end, about five-and-twenty of this country's miles. 
Beside the river Jordan there are very many monasteries 
of Greeks and schismatics, and hermitages full of grace. 
Every evening on the banks of this same river one may 

' Matt. ii. 

^ Deut. xxvii. 2 ; Josh. iv. 3-20 ; v. 2. 3 Matt. iii. 9. 



see countless wild beasts, both great and small, drinking, 
especially lions, foxes, roes, stags, hares, wild boars, and 
the like, which walk among men like tame beasts. In my 
time^ there used to be always a lion at one particular place, 
on the further bank of the Jordan, who would watch people 
passing by, wagging his tail like a dog, and did not run 
away, neither did he hurt anyone by day or by night. At 
last one of our archers,- wishing to frighten and anger him, 
shot an arrow at him. The lion did not stir, but seemed 
to pray towards the arrow ; but when the man shot 
another, the lion reared up at it, as though he would catch 
it with his mouth and paws. After this the lion was seen 
no more in this place, but did much hurt both to men and 
beasts of burden. Of other wild beasts there are so many 
here that the country people drive them to market like 
sheep. Not far from hence is the place called the hills'^ of 
Jordan, where the children of Reuben and the children of 
Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh built *a great altar to 
see to,' when they came into their possessions. 

XLIIL— Of Ramatha, Shiloh, Emmaus, Sichar, 
Samaria, and Galilee. 

From the Jordan one comes in three days to Galilee, 
Judaea, and Samaria. After seeing many sights, one 
leaves Jerusalem on the left, and comes to the city of 
Ramatha,^ once a fair city, and to this day tolerably well 
peopled, standing on Mount Ephraim. In this city dwells 
at this day the Cadi — that is, the Bishop of the Saracens — 

1 Fabri (ii. 27) tells this story, which he had clearly read in Ludolph. 
Compare Phocas, chap, xxiii.. p. 28. 

2 Quidam Sagittarius ?toster. 

3 A.V., ' the borders of Jordan R.V., ' the region of Jordan ' 
(Josh. xxii. 10). 

4 ' Ramathaim-Zophim, of Mount Ephraim' (i Sam. i. i ; xxv. i ; 
xxviii. 3). 



and here we once had much trouble about some Christians 
who had been taken prisoners there through their own 
folly, before we set them free. The prophet Samuel was 
born in this city, and buried in it. It was near this city 
that Habakkuk^ the prophet was carrying the harvesters 
their dinner, when he was caught up by the angel and 
carried to Daniel in the lions' den at Babylon. Not far 
from Ramatha was a once fair, but now deserted, city 
named Arimathea, the birthplace of Joseph who buried 
Christ. Near this place, three miles off, once stood a 
famous city, which now is a small village, called Shiloh, 
where the Ark of the Covenant stood, and the Hebrews 
gathered together there to pray. Not far from Shiloh is 
Emmaus, once a fair city, but now deserted, where Jesus 
appeared to His disciples after His resurrection. This 
city is now called Nicopolis.^ Near Nicopolis, on the 
right hand, once stood two very famous cities, now de- 
serted — to wit, Gibeon and Ajalon^ — where Joshua fought 
against five kings, and at his bidding the sun lengthened 
its course, until he overcame the enemies of Israel. 
Moreover, not far from Shiloh, in the country of Samaria, 
there once stood a fair city in a valley, which city 
was called Sichar, and is now called Neapolis, and at 
this day is all but deserted. It was here that Dinah,^ 
Jacob's daughter, was ravished, and avenged by his 
sons. Near this road there once stood a fair little 
church, now much ruined, wherein is Jacob's Well,'^ beside 
which Christ, when sitting, weary with journeying in our 
human frailty, asked the woman of Samaria for water to 

' See Abbot Daniel in this series, p. 49. Odoricus de Foro-Julii 
(ed. Laurent, 1864, p. 156) says: 'Extra muros Joppe est capella 
Abacuc prophetae, ubi angelu^^,' etc. See also Fabri, i. 543, note ; 
Poloner, p. 31, note. 

= A mistake. See Raumer's ' Palestine,' p. 169. 

3 Josh. X. 12. 4 Gen. xxxiv. 25. 5 John iv. 18. 


refresh Him, and said to her, * Thou hast had five 
husband?,' as the Scripture tells us. It was near this well 
that Jeroboam, King of Israel, made golden calves which 
the children of Israel worshipped. Also in a field near 
this place David slew Goliath, and very many other 
notable places are to be seen along this road, whereof it 
would take long to tell. Going on from Sichar, one comes 
to Samaria, which once was the capital of the whole 
country, wherefore all that land is called the country of 
Samaria. This was once an exceeding fair, famous, royal, 
and very great city, as its ruins bear witness, and in 
situation is in all respects very like the city of Jerusalem. 
The Kings of Israel once dwelt in this city. In this city 
also St. John the Baptist was buried between the prophets 
Elisha and Obadiah. This city, which of old was called 
Samaria, was afterwards called Sebaste, and is now called 
Yblim,^ from which the chief tribe of Christians in that 
land are called ' of Yblin ' (szc) even to this day. They 
were at first French knights, and on the recovery of the 
Holy Land this city fell to their lot. When one has seen 
the aforesaid sights at Samaria, one goes on over the 
plains of Galilee, leaving the mountains behind. Galilee 
is a province of the Promised Land, and is a noble 
country, rich in plains, hills, pastures, grass, and other 
good things, with exceeding fruitful and pleasant valleys. 
On its plains and the slopes of its hills stand the following 
cities — to wit, Nain, Capernaum, Bethsaida, and Cana of 
Galilee ; but all these are now deserted, or all but de- 
serted, and they do not look as if they had ever been of 
much account. What things God in our flesh wrought 
therein is written at large in the Gospels, and therefore I 
do not care to repeat it. Near Nain is Mount Endor, at 

^ 'At the going up to Gur, which is by Ibleam' (2 Kings ix. 27). 
See Anon. ^^I.. p. 58 ; and Fetellus, p. 32. 



whose foot runs the brook Kishon. This land of Galilee 
also has been illustrated and glorified by very many of 
Christ's miracles. At the borders of Galilee are the moun- 
tains of Gilboa, which are low hills, greatly abounding 
with green herbs, grass, and pasture. It was on these 
hills that Saul and Jonathan and the children of Israel 
fell, and of them David said, ' Ye mountains of Gilboa, let 
there be no dew or rain upon you.'^ Some say that no 
dew or rain falls upon them, which is false, because one 
can see that very many exceeding fair monasteries once 
stood upon them, whose paintings show that they be- 
longed to the order of the Cistercians, and to that of 
St. Bene't. In the neighbourhood of the mountains of 
Gilboa stood the city of Bethulia, wherein dwelt Judith, 
who cut off the head of Holofernes hard by ; but the city 
is now destroyed. After one has seen each of these 
things, one leaves the plain of Galilee and comes to 
Nazareth, which once was a famous city, and is a very fair 
one to this day, standing in a flowery and beauteous vale, 
girt about on all sides by mountains. It is not walled, 
but its houses stand apart from one another ; yet it is well 
peopled. In this city God deigned to announce through 
Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin Mary that He was made 
man. In this city there has been built a great and fair 
church, wherein, near the choir, there is a beauteous chapel 
on the spot where God announced that He was made man 
for our sake, where also the Blessed Virgin conceived God 
and man. In this chapel there is a small pillar, against 
which Gabriel stood when he announced Christ, and his 
figure remains imprinted on the column, like the figure of 
a seal on wax, even to this day. Behind the church there 
is a fountain from which the Blessed Virgin was ever wont 
to draw water, and near which she very often was spoken 



to and comforted by angels. In my time the Saracens 
had greatly blocked up this fountain out of spite against 
Christians and pilgrims, but they never were able to stop 
the flow of its water. The Saracens also desecrate this 
holy and glorious church in divers ways, for they skin 
dead animals, such as asses, camels, dogs, and oxen, 
therein, and cast their carcases therein, so that one can 
scarce visit these most holy places for the stench. There 
dwell in Nazareth most evil Saracens, wicked and noble, 
who are called Dehes ; they take scarcely any heed of the 
Soldan, but to enter the city one needs their passport and 
safe -conduct beyond everything else. One mile from 
Nazareth there is a rock on a mountain, which is called 
the Lord's Leap, where Jesus passed through the midst 
of the Jews and went His way,^ when they would have cast 
Him down it, as the Scripture and Gospel tell us. The 
figure of Jesus may be seen to this day imprinted as 
though on soft wax upon the rock through which He 
passed. Going on from this place, one comes at mid-day 
to Mount Tabor, which is a mount standing all by itself 
on a plain. It is very high, but not wide, and is in all 
ways very like the hill called Dezenberg,^ in the diocese of 

On the top of this mount Jesus Christ was transfigured, 
and His face shone like the sun, in the presence of 
Peter, John, and James, and there Moses and Elias 
appeared talking with Him. On the place where He was 
transfigured there once was built a noble and royal monas- 

^ ' Ueber die herrliche Lage des Desenberg's, verg. Fiirstenberg, 
Monum. Paderborn, s. 165 ff. — F. Deycks. 

2 Transiens per medium illorum ibat. Luke iv. 30; John viii. 59 ; 
X. 39. See Wright's note to Sir John Maundeville, chap. x. ' Early 
Travels in Palestine,' Bohn's Series. The words appear on some 
English coins, e.g.^ the ' Noble' of Henry V., and the ' Spur-Ryal ' of 



tery of the Order of St. Bene't. Its Abbot used a leaden 
bulla, like the Pope. I have seen many of these bullae. 
You must know that in the lands beyond the sea the 
Feast of the Lord's Transfiguration is very solemnly kept ; 
it comes on the day of SS. Felix and Agapetus,^ and is 
then celebrated with new wine. On that day all nobles 
and citizens specially meet together at church ; they place 
banners upon their churches, and watch with rejoicings all 
night long. The Office of the Mass is, Do7ninus dixit ad 
me Jilius, etc. Dies sanctificatus illuxit, etc. The Gospel 
is, Assumpsit Jesus Petrum et Johannem, etc. The top of 
this mount and the monastery has been occupied by the 
Saracens, for it was once well fenced with walls and 
towers. Now on the top it is all ruined and deserted ; 
but the walls and towers remain for the most part. About 
this mount one reads many other things, to which the 
Scripture bears witness. At the foot of Mount Tabor is 
an exceeding great and strong castle, named Blansagarda^ 
(Blanche Garde), which was built by the Christians to 
defend the way up to the mount, for the mount was 
always held by the Saracens. In those parts there is a 
large and noble tribe of Christians, called ' of Blanche 
Garde,' for this was their castle ; but where their parents 
were born before the recovery of the Holy Land no man 
knows, and I have often been asked by them whether there 
were any people in my country who said that they had 
relations in those parts, or who bore their arms on their 
shields. From Mount Tabor one goes on to Mount 
Hermon, which is a fair and pleasant mount, and comes 

' Properly SS. Felicissimus and Agapetus, August 6. 

2 A mistake. The castle of Blanche Garde was built by King 
Fulk I. in 1 1 38 on Tell-es-Safieh, not far from Ascalon. It was also 
called Alba Specula. It was destroyed in 1191 by Saladin, and 
subsequently rebuilt. Compare Stanley's ' Sinai and Palestine,' 
chap. vi. 



into the spacious plains of Galilee, where Sisera and his 
army fell. Thence one comes to the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee, to the city of Synarcth,^ which was afterwards 
called Tiberias, and is now called Tybaria. It stands by 
the sea-shore, and is a poor place, and never was much 
more ; but once it had a bishop for its noble lord, to whom 
the greater part of the Sea of Galilee belonged. Near this 
city there are natural hot baths, like those at Aachen in 
ihis country. It seems that on the shores of the Sea of 
Galilee there used to stand many other cities and villages, 
though none of much account, wherein Christ's disciples and 
other poor men and fishermen dwelt, and dwell to this day. 
The Sea of Galilee or of Tiberias measures twenty miles 
of this country in circuit, and hath abundance of sweet- 
tasted and excellent fishes, and exceeding sweet water. 
The river Jor runs into this sea on one side, and the river 
Dan on the other f they may be seen passing through the 
sea, and they come out of it in one stream, which then is 
called the Jordan. Upon and near this sea, God in the 
likeness of man wrought many miracles. It was from this 
sea that Jesus called Peter and Andrew, and made them 
Apostles. It was upon this sea that Christ walked dry- 
shod, and caught Peter when he was beginning to sink. 
It was on this sea that Jesus slept in the ship and stilled 
the wind when the storm arose. Upon this sea Jesus 
when in our mortal frailty often sailed, and illustrated it 
with many miracles. It was beside this sea that Jesus 
appeared to His disciples after His resurrection, and ate 
the broiled fish and honeycomb. At this place there once 
stood a fair church, w^hich now is destroyed. Near this 
sea there is a mount. At its foot God fed five thousand 

^ Num. xxxiv. 11 ; Luke v. i. 

* ' This is a mistake, or a confusion of this sea with Lake Merom.' — 
F. Deycks. 



people with five loaves and two fishes, as the Gospel bears 
witness. On the top of this mount, on the north side, 
there is a lofty and exceeding strong castle, which, together 
with its village, is called Japhet,i wherein in my time a 
Jew from Westphalia dwelt with his wife. Not far from 
this castle there once stood a fair city named Dan, but it is 
now almost deserted. This is the other end of the 
Promised Land, for the Promised Land reaches from Dan 
to Beersheba from north to south, and is about twenty-five 
miles long, and in width from Jericho to Joppa, from east 
to west, it is about eleven miles of this country, as I have 
heard from the Soldan's couriers, and from exceeding 
trustworthy people of the country, who also described the 
land. Not far from Dan, toward the north, is the once 
fair city of Bolynas,^ now called Caesarea Philippi, 
pleasantly situated at the foot of Mount Lebanon, but 
scantily peopled. It was near it that Jesus asked His 
disciples, 'Whom do men say the Son of man is?' as the 
Gospel testifies.^ Not far from this city there is a spring 
near the mountain, which divides Idumaea from Phoenicia ; 
this spring is commonly called Sabbath, because it does 
not flow on Saturdays. After you have seen all these 
sights, you cross the Jordan at the place where it first 
leaves Galilee. In this land beyond Jordan two tribes 
and a half-tribe received their inheritance. Here also the 
Jordan divides Galilee from Idumaea, and one goes on 
and sees many villages and places not mentioned in 
Scripture, and comes, if one chooses, to a village where 
Job is buried. It was near this village that St. Paul was 
cast down and converted, and it stands about one day's 
journey distant from Damascus. 

1 Japhia, fortified by Josephus, taken by Vespasian. 

2 Belinas, the ancient Paneas. 3 Matt. xvi. 13. 



XLIV.— The City of Damascus. 

Going on from this village, one comes to Damascus. 
Damascus is an exceeding ancient city, founded by 
Damascus, Abraham's servant. It stands on the place 
where Cain killed his brother Abel, and is an exceeding 
noble, glorious, and beauteous city, rich in all manner of 
merchandise, and everywhere delightful, but more by arti- 
ficial than by natural loveliness, abounding in foods, 
spices, precious stones, silk, pearls, cloth-of-gold, perfumes 
from India, Tartary, Egypt, Syria, and places on our side 
of the Mediterranean, and in all precious things that the 
heart of man can conceive. It is begirt with gardens and 
orchards, is watered both within and without by waters, 
rivers, brooks, and fountains, cunningly arranged, to 
minister to men's luxury, and is incredibly populous, 
being inhabited by divers trades of most cunning and 
noble workmen, mechanics, and merchants, while within 
the walls it is adorned beyond belief by baths, by birds 
that sing all the year round, and by pleasures, refresh- 
ments, and amusements of all kinds. Each trade dwells 
by itself in a particular street, and each workman, accord- 
ing to his craft and his power, makes in front of his house 
a wondrous show of his work, as cunningly, nobly, and 
peculiarly wrought as he can, outdoing his neighbours if 
possible, so that he adorns and decorates his house more 
beautifully than I can tell you. The merchants do like- 
wise with their merchandise, and all handicrafts are 
wrought there wondrously well and with exceeding great 
skill. But they sell everything very dear. Rich citizens 
have all kinds of singing-birds and birdlets hanging in 
front of their houses, such as nightingales, quails, larks, 
francolins, and the like, and they sing wondrously and 
equally well all the year round, but better in winter time 




than in the summer heat ; and you may hear all other 
kinds of birds, such as crows, pies, hoopoes, blackbirds, 
and the like, who can be taught human speech, talking 
like men in divers tongues. Though the city is so full of 
people, and though all the merchandise is left almost 
unguarded, yet there is no man so old that he can re- 
member anyone ever to have been slain there, and it is 
very seldom that any of the goods for sale are stolen. 
Each sort of thing that is sold there has a special market 
to itself. In the market where victuals are sold there may 
be seen every day the greatest crowd of people ever seen 
together in one place, and every kind of food that you can 
think of may be found there most exquisitely cooked. 
They take the greatest care with these things, and sell 
them all by weight and scales ; also sundry different sorts 
of bread are sold there. In Damascus there is an exceed- 
ing strong castle belonging to the Soldan, in which the 
King of Damascus dwells. In the year of our Lord one 
thousand three hundred and forty-one, on St. George's 
Eve, there was a persecution and murder of Christians 
by the King and mob of Damascus, even as of late^ there 
was of the Jews in this country ; but the persecution did 
not last for more than a month, and by God's grace was 
well avenged through the Soldan, as you will hear here- 
after. In Damascus there are very many churches, both 
of Catholics and of heretics, and monasteries full of grace. 
Of these the Saracens have taken one fair church to be 
a church for themselves, wherein rests the body of that 
most learned doctor and weighty authority, St. John of 
Damascus. On the front of this church God's majesty 
still remains nobly painted. Moreover, the river Pharphar 
is artificially made to flow through Damascus, and turns 

' According lo Dr. F. Deycks there was a Judeii verfolgung in 
(jermany in 1348-9. 


many cunningly-devised mills. Round about Damascus 
there are endless orchards and gardens, which bear grass, 
herbs, fruit, roses, and flowers all the year round, and are 
charming because of the songs of all kinds of birds and 
birdlets, who sing more in the winter time than in the 
summer heat. These gardens and orchards surround the 
city for a distance of about two miles, and the whole 
country, and even far-off lands, abound with their fresh 
fruit all the year round, wherefore in the East it is a 
common saying, * Damascus is the head of Syria,' and the 
Greeks, out of their love and respect for it, always call 
their eldest sons Polydamas — that is. City of Damascus.^ 
It would take long to tell of the other wonders and 
beauties of Damascus. From Damascus it is less than 
one day's journey to the mount which God showed to 
Abraham, that he should sacrifice his son Isaac thereon. 
This mount is called Seyr, or Sardenay.^ One first crosses 

^ Dr. F. Deycks thinks this another proof that Ludolph did not 
understand Greek. 

2 ' De Damasco processi ad imaginem beate Virginis m Sardanii^ 
ubi est locus fortis super petra7n ad inodum caste lit, muratus in 
circuitu^ i7i quo satis pulchra est ecclesia. Retro majus altare in muro 
tabula quaedani tola nigra et Jminida cernitur^ in qua imago gloriosae 
Virginis olim depicta fuisse asseriturj sed propter vetustatem nihil 
de lineamentis figurae cernitur in eadein^ nisi quod iii aliqua parte color 
rubeus mihi videbatur aliqualiter apparere. Haec tabula mediocris 
quantitate est, supra vas quoddam marmoreum posita intra viurum 
cancellis ferreis preinunita. De ipsa visibiliter oleum quasi continue 
stillat, quod monachi recipientes de vase marmoreo quod subtiis est, 
per cancellos ijnmisso cochleari peregrinis distribicunt satis large. Per 
omnem modum videtm esse oleum olivae. Dicitur quod pro certo 
aliquando de hac imagine oleum miraculose fluxerit j sed si hoc quod 
modo fluit divino fiiiit miraculo, rationaliter dubito, et etia7n inulti 
alii de veritate hujus facti nan ijn?nerito alternantur. Monachi et 
moniales in predicto claustro sunt degentes. In casali pulchro quod 
sub mo7ite est, Christiani schis77iatici cojn7nora7iiitr, bo7io vi7io sati 
abundantes. Hie locus a Da77iasco sejungitur ad 7nediaiii diutimiam.^ 
— Wilhelm von Boldinsel. See also Sir John Maundeville, chap. xi. ; 
Fabri, i., p. 391. 



the two rivers of Damascus, Abana and Pharphar. Upon 
this rocky mount Seyr, or Sardenay, a fair monastery has 
been built in honour of St. Mary ; it is built on the rock 
in an exceeding strong place, fenced about on every side 
with exceeding strong walls like a castle, and is inhabited 
by Greek monks and nuns. In this monastery, on the 
spot where Abraham would have sacrificed Isaac, there 
stands a fair church, wherein, behind the altar, in a semi- 
circular arch in the wall, there is a figure of the Blessed 
Mary suckling her child, painted from the waist upwards 
upon a wooden tablet, and fenced with iron bars ; but the 
painting is so black with age and kisses that one can 
scarce make out that it was a figure, beyond that a little 
red colour can still be seen in the clothing. Nevertheless, 
through this figure God hath wrought many blessings, 
wonders, and acts of grace. We read that in the times 
when the Christians held the Holy Land in possession, a 
certain widow, wishing to serve God, chose for herself and 
made a hermitage on this mount, which she wished no man 
to know of, that her devotions might not be hindered by 
any worldly business. Howbeit she had one matron in 
her secret, who from time to time visited her, brought her 
necessaries, and ministered to her. It befell that once this 
matron, her confidant, was about to visit Jerusalem and 
the other holy places. The widow hermit humbly and 
devoutly begged her that she would bring her a picture of 
the Blessed Mary painted on a tablet, because from the 
bottom of her heart she earnestly longed for it. The 
matron promised to do this, and being given leave by the 
hermit widow, went to holy Jerusalem, and, after visiting 
all the holy places, obtained a tablet with a picture of 
St. Mary, and journeyed to this Mount Seyr, or Sardenay. 
When she was near the Jordan a terrible lion attacked her. 
She could not flee, but with her hand protected herself 



against the lion's spring with the tablet, as with a shield. 
The lion as soon as he touched the tablet burst asunder, 
and the matron continued her interrupted journey, and 
reached the mountain, but she hid what had befallen her 
from the hermit widow. She told her many other things 
about the holy places, and after she had told her all, the 
widow asked the matron whether she had brought her the 
tablet with the figure painted thereon. The matron, who 
thought that the picture would always have the same 
virtues which it had before, said that she had not brought 
it, but that she had forgotten it. When the widow heard 
this, she was sorry and deeply grieved, and could not help 
bursting into tears. But at last, when the matron would 
have gone her way, all the doors of the hermitage and 
chapel closed and firmly shut her in. Seeing that this was 
done by the will of God, the matron presently confessed 
to the widow that she had the tablet, and told her through- 
out what had befallen heron her journey with regard to the 
lion, and other matters. When the widow heard this, she 
many times gave thanks to God, received the tablet with 
joy, respect, and devotion, and put it in the place where it 
now stands. With tears and prayers, she gave honour to 
Christ for the picture. At length this picture plainly 
sweated oil, and the oil ran down into a little hollow made 
in front of the picture_, and does run into it to this day ; 
but because of the number of pilgrims, the monks now 
eke it out with other oil and give it to pilgrims. But there 
is no doubt that the picture does sweat oil, and within a 
year this oil changes into milk, and the milk afterwards 
changes into blood, which I have often seen with my 
own eyes. Often at different times I have seen the oil 
thus changed, and I have often had some of the oil thus 
miraculously changed. This oil has great virtue against 
storms at sea ; when it is hung up in a bottle in the ship's 



Stern, the fiercest tempest straightway is still, which thing 
I have often clearly seen. In many ways it is plain that 
God hath an especial love for this place or mount, which 
He showed to Abraham that he might sacrifice his son 
thereon, because He hath wrought such miracles in honour 
of His mother Mary, whose image is there painted, and 
that even after so many troubles and invasions of the land 
have come to pass, and the land itself has been so many 
times and so strangely lost and won by divers peoples, 
yet the monks and nuns of this place have ever remained 
unharmed. We read, and the thing is still fresh in men's 
minds, that when Haloon, who took Baldach, of whom I 
have already made mention, had ravaged Egypt and all 
Syria and the whole country, the monks and nuns of 
this place were afraid, and thought of leaving it. Here- 
upon God and the Blessed Virgin visibly appeared to 
them and comforted them, so that they had no more fear 
at all, and did not leave the place ; for they wished to 
remain near God and the Virgin, who in visible shape 
encouraged them all, and they never thereafter received 
any hurt or damage from either man or beast, but in my 
time were always in especial grace and favour with the 
Soldan, who did them much good, and in everything pro- 
tected them like a father. At the foot of the Mount Seyr 
there is a very great and fair village, wherein dwell Greeks 
and Syrians. It abounds with good wine and very many 
other good things, and there both in summer and in 
winter, year after year, bunches of fresh grapes are found 
on the vines, which, indeed, are specially guarded and set 
apart for this purpose ; and many other wonders and 
miracles hath God wrought upon this mount, out of His 
singular affection for it, by means of that picture, whereof 
it would take long to tell. 


XLV. — Of the Vale of Bokar, Lebanon, and 

Journeying onward from Mount Seyr, one sees many 
things which need not be mentioned on the way, and 
leaving the afore- mentioned cities of Arimathea and 
Tripoli on the right hand, one comes to a valley named 
Bokar, which to this day is called the Plain of Noah, for 
there Noah dwelt after the flood. This plain is exceeding 
fertile and rich, abounding greatly in meadows, pastures, 
trees, fountains, flocks, fishes, and corn ; it is shut in 
between mountains, and is inhabited by Saracen husband- 
men. When you have seen and passed by all this, you 
come to Mount Lebanon, whereof also I have already 
made mention, and to the Black Mountains, which reach 
as far as Antioch, and whereon grows the wood of 
which the bows of crossbows^ are made. This wood is 
carried away from these mountains to distant lands and 
countries. At the foot of this mountain dwells a vast 
multitude of Christians conforming to the Latin rite and 
the Church of Rome, many of whose bishops I have seen 
consecrated by Latin archbishops, and who ever long with 
singular eagerness for the coming of Crusaders and the 
recovery of the Holy Land. 

After having seen all these and many other admirable 
villages, places, and hamlets, one comes into a city by the 
sea called Beyrout, whereof I have already made mention. 
This city is a common thoroughfare for pilgrims, and near 
it the glorious martyr St. George slew the dragon, and 
converted the city and all the country to the Christian 
faith. From Beyrout a man can return to any country 

^ Marino Sanuto (lib. ii., pars iv., chap, xxii.) says that the best 
wood for this purpose grew in Corsica. 



he pleases on this side of the Mediterranean Sea, a matter 
which I leave to his own choice to settle. 

These are the journeyings in the Holy Land, which 
are trustworthy, although not along the common pilgrim- 
routes, wherein I have viewed at my leisure all the afore- 
said holy places and oratories, in the state and form wherein 
they appeared in the aforesaid years of our Lord. 

And I know that in no respect can my account be 
impugned by any man living, for I bear testimony of 
what I have seen or have heard from truthful men. This 
account I have, as is most justly due, written out of the 
devotion and respect which I owe to the Right Reverend 
Father and Lord in Christ, Lord Baldwin, Bishop of the 
Church of Paderborn, and in the name of the Lord I have 
begun and finished the same, to whom be praise and glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

I X D E X. 

Aachen, 127 
Abgarus, 81 
Abihu, 89 

Abraham's garden, t i 5 
Absalom's statue, iio 
Aceldama, 1 10 

„ vault of, 112 
Achaia, 28 
Acre, 52-61 
Adalia, 13 

Adam, earth whereof he was 

made, 92 
Aelius Hadrianus, 9S 
Agatha, Sr., 24 
Ahaziah, 54, 63 
Ahazuerus. 76 
Ajalon, 122 
Alexandria, 45. 66, 8r 
Algarve, 8 
Aloes-wood, 41 
'Altar to see to, an,' 121 
Altelot, 31 
Altpas, 25 
Andreu-, St., 28 
Anna and Joachim. 100 
Annas, house of, 109 
Anne, church of St., 100 
Antioch, 135 
Antony, St., 80 
Apes, 9 
Arabia, 83, 89 

Archbishop of the Armenians, 

Arimathaea, 63 
'Arm of St. George," 9 
Armenia, Lesser, 48 
Armenia, 74 

Armenians, Archbishop of the^ 

Arragon, 8 

Arsuf, the Lord of, 52, 61 
Ascalon, 49, 57. 65 
Ashdod, 61 
Asia Minor, 29 
Assur, 65 
Augustine, St., 22 
Ayasahik. 31 

Ayco, King of Armenin, 74 
Ay OS Yainos, 20 
Azotus, 61 

Barel, tower of, 72 
Babylon, ancient, 72. 73 

,, modern, 06, 67, 81 
Bael 65 

Baguta, an old Saracen woman, 


Baldach, 73-75 

Baldwin von Steinfurth, Bishop 

of Paderborn, i, 136 
Baldwin L. King of Jerusalem, 
62, 103 
I Balsam, garden of, 68 
Barbara, St., 71 
Barbary, 9 
Barnabas, St., 42 
Baudekin. 73 
Bedouins, 90 
Beersheba, 91 
Bel, Mount, 24 
Belen, or Belus. river, 63 
Belyab, 66 
Bethlehem. 93-95 
Bethsaida, 123 
Bethshan, 52 
Bethulia, 124 
r>eziers, 1 1 

Birds, migration of, 18, 19 
Biterris, 11 

Blanchegarde, 52, 126 



Bokar, Vale of, 135 
Boldinsel, Wilhelm von, 93, 104 
Bolynas (Belinas), 128 
Honayr, 22 

Brunswick, Duke Henry of, 6 
Bush, the burnino-j 84, 85 
Bybhum. 45, 48, 49 

Cachvm, 25 

Caesarea of Palestine, 64 
Cagliari, 22 

Caiaphas, house of, 108 
Cairo, 66, 67 
Calf, molten, 89 
Caliph, the, 73 
Calvary, 98, 103, 104 
Camels, 82 
Cana of Galilee, 123 
Candelor, 44 
Candia, 33 
Capernaum, 123 
Carbuncles, 39 
Carmel, Mount, 63, 119 
Carrier pigeons, 80 
Castel de Cal, 22 
Castelroys, 35 
Catalonia, gentlemen of, 6 
Catalonians, 28 
Catania, 23 

Catharine, St., 42, 46, 86, 88 
Chaldaea, 73 
Cherson, 10 

Cilicia, which is Lesser Armenia, 48 

Clement, St., 10 

Climate, 34 

Colmat, 27 

Cologne, 93 

Colos, 33 

Constantia, 42 

Constantinople, 4-6, 105 

Convent of St. Catharine, 84 

Coral, 14, 83 

Corinth, 28 

Cornelius, house of, 64 
Corsica, people who cure snake- 
bite in, 21 
Cos, 35 
Crete, 33 
Crocodiles, 77 

Crombach, Hermann von, 68 
Cross, St., church at Acre, 55 
Cross-bows, wood for, 135 
Cumana. 10 
Cyphas (Haifa), 64 

Cyprus, 38 

Cyrene, Simon of, 107 

Damascus, 129-13 i 

„ St. John of, 130 
Damietta, 66, 81 
Dar, 66 

David's castle, 102 
Dead Sea, 116, 118 
„ fruit, 116 
Dehes, 125 
Desert, the, 82 
Dezenberg, 125 
Diospolis, 65 

Do7ninus dixit ad me., 1 26 
Domitian, 29 
Dor, 64 

Dragon's well, the, 49 

Edissa, 81 
Egypt, 66 
Elias, a friar, 88 
Elijah, 88 

„ fountain of, 64 
EHm, 84, 89 

Elyoneus (de Villeneuve), 34 

Emmaus, 121, 122 

Emperor Frederick, 27 
„ Henry VII., 25 
„ Justinian, 48 
„ of the Romans, 76 

Endor, 123 

Engaddi, vineyard of, 39 
Ennon, 67 
Ephesus, 29-31 
Epiphanius, Bishop, 42 
Eustochium, 95 
Eve, St. Martin's, 71 
„ St. Barbara's, 71 

Falconers, 43 
Famagusta, 38 
Field of Blood, 112 
Florentines, 25 
Forty martyrs, 1 1 
Fountain, Elijah's, 64 
Fountains in the streets 

Alexandria, 46 
Francolins, 130 
Frederick, Emperor, 27 
Fulke de Villaret, 34, 36 

Gabael, 8 [ 
Galatas, 29 


Galilee, 113, 119, 121 

„ Sea of, 127 
Galley, how it differs from a ship, 

19, 20 
Galmoab, 99 
Garden, Abraham's, 115 
Garp, 7, 8 
Gath, 61 
Gaza, 61, 65 
Gazara, 115 

Genoa, built out of the stones of 

Athens, 28 
Genoese, 29, 53, 54 
George, St., 65 

„ ' arm ' of, 9 
,, and the dragon, 48, 

Germans, 29, 61 

Ghibellines, 54 

Ghiblet, 49 

Gibeon, 122 

Gilboa, 124 

Gloria in excelsis^ 96 

Gloria^ laics, etc., 100 

Godfrey of Bouillon, 103 

Gomorrha, 116 

Goshen, 67 

Gozo, 28 

Grapes, 39 

Grup, 14 

Guelfs, 54 

Gulph, 13 

Gulph de Leun, 22 

Habbakuk, 122 
Haifa, 64 

Haloon, 74, 75, 134 
Hebron, 91-93, 97 
Helen of Troy, 39 
Henry, the Emperor, 25 
Hermon. Mount, 126 
Hilary, St., 39 
Horeb, 89 
Home, de, 65 
Hospital at Jerusalem, 106 
Hospitallers, Knights, 34-37, 40, 

House of Annas, 109 

„ Caiaphas, 108 

„ Cornelius, 64 

„ Pilate, 108 

„ Simon the leper, 114 
Hunting, 32, 43 

i Ibelin, 52 

Hugh de, 49 
Inda, river, 1 1 
India, 84 

Jaffa, 49, 57 

„ Count of, 43 
James the Less, St., 100 
Japhet, 128 

Jehoshaphat, Valley of, 97, no 
Jeremiah the prophet, 99 
Jericho, 114, 115 

„ roses of, 91 
Jerome, St., 94-96 
Jerusalem, account of, 97-114 
Jethro, 89 

Jewels at Cyprus, 41 
Joachim and Anna, 100 
Job's sepulchre, 128 
John, St., 29 

„ the Baptist, monastery of, 
119 ; place where he was 
beheaded, 46 

,, of Damascus, St., 130 

„ Prester, 83, 84 
Jonah, 65 
Joppa, 65 
Jordan, 119 

Joseph, pit into which he was 

cast, 97 
Joshua, 89 

Judas Maccabeus, 54 
Justinian, Emperor, 48 
„ statue of, 5 

Karioth, St., 93 
Kishon, 124 

Knights Hospitallers, 34-47, 40 

Laetare Jerusalem, 13 

Lango, 35 

Lazarus, St., 53 

Lebanon, 41, 47, 48. 135 

Legend of how the ladies of Acre 

were brought to Cyprus, 58 
Leopards, hunting, 43 
License from the Pope to visit 

the Holy Land, 4 
Lichtenstein, Prince of, 44 
Limasol, 38 
Lion, story of a, 121 
Lombards, King of the, 22 
Lot's wife, 117, 118 


Louis, St., 8 1 
Lucia, St., 27 
Luitprand, 22 
Lydda, 65 

Macarius, St., 22, 80 

Macrjiificat, church of the, loS 

Mahomet, 73, 100 

Malta, 27 

Mambre, 92 

Mamma, St., 39 

Marah, 84 

Margaret of Sicilv, 107 
Mark, St., church o»',rii Alexandria, 

Martha's house, 1 14 

Martin, St., 71 

Martyrs, the forty, 1 1 

.Mastic, 29 

Matthias, St., 102 

Melar^ 16 

Melchisedech, 99 

Melot Sapheraph, 55 

Metharonta, 47 

Micah the prophet, 96 

Michael, Feast of St., 78 

Milk, the Virgin's, 95 

Minden, diocese of, 92 

Miraculous picture at .Sardenav, 

Mirrhea, 33 
Molten calf, 89 
Monreal, Archbishop of, 23 
Montost, 114 
Montreal, 118 
Morea, 28, 29 
Mount Bel, 24 

,, Cachym, 25 

„ Calvary, 104 

„ Carmel, 63 

„ Hermon, 126 

„ Lebanon, 41, 47, 48, 135 

„ of Olives, account of, 112 
Seir, 131 

,, Tabor, 126 

„ Vulcan, 26 
Mourning worn for the loss of 

Acre, 60 
Munster, cathedral of, 103 
Myra, 33 

Nadab, 89 
Nain, 123 

Naples, 6, 22 
Narbonne, 11 
Nazareth, 108 
Neapoli, de, 50 

Nicholas, a canon of the Holy 

Sepulchre, 107 
Nicholas, a Christian captiv^e, 71 

St., 33, 48 
Nicopolis, 122 
Nicosia, 42 
Nile, river, 76-79, 81 
Nubians, chapel of the, 103 

Oil, miraculous, from Sardenav, 

Oil of St. Catharine, 86 
Orb of sovereignty, 5, 41 
Order of St. Thomas of Canter- 
bury, 40, 53 
Order of St. Lazarus, 53 

Padere, 47 
Paderborn, 47 

„ diocese of, 125 
Paphos, 38 
Parroquets, 79 
Partridges, 79 
Patara, 33 
Patmos, 29 
Patras, 28 
Paula, St., 95 
Pavia, 22 
Pera, 29 
Persia, 74, 75 
Perusians, 25 
Peyra, 32 
Philistia, 61 

Picture, miraculous, at Sardenay, 

Pigeons, carrier, 80 
Pilate, house of, 108 
Pilgrim's Castle. 65 
Pisa, 25, 54 
Pisans, the, 53 

Pope, licence from to visit the 

Holy Land, 4 
Potter's field, 1 10 
Pravimunt, 40 
Prester John, 83, 84 
Pugia, 9 

Pyramids, 71, 72 



Rachel's ToiMB, 97 
Rages, 81 
Ramaiha, 121 
Red Sea, 82, 83 
Relics of St. Catharine, 86 
Renegades at Hebron, 92, 93 
Rhodes, 32 
Robert, King, 102 
Rock, the holy, 98, 99 
Romans, Emperor of the, 76 
Roses of Jericho, 91 
Ruma, 65 

Sagette, 50 
St. Agatha, 24 
St. Andrew, 28 
St. Antony, 80, 85 
St. Augustine, 22 
St. Barbara, 71 
St. Barnabas, 42 

St. Catharine of Alexandria, 42, 

46, 86, 88 
St. Clement, 10 

St. Cross, church of, at Acre, 55 ; 

Santa Croce in Cyprus, 40 
St. George, 65 

„ ' arm ' of, 9 
„ and the dragon, 48, 

St. Hilary, 39 

St. James the Less, 100 

St. Jerome, 94-96 

St. John, 29 

„ the Baptist, monastery 
of, 119; place where 
he was beheaded, 46 

St. John of Damascus, 130 

St. Karioth, 93 

St. Lazarus, 53 

St. Louis, 81 

St. Lucia, 27 

St. Macarius, 22, 80 

St. Mamma, 39 

St. Mark, church of, at Alex- 
andria, 46 
St. Martin, 71 
St. Matthias, 102 
St. Michael, Feast of, 78 
St. Nicholas, 33, 48 
St. Paula, 95 
St. Thomas, 81 
St. Zyzonimus, 39 
Salamina, 42 
■S alius Domini^ 125 

Samaria, 121 
Samson, 61 
Sancea, (2ueen, 102 
S'ta. Croce, 40 
Sardenay, 131 
Sardinia, 21 
Satalia, 13, 44 
Sauper, isle of, 22 
Scalnun, 44 
Scandalium, 61-63 
Schobach, u8 
Schwartzenberg, 44, 70 
Scola, 28 

Sea of Galilee, 127 

„ Tiberias, 127 
Seboim, 1 16 
Seir, Mount, 131-1 35 
Sepphora, 64 

Sepulchre, the Holy, 104, 105 
Shiloh, 121 

Ship, how it differs from a galley, 
19, 20; the greatest in the 
world, 22 

Shittim wood, 79 

Shoals, 14 

Sichar, 121 

Sicily, 23-26 

Sicki, 44 

Sidon, 49, 50, 52, 57 
Siloam, no 

Silver, the thirty pieces of, no 
Simon the Leper, 114 
Sin, Wilderness of, 84 
Sion, Mount, loi 
Sleyde, the lord of, 44 
Sodom, 1 16 
Solomon's porch, 98 
Sophia, S'ta., 5 

Stag, how Ludolph's comrades 

slew a, 32 
Starkenberg, the lord of, 48 
Steinfurth, Baldwin von, i 
Stichi, 80 
Stone cups, 7 
Stork, a, 19 
Storms at sea, 12, 22 
Suchem, i 
Susa, 76 

Swimmers in the Nile, 77 
Syo, isle of, 29 
Syracuse, 27 

Tabor, 41, 125, 126 
Tarsus, 48 



Tartars, lo 

Templars, 38, 40, 53, 56, 59, 64, 

Temple, the Lord's, 98-100 

Teutonic Order, 40, 53, 57 

Theologos, 31 

Thirty pieces of silver, no 

Thomas, St., 81 

Thoulouse, Count of, 47 

Tiberias, 127 

Titus, 98, 102 

Tournaments, 76 

Troy, 20, 34, 39 

Troya marina, 15 

Tryphon, 54 

Tunnyfish, 27 

Turbots, 6 

Turkey, 29 

Turks, 29, 30 et saep. 

Tyre, 50, 57 

Tyriac (treacle), 117 

Ur, 89 

Urban, Pope, 54 

Valley of the Jordan, 120 

Valley of Bokar, 135 
Vaus, 52 

Venice, built out of the stones 

of Troy, 20, 28 
Venus, 38 
Venusberg, 38 
Veronica, 8i 
Vespasian, 98, 102 
Vianden, Count of, 44 
Villani's account of Acre, 50 
ViUaret, Fulke de, 34, 36 
Villeneuve, Helion de, 34 
Voyage across the sea, 19 
Vulcan, Mount, 26 

Washerwomen, story of, 9 
Well, the dragon's, 49 
Wilderness of Sinai, 89 
Wine, 65 ; of Cyprus, 44 

Yblim, 123 

Zacharia, city of, 108 
Zalabin, a Turk, 30 
Zoar, 118 

Zyzonimus, St., 39 



DS Palestine Pilgrims' Text 

102 Society, London 

P2 The library